DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 116

DATE: May 14, 1999
REVISED:

NAME: Bound-With Relationships in the MARC 21 Holdings Format

SOURCE: Cornell University

SUMMARY: This paper suggests a technique for linking together separate bibliographic entities that are bound together. It involves using the Item Information fields 876-878 subfield $p (Piece designation) in the MARC 21 Holdings Format in separate holdings records. This allows for a cleaner presentation and more flexibility than the previously proposed technique of repeating field 004 in a single holdings record.

KEYWORDS: Field 876-878 (HD); Item Information fields (HD); Bound-withs (HD); Field 004 (HD)

RELATED: 99-02 (Jan. 1999)

STATUS/COMMENTS

5/14/98 - Forwarded to the MARC Advisory Committee for discussion at the June 1999 MARBI meetings.

6/26/99 - Results of MARC Advisory Committee discussion: Most participants felt that 876$p could provide a conceptual link between the item and the bibliographic record. Since in some cases, a system may not have an item record with a barcode, it was noted that 876$a (Internal item number) could be used for the link. Some participants felt that there should be a choice on the method used for bound-with items and that the 004 should be repeatable for the simpler situations for which it would work. Then the 876 solution could be used for more complex situations. There was not consensus, and others felt that one solution would be better especially for migrating to a new system. The discussion paper does not require any MARC changes if the 876 solution were accepted (except adding examples), but using a repeatable 004 would require a proposal.


DISCUSSION PAPER NO 116: Bound-with relationships

1 BACKGROUND

Proposal no. 99-02, Making Field 004 (Control Number for Related Bibliographic Record) repeatable in the MARC Holdings Format, was discussed at the MARC Advisory Committee meetings in January 1999 in Philadelphia. The paper proposed a method to assist libraries in dealing with materials bound together that do not share a bibliographic record. The proposed solution chose to approach the problem by linking one holdings record to several bibliographic records. It can be argued that this method implies a bibliographic relationship between items by using bibliographic holdings to make the link, when in fact the relationship between the materials is physical, not bibliographic.

This method can be ambiguous when used for entities other than single copy monographic items which are bound together. Many libraries that must deal with older items, (primarily ephemeral or pamphlet in nature) that were bound together many years ago, (a common method for dealing with such items), find that some of the pieces are parts of sets or serials. In these situations, relationships may become too complex to be dealt with via repeating 004 fields. Some of these materials may be available in multiple copies as well, creating additional confusion.

2 DISCUSSION

An alternative solution to this problem lies also in the holdings record, but in the 876/7/8 fields carrying item information. Item information is specifically physical, not bibliographic, and in fact the combination of the 876 $p (Piece designation, used for a barcode) and subfield $3 (Materials specified, used to indicate specific issues of serials or multipart items), should be able to handle the problem in an unambiguous and cleaner manner. In the examples below, separate holdings records are created for each bibliographic entity, linked to the appropriate bibliographic record with a single 004. In this example only one item record is created, which represents the physical piece and contains a barcode. Field 876 $p contains the same barcode that is in the item record and in each of the holdings records for the bibliographic items in the bound-with entity. It is thus used as a gathering device.

Field 876-878 is defined as follows:

876-878 Item Information

  • 876 Item Information--Basic Bibliographic Unit
  • 877 Item Information--Supplementary Material
  • 878 Item Information--Indexes

    $a - Internal item number (NR)
    $b - Invalid or cancelled internal item number (R)
    $c - Cost (R)
    $d - Date acquired (R)
    $e - Source of acquisition (R)
    $h - Use restrictions (R)
    $j - Item status (R)
    $l - Temporary location (R)
    $p - Piece designation (R)
    $r - Invalid or cancelled piece designation (R)
    $t - Copy number (NR)
    $x - Nonpublic note (R)
    $z - Public note (R)
    $3 - Materials specified (NR)
    $8 - Link and sequence number (NR)

    3 Examples

    3.1. Example 1

    This example illustrates four bibliographic entities bound together into a single physical piece. Each of the entities has multiple copies. Two of the entities are issues of a serial.

    Example 1.1: First bibliographic item with four holdings records for different copies held.
    The first holdings record is the the first of a group that is bound together and contains a field 876 with the barcode of the item. The three other holdings records do not include field 876 because they are not bound with other items. The only item record for the volume is linked to the Bingham title, and the 876 $p links the bibliographic records together in a way that allows a reasonable display in the OPAC and for circulation purposes. If desired, notes could be given in 876 $z to show the relationship between the items (however, not given below).

    035:  : $a (NIC)AFJ4662
    100:10: $a Bingham, John Armor, $d 1815-1900.
    245:10: $a Trial of the conspirators, for the assassination of
    President Lincoln, &c. $b 
    Argument of John A. Bingham, special judge advocate, in reply to
    the arguments of the several counsel for Mary E. Surratt, David
    E. Herold, Lewis Payne, George A. Atzerodt, Michael O'Laughlin,
    Samuel A. Mudd, Edward Spangler, and Samuel Arnold, charged with
    conspiracy and the murder of Abraham Lincoln, late president of
    the United States. Delivered June 27 and 28, 1865, before the
    Military commission, Washington, D.C.
    260:0 : $a Washington, $b Govt. print. off., $c 1865.
    300/1:  : $a 122 p. $c 23 cm.
    =================================================================
    004: : $a AFJ4662
    852:01: $a law $b tria $h K540 $i .T75 no.4 $z Bound with:
    Rulloffson, Edward Howard, 1819-1871.  
    In Court of Appeals.  Edward H. Rulloff. 
    876:  : $p 31924084331184 
    -----------------------------------------------------------------
    004: : $a AFJ4662
    852:01: $a olin $b rare $h E441 $i .M46 v.222 no.2 $zSamuel J.
    May Anti-Slavery Pamphlet Collection. No. 2 in a vol. lettered: 
    May anti-slavery pamphlets. 
    
    -----------------------------------------------------------------
    004: : $a AFJ4662
    852:01: $a law $b tria $h K540 $i .T75 no.26 
    -----------------------------------------------------------------
    004: : $a AFJ4662
    852:01: $a law $h KF211 $i .P18 v.14 no.2 
    _________________________________________________________________
    _________________________________________________________________
    
    


    Example 1.2: Second bibliographic item (monograph) with three holdings records for copies held.
    In this example the first copy is bound with the item represented by the previous example, indicated by the fact that the barcode recorded in 876$p is identical to the one in the 876$p in that holdings record . The second and third copies are also in pamphlet volumes (as was true above), with barcodes in 876$p that match those in the other holdings records for the items that they are bound with (not shown here). In this case the second and third holdings records lack the $z note in the 852.

    035:  : $a (NIC)AFJ4634
    100:10: $a Evans, Eric Wyn.
    245:10: $a Speeches of E. W. Evans and John Lyle King, counsel
    for the Plaintiff in the Wilkinson-Tribune Libel Suit. Circuit
    court of Cook County, December term, 1868. George Buckley,
    reporter.
    260:0 : $a Chicago, $b Rounds & James. $c 1869.
    300/1:  : $a 92 p. ; $c 23 cm..
    =================================================================
    004: : $a AFJ4634
    852 01 $a law $b tria $h K540 $i .T75 no.4 $z Bound with:
    Bingham, John Armor, 1815-1900.  Trial of the conspirators, for
    the assassination of President Lincoln.
    876:  : $p 31924084331184 
    -----------------------------------------------------------------
    004: : $a AFJ4634
    852:01: $a law $h KF211 $i .P18 v.14  
    876:  : $p 31924084352760                         
    -----------------------------------------------------------------
    004: : $a AFJ4634
    852:01: $a law $h KF211 $i .P18 v.17                            
    876:  : $p 31924084881145 
    _________________________________________________________________
    _________________________________________________________________
    


    Example 1.3: Third bibliographic item (serial) with three holdings records
    The third example introduces the complexity of random serial issues bound with the monographs. The first copy below is a complete set housed in the stacks, with complete item records and individual barcodes for each physical piece. The second copy is in a secure location and has not yet been barcoded. The third copy consists of two individual issues bound in a pamphlet volume with assorted other materials. The holdings record includes each of those two issues listed separately in 866 fields, as well as two 876 fields with $3 to indicate the volume to which it applies and $p for the barcode of the physical item. If the two issues had been contiguous, one each of the 866 and 876 would have sufficed. The number in 876$p is identical to the ones in the previous holdings records for the items bound together.

    035:  : $a (NIC)AJY6854
    245:04: $a The monthly law reporter.
    260:00: $a [Boston : $b Charles C. Little and James Brown, $c
    1849-1867].
    300/1:  : $a 17 v. ; $c 24 cm.
    310:  : $a Monthly
    362/1:0 : $a Vol. 11, no. 1 (May 1848)-v. 27, no. 7 (May 1866).
    500/1:  : $a Title from caption.
    515/2:  : $a Publication suspended Sept. 1861-Feb. 1862 and Aug.
    1865-Mar. 1866.
    515/3:  : $a Issues for May 1848-May 1858 (v. 11-21, no. 1) also
    called new ser. v. 1-11, no. 1.
    780/1:00: $t Law reporter (Boston, Mass.)
    
    =================================================================
    004: : $a AJY6854
    852:01: $a law $b per $h KF10 $i .M79      
    866/1: 1: $8 0 $a v.11-27 (1848-1866)
    ITEM: v.11 (1848:May/1849:Apr.) barcode = 31924084330962
    ITEM: v.12 (1849:May/1850:Apr.) barcode = 31924084330970 
    ITEM: v.13 (1850:May/1851:Apr.) barcode = 31924084330988 
    ITEM: v.14 (1851:May/1852:Apr.) barcode = 31924084330996 
    ITEM: v.15 (1852:May/1853:Apr.) barcode = 31924084330002 
    ITEM: v.16 (1853:May/1854:Apr.) barcode = 31924084330010 
    ITEM: v.17 (1854:May/1855:Apr.) barcode = 31924084330028 
    ITEM: v.18 (1855:May/1856:Apr.) barcode = 31924084330036 
    ITEM: v.19 (1856:May/1857:Apr.) barcode = 31924084330044 
    ITEM: v.20 (1857:May/1858:Apr.) barcode = 31924084330051 
    ITEM: v.21 (1858:May/1859:Apr.) barcode = 31924084330069 
    ITEM: v.22 (1859:May/1860:Apr.) barcode = 31924084330077 
    ITEM: v.23 (1860:May/1861:Apr.) barcode = 31924084330085 
    ITEM: v.24 (1861:May/1862:Oct.) barcode = 31924084330093
    ITEM: v.25 (1862:Nov./1863:Oct.) barcode = 31924084330101 
    ITEM: v.26 (1863:Nov./1864:Oct.) barcode = 31924084330119
    ITEM: v.27 (1865:Mar./1866:May) barcode = 31924084330127 
    -----------------------------------------------------------------
    004: : $a AJY6854
    852:01: $a law,safe 
    866/1:41: $8 0 $a v.11-26 (1848-1863/1864)
    -----------------------------------------------------------------
    004: : $a AJY6854
    852:01: $a law $b tria $h K540 $i .T75 no.4  
    866/1:41: $8 0 $a v.27:no.1 (1865:Mar.)
    866/1:41: $8 0 $a v.27:no.7 (1866:May)
    876:  : $3 v.27:no.1 (1865:Mar.) $p 31924084331184 
    876:  : $3 v.27:no.7 (1866:May) $p 31924084331184 
    _________________________________________________________________
    _________________________________________________________________
    


    Example 1.4: Fourth bibliographic item (single serial issue) with two holdings records
    Example four shows another lone serial issue bound in the same volume as the previous three examples. Field 876$3 indicates the volume of the serial that is bound with the other items and subfield $p contains the same barcode for the physical item as in the previous three examples.

    035:  : $a (NIC)AQU7749
    245:00: $a Livingston's monthly law magazine.
    246/1:10: $a Monthly law magazine
    260:  : $a New York : $b Office of the Monthly Law Magazine, $c
    1853-1856.
    300/1:  : $a 4 v. : $b ports. ; $c 24 cm.
    310:  : $a Monthly
    362/1:0 : $a Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan. 1853)-v. 4, no. 1 (Jan. 1856).
    500/1:  : $a Title from caption.
    515/3:  : $a No more published?
    776/1:1 : $c Microfiche $d Law Library Microform Consortium $w
    (DLC)sn 91025098 $w(OCoLC)16976744
    780/1:00: $t United States monthly law magazine $w (DLC)sn
    91025097 $w (OCoLC)1606132
    =================================================================
    004: : $a AQU7749
    852:01: $a law $b safe 
    866/1:41: $8 0 $a v.1-4 (1853-1856)
    -----------------------------------------------------------------
    004: : $a AQU7749
    852 01 $a law $b tria $h K540 $i .T75 no.4            
    866/1:41: $8 0 $a v.3:no.1 (1855:Jan.)
    876:  : $3 v.3:no.1 (1855:Jan.) $p 31924084331184 
    

    3.2. Display of Example 1

    One of the aspects of our current handling of bound with items that frustrates users and staff is the difficulty of creating an intelligible display of all items bound together. Given the mix of materials in the above examples, using the method of repeatable 004s would be ambiguous, since it would be difficult to show the specific parts of a multi-part or serial item that are bound with the other items. The holdings of the "primary" (i.e. first) item could be displayed in a clear manner, but the relationship to the others would not be clear.

    Using the 87X technique, a system that requires unique barcodes residing in actual item records could be programmed to use the 87X $p to relate other materials to the primary title (usually considered the first one in the volume) for a useful display. The additional information in the 87X, which allows for indicating specific volumes would allow the specificity that is missing from the repeatable 004 technique, and would allow almost any type of physical relationship to be specified without ambiguity. Note that this technique would require some implementation decisions to be made at the local level in terms of whether item records must be attached to each holdings record and if so whether the system allows the repetition of a barcode in multiple item records. Here it is assumed that only one item record attached to the holdings record for the first bibliographic entity is created.

    The above example, for instance, could be displayed as follows in an OPAC. Volume numbering of specific pieces are displayed from field 876 subfield $3:

    Bingham, John Armor, 1815-1900.  
    Trial of the conspirators, for the assassination of President
    Lincoln. 1865.
    
    Law Library Trials Collection  K540.T75 no.4
    =================================================================
    With this is bound:
    1. Evans, Eric Wyn. 
    Speeches of E. W. Evans and John Lyle King, counsel for the
    Plaintiff in the Wilkinson-Tribune Libel Suit.
    Circuit court of Cook County, December term, 1868. George
    Buckley, reporter.
    1869.
    
    2. The monthly law reporter.
     v.27:no.1 (1865:Mar.)
     v.27:no.7 (1866:May) 
    
    3. Livingston's monthly law magazine.
     v.3:no.1 (1855:Jan.)
    


    3.3. Example 2

    Another example of a complex bound-with situation was forwarded from the music community, where scores and parts were sometimes handled in odd ways in the past. In the following example, two separate bibliographic items in several pieces are bound together, presumably for the convenience of a long ago quartet. The first holdings record is a copy that is bound with another item not in this example. The second holdings record is bound with that in example 2.2.

    Main item:

    Example 2.1. First bibliographic record with two holdings records.

    001  CSCW93-C973    
    028 22 6811$bPeters
    040  MdBPC$cMdBPC$dCU$dCLSU
    048  sa01$asb01$asc01$aka01
    100 1 Weber, Carl Maria von,$d1786-1826. 
    240 10 Quartet,$mpiano, strings,$nop. 8,$rBb major 
    245 00 Quartett f_ur Pianoforte, Violine, Viola, Violoncello,
    opus 8 /$cvon C. M. von Weber.
    260  Leipzig :$bC.F. Peters,$c[1885?]
    300  1 score (41 p.) + 3 parts ;$c31 cm.
    500  "Ohne Op. - Zahl gestochen" -- F. W. J_ahns, Carl Maria von
    Weber in seinen  Werken. Chronologisch-thematisches Verzeichniss
    (Berlin, 1871) 
    650 0 Piano quartets$xScores and parts.
    ============================================================
    004  CSCW93-C973
    852 01  $a music $h m782.4 $i M537q $t 1
    866 41 $8 $a score
    866 41 $8 $a 3 parts
    876    $3 score + 3 parts $p 1234567890 $z Parts in pocket
    ------------------------------------------------------------
    004  CSCW93-C973
    852 01  $a music $h M412 $i .M36 1880z $t 2 $z Bound with:
    Quartette f_ur Pianoforte, Violine, Bratsche, Violoncell, op. 1,
    2, 3 / [Felix  Mendelssohn Bartholdy]. Leipzig: C.F. Peters, [18
    8-?].
    866 41 $8 $a score
    866 41 $8 $a 3 parts
    876    $3 score + 3 parts $p 0987654321 $z Each of the 4 physical
    pieces (score, violin, viola, violoncello) of the Mendelssohn is
    hard-bound with its equivalent in the Weber.  All pieces stored
    in one box.
    

    Example 2.2 Second bibliographic item with one holdings record. The 876 field is used to connect the separate bound-with items.

    001   CSCW93-C972   
    028 22 6002$bC. F. Peters
    040  NN$cNN$dCU$dCLSU
    048  ka01$asa01$asb01$asc01
    100 2 Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix,$d1809-1847. 
    240 10 Quartets,$mpiano, strings
    245 00 Quartette f_ur Pianoforte, Violine, Bratsche, Violoncell,
    op. 1, 2, 3 /$c[Felix  Mendelssohn Bartholdy] ; revidirt von F.
    A. Roitzsch. 
    260  Leipzig :$bC.F. Peters,$c[188-?]
    300  1 score (135 p.) + 3 parts ;$c31 cm.
    490 0 Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy's s_amtliche Werke 
    650 0 Piano quartets$xScores and parts.
    700 10 Roitzsch, F.A.$q(Friedrich August),$d1805-1889.
    =================================================================
    004  CSCW93-C972
    852 01  $a music $h M412 $i .M36 1880z $t 1 $z Bound with:
    Quartett f_ur Pianoforte, Violin, Viola, Violoncello, op. 8 / von
    C.M. von Weber. Leipzig: C.F. Peters, [1885?]
    866 41 $8 $a score
    866 41 $8 $a 3 parts
    876    $3 score + 3 parts $p 0987654321 $z Each of the 4 physical
    pieces (score, violin,  viola, violoncello) of the Mendelssohn is
    hard-bound with its equivalent in the Weber.  All pieces stored
    in one box.
    

    3.4. Display of Example 2.

    A possible display for an OPAC (similarly constructed as the one above) could look like this:

    Weber, Carl Maria von,1786-1826. 
    [Quartet, piano, strings, op. 8, Bb major]
    Quartett f_ur Pianoforte, Violine, Viola, Violoncello, opus 8 
    [1885?]
    
    Music Library   Copy 1     m782.4  M537q   
    score; 3 parts 
    
    Music Library   Copy 2    M412.M36 1880z 
    score; 3 parts
    ------------------------------------------------------------
    With this is bound:
    
    Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix,1809-1847. 
    [Quartets,piano, strings]
    Quartette f_ur Pianoforte, Violine, Bratsche, Violoncell, op. 1,
    2, 3 
          [188-?]
    
    (Each of the 4 physical pieces (score, violin, viola,
    violoncello) of the Mendelssohn is 
    hard-bound with its equivalent in the Weber.  All pieces stored
    in one box.)
    


    4 CONCLUSIONS

    This approach of using fields 876-878 $p as a gathering device to tie together multiple bibliographic and holdings records that are bound into the same physical piece allows for more clarity and flexibility than repeating field 004 in a holdings record. This is especially the case for situations where single issues of serials are bound with other material. It assumes that a holdings record would be created for each bibliographic item that contains a field 876-878. The relationship between the items is shown in the Item information field, which implies that the relationship is a physical one.

    This technique could be adopted to deal with bound-with items and would not require any change to the content designation in the MARC 21 Holdings Format. Examples of the technique could be included in the description of the 876-878 fields. Systems would have to be able to use the data in 876-878 $p in the holdings record to bring together the bibliographic and holdings information into an intelligible display. It is possible that 876-878 subfield $a (Internal item number) could also be used similarly as the same gathering device; the data in the subfield could be the control number of separate item records if these were created.


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