DATE: December 11, 1998
NAME: Definition of Field 007 (Physical Description Fixed Field) for Tactile Materials in the MARC Bibliographic and Holdings Formats
SOURCE: National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped
SUMMARY: This paper explores the definition of a field 007 to indicate physical characteristics for tactile material, or material intended to be read by touch. Characteristics include specific material designation, grade level of braille, primary code of braille, braille music format, and production and physical characteristics. The field is requested to aid in retrieval and limiting of material.
KEYWORDS: Field 007; Physical Description Fixed Field; Tactile Materials; Braille
RELATED: DP104 (Jan. 1998)
12/11/98 - Forwarded to the MARC Advisory Committee for discussion at the January 1999 MARBI meetings.
1/30/99 - Results of MARC Advisory Committee discussion - Approved with the following changes:
4/15/99 - Results of LC/NLC review - Agreed with the MARBI decisions.
PROPOSAL NO.: 99-04 Definition of 007 forTactile Materials
The National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of the Library of Congress (NLS) provides free loan of recorded and braille books, magazines, and music scores in braille and large print to U.S. residents who are unable to read or use standard print material because of visual or physical impairment. The Service maintains records for these items which it currently makes available on the Internet in an LC system and through a CDROM catalog distributed to network libraries. In the future NLS intends to begin record distribution in MARC to network libraries that collect braille and other tactile materials. Note that the term tactile material refers to a category of material that is intended to be read by touch; braille is the most common form of tactile material although others exist.
NLS records include information about the production and physical format of the material in addition to bibliographic information. Details about the specific material, the level of contraction and the format for braille music may be currently indicated in a note. Details about the production of the item may be included in the physical description (e.g. thermoform braille; 3 v. of interpoint).
NLS is interested in defining a new field 007 for coded information about the physical aspects of the tactile material in order to limit searches or otherwise use for retrieval. There are some types of tactile material that users may prefer for various reasons, including quality or their ability to use them. For instance a production method called print/braille includes both eye-readable print with interleaving or embossed braille, intended to be used together. There are different braille code schemes and braille items may be understandable only to certain users. It is preferable to put such information in a coded form for ease of retrieval and limiting.
Currently in the bibliographic format a record may indicate that an item is braille in 008/23 (Form of item) code f, for Books, Music, and Serials, and in 008/33-34 (Special format characteristics) code m, for Maps. Field 007/01 for Text also contains code "c" to indicate braille. However, there are no further distinctions made about the type of braille, and there is no way to indicate other types of tactile coding (such as music) that may be important to the blind or physically handicapped user.
Discussion Paper No. 104 (Defining Field 007 (Physical Description Fixed Field) for Tactile Materials in the USMARC Bibliographic and Holdings Format) was discussed at the meetings of the MARC Advisory Committee in January 1998. The discussion concluded that there was sufficient interest in this for a proposal to be presented. Specific suggestions were made concerning the need for additional codes. In order to internationalize the proposal, it was suggested that expertise be brought in from the Canadian National Institute for the Blind and other outside institutions.
This paper proposes that a new field 007 for tactile materials be defined. In cases where there are two aspects of an item, such as a tactile map, an 007 for map and another 007 for tactile material may be used.
Specific changes in this proposal from suggested definitions in Discussion Paper No. 104 are:
2. 007 ELEMENTS
The following character positions and values are proposed.
007 (Tactile materials) 00 Category of Material This code indicates that the material is intended to be read by touch. f Tactile material 01 Specific material designation A one character code that indicates to what class of tactile material the item belongs. a Moon This is an abstraction of the print. b Braille d Tactile, with no writing system c Combination z Other 02 Not used 03-04 Class of braille writing The family of braille to which the item belongs. This is not the particular braille code, but the type of braille code used. This position is also used for the class used for the text labels of cartographic or graphic items. The classes below each represent different types of written symbols. For example, mathematics braille codes define braille representations for the written symbols used in mathematics and scientific writing and formulae. The most commonly encountered class of braille is literary braille, used represent the alphabet and general symbols used in most books. However, other types of braille are frequently found within books that are predominantly in literary braille, and sometimes one of the other code types can predominate. Up to two braille types may be indicated, or the cataloging agency can encode only the predominate type. List multiple codes in order of predominance, if any. If fewer than two codes are assigned, the codes are left justified and unused positions contain blanks (#). a Literary braille This type defines braille representations for the alphabet, numbers, and punctuation marks commonly used in general writing. b Format code braille This type defines formatting rules for brailling textbooks and related materials. c Mathematics and scientific braille. This type defines braille representations for symbols employed in mathematics and scientific writing. d Computer braille This type defines braille representations for symbols used in computer programs, texts, and other computer related materials. e Music braille This type defines braille representations for symbols used in music notation. m Multiple braille types Used when there are multiple and none predominate. n Not applicable u Unknown z Other 05 Level of contraction Indicates whether contractions are used. Contractions are abbreviations consisting of one or more braille or Moon characters to represent common letter combinations. # Not used a Uncontracted For example, grade 1 braille b Contracted For example, Standard English braille, the code for contracted braille of the Braille Authority of the United Kingdom and English Braille, American ed., the code for contracted braille of the Braille Authority of North America. m Combination u Unknown z Other 06-08 Braille music format Used for the braille music format of the item. The music formats are the way measures, sections, parts, and related information, such as words, are presented in relation to each other. For example, the music format defines how the music for the right and left hand are sequenced and related to each other in braille. Multiple formats are sometimes employed in the same piece of music. For example, a vocal part and text are in one format and the accompaniment is in another. Consult the Dictionary of Braille Music Signs / Bettye Krolick (Library of Congress, 1979) for guidance on the particular music format definitions. Up to three formats may be indicated, left justified in order of predominance If fewer than three codes are assigned, the codes are left justified and unused positions contain blanks (#). . # Not used a Bar over bar b Bar by bar c Line over line d Paragraph e Single line f Section by section g Line by line h Open score i Melody chord system j Short form scoring k Outline l Vertical score u Unknown z Other 09 Special physical characteristics a Print/braille Eye-readable print with braille interleaved or embossed. b Jumbo or enlarged braille Used for braille students and braille readers with reduced tactile sensitivity. n Not applicable u Unknown z Other
1. A monograph in English braille, American ed.
2. A raised line map with Standard English braille labels.
3. A braille score with piano part in bar over bar and vocal part
in line by line with text in English braille, American edition.
4. A print/braille (combined ink print and braille) book in
English braille, American ed.
5. A novel in grade 1 (uncontracted) braille.
4. PROPOSED CHANGES
In the MARC Bibliographic/Holdings formats:
- Define Field 007 for Tactile materials with the following character positions: