NAME: Definition of value s (electronic) in 008 character positions
SUMMARY: This paper proposes that a code be added in the 008 to indicate that the carrier of an item is electronic. This request results from the change of definition of Leader/06 code m (Computer file), so that electronic items may be identified in a similar way to microforms. The paper proposes that value s be added to 008/23 (Form of item) in Books, Music, Serials, and Mixed Materials; that a new character position 008/29 be added to Maps and Visual Materials (with the same codes as in 008/23); as an option, that value s (Electronic) be added in Maps 008/33-34 and in Visual Materials 008/29; and that value s be added to 008/22 (Form of original item) in Serials.
KEYWORDS: Field 008/23 (Books, Music, Serials, Mixed Materials); Field 008/29 (Visual Materials); Field 008/29 (Maps); Field 008/33-34 (Maps); Field 008/25 (Maps); Field 008/22 (Serials); Form of item; Form of original item; Special Computer files
format characteristics; Type of cartographic material; RELATED: 95-9 (June 1995); 97-3R (June 1997); 97-3 (February 1997); DP97 (July 1996); DP92 (January 1996)
11/15/97 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the 1998 Midwinter MARBI meetings.
1/11/98 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Approved Option 1. Participants felt there were advantages to having the code for electronic for maps and visual materials in the same character position and the values in the byte the same as in other forms of material.
2/11/98 - Results of final LC review - Approved.
PROPOSAL NO. 98-6: Definition of value s (electronic) in 008 character positions 1. BACKGROUND Proposal No. 97-3R (Redefinition of code m (Computer file) in Leader/06 in the USMARC Bibliographic Format) was discussed at the meetings of the USMARC Advisory Group in San Francisco in June 1997. This proposal followed two previous discussion papers and one previous proposal about changing the definition of Leader/06 code m (Computer file) to limit its use so that bibliographic records may be coded more for their content than their physical carrier. The definition proposed was approved with slight amendments. In order to satisfy the need to indicate explicitly that an item is electronic when coded as something other than code m in Leader/06, the paper proposed making 007 mandatory for items whose physical carrier is a computer file. This solution was approved, although not by a large margin. OCLC has expressed concern about using the 007 for its processing to indicate that the item is electronic. In particular it is a problem for duplicate detection. Some difficulties with the solution that was approved are as follows: - There is no way to enforce the mandatory nature of 007, since it is mandatory only if the item is electronic. A system cannot always identify that the item is electronic in order to enforce inclusion of the 007. 007 would need to be included for all types of material (including text). - Multiple 007s can be included in a record for different reasons 1) carrier of primary material, 2) carrier of one part of mixed material, 3) carrier of accompanying material. This makes it difficult to determine if the 007 is for the carrier of the accompanying material or the primary material. - Previous discussions of this issue have pointed out the similarity between the treatment of electronic material and the treatment of microforms, which are not identified by a distinctive type of record code but are coded in the Leader for the type of content characteristics. For microforms, the codes in 008/23 (Form of item) for microforms have been useful for identifying the microform aspect when a 007 for microfilm was not included in the record. OCLC would like to be able to look in the same place for the electronic aspect. The National Library of Canada maintains a Union Catalogue of holdings of Canadian libraries on its AMICUS database. It concurs with OCLC's concern regarding the problems in depending on the 007 to tell if an item is electronic for duplicate detection. This paper discusses using the 008 to help assure that electronic material can be identified. 2. DISCUSSION The following definition of "electronic" (currently used by the Library of Congress in its Interim Guidelines for Cataloging Electronic Resources) is used below to define the code value electronic: Electronic resource: The term used to refer to a manifestation of a work encoded for manipulation by computer. The manifestation resides in a carrier accessed either directly or remotely ... Some electronic resources may require use of a peripheral device attached to a computer (e.g. a CD- ROM player). Note that ... this term does not include "electronic" resources that do not require the use of a computer, e.g., music compact discs, videodiscs. Books, Music, Serials, and Mixed Materials. Character position 008/23 is defined as follows: 008/23 Form of item # None of the following a Microfilm b Microfiche c Microopaque d Large print f Braille r Regular print reproduction (Codes g, h, i, and z are obsolete.) A new value s could be defined for electronic in 008/23 and 006/06 (Form of item) for Books, Music, Serials, and Mixed Materials. Maps and Visual Materials. Maps and Visual materials do not have a character position for Form of item. Visual materials contains Type of visual material in 008/33, but since only one character position has been allotted, only one value can be used. It is defined as follows: 008/33 Type of visual material a Art original b Kit c Art reproduction d Diorama f Filmstrip g Game i Picture k Graphic l Technical drawing m Motion picture n Chart o Flash card p Microscope slide q Model r Realia s Slide t Transparency v Videorecording w Toy z Other The codes would no longer be mutually exclusive with the addition of a code for electronic, so another character position should be used. Maps. When Proposal No. 95-9 (Encoding of Digital Maps in the USMARC Bibliographic Format) was discussed in June 1995, it was suggested that a value for electronic be added in 008/25 (Type of cartographic material). This was considered an appropriate place in maps, since none of the other values apply to a digital item. Although part of the paper was approved to change the definition of Leader/06 value "e" to cartographic material (to include electronic maps), this portion of the proposal was rejected in favor of discussing the problem of electronic items in terms of all forms of material. Defining a new value in 008/25 for electronic might be considered again. For Maps, another character position to be considered is 008/33-34 (Special format characteristics). Even though the categories are not mutually exclusive electronic could be added to the codes since two character positions are allocated. 008/33-34 Special format characteristics (Maps) # No specified special format characteristics e Manuscript j Picture card, post card k Calendar l Puzzle m Braille n Game o Wall map p Playing cards q Large print r Loose-leaf z Other (Codes a, b, c, d, f, g, and h are obsolete.) Alternatively, it might be better to define a new character position and make it consistent with Visual Materials and so that systems would not have to search in so many different places for electronic. A new character position 008/29 could be added to Maps and Visual materials as Form of item with a value s for electronic. The other values in 008/23 for other forms of materials could also be added to this possible new character position to make it consistent with Form of item for the other forms of material; in this case the redundant codes in Maps 008/33- 34 would be made obsolete. An example where this might be useful is in Visual materials which are available on microfiche but currently cannot be coded in the fixed field, even though it can be coded for other types of material. Coding the item in 008/23 or 008/29 (perhaps 008/25 or 008/33-34 in Maps) would be used in addition to using field 007 to show the electronic characteristics of an item. In this case 007 would be mandatory if applicable for electronic items as it is in practice for microforms. If the record is one for a print item with the electronic delineated or noted in field 856 then the 008/23 or 008/29 would not contain the value for electronic. An 007 could identify that the record also covers the electronic version of the item. In summary, the fillowing identification rules would apply: - If the primary item is electronic, then 008 and 007 are coded for electronic (mandatory). - If the same content is published simultaneously in electronic and non-electronic form in a single package (i.e. the item has mixed characteristics or there is not a primary item), then 008 and 007 are coded for electronic (mandatory) - If the primary item described in the record (non-electronic) has accompanying material that is electronic, 008 is not coded for electronic. However, the 006 and 007 may optionally be coded to bring out the electronic aspects. - If the record is one for an original in another medium (non- electronic) with an electronic version delineated or noted in field 856, then only 007 is coded for electronic (optional). - If the primary item described in the record is considered a computer file (according to the revised Leader/06 code m definition), then the Leader/06 and 007 are coded for electronic. See Attachment A for examples of the above situations. In the USMARC Bibliographic Format, Field 007 was mandatory if applicable according to national level requirements until 1990, when it was made optional after the definition of an 007 for text (Proposal No. 89-8-6). It has been mandatory if applicable in the Canadian MARC format. The Association of Research Libraries' Guidelines for bibliographic records for preservation microform masters (1990) requires field 007 for microforms, and the current specification on the core record for serials in the CONSER Editing Guide stipulates that 007 is mandatory for microform and computer file serials. 3. PROPOSED CHANGES The following is presented for consideration in the USMARC Bibliographic format: - Add the following value to Books, Music, Serials, and Mixed Materials: 008/23 Form of item 006/06 Form of item s Electronic - Add the following value to Serials: 008/22 Form of original item 006/05 Form of original item s Electronic - Option 1. Add the following character position and value to Maps and Visual Materials: 008/29 Form of item 006/12 Form of item # None of the following a Microfilm b Microfiche c Microopaque d Large print f Braille r Regular print reproduction s Electronic Make the following values obsolete in Maps 008/33-34 (Special format characteristics): m Braille q Large print Option 2. Add the following character position and value to Visual Materials: 008/29 Form of item 006/12 Form of item # None of the following a Microfilm b Microfiche c Microopaque d Large print f Braille r Regular print reproduction s Electronic Add the following value to Maps: 008/25 Type of cartographic material 006/08 Type of cartographic material s Electronic Option 3. Add the following character position and value to Visual Materials: 008/29 Form of item 006/12 Form of item # None of the following a Microfilm b Microfiche c Microopaque d Large print f Braille r Regular print reproduction s Electronic Add the following value to Maps: 008/33-34 Special format characteristics 006/16-17 Special format characteristics s Electronic ------------------------------------------------------------------ ATTACHMENT A Examples - If the primary item is electronic, then 008 and 007 are coded for electronic (mandatory). Ldr/06 e 007 CF added with appropriate values 008/29 s (Option 1) -or- 008/25 s (Option 2) -or- 008/33-34 s (Option 3) 245 00 $aStreet atlas USA$h[computer file] 300 $a1 computer laser optical disc ;$c4 3/4 in. + $e1 user's manual (24 p.) 520 $aContains street-level maps of the United States. Provides access to more than twelve million street segments... Users can print and export maps, search by name, block range ... Ldr/06 a 007 CF added with appropriate values 008/23 s 100 1 $aThrapp, Dan L. 245 10 $aEncyclopedia of frontier biography$h[computer file] /$cDan L. Thrapp. 300 $a1 computer laser optical disc :$bcol. ;$c4 3/4 in. +$e1 insert (23 p.) 520 $aCD-ROM version of the four volume encyclopedia which contains 5700 articles and 270 portraits related to frontier biography of the American West. Includes search and retrieval software for accessing the data... - If the same content is published simultaneously in electronic and non-electronic form in a single package (i.e. the item has mixed characteristics or there is not a primary item), then 008 and 007 are coded for electronic (mandatory) Ldr/06 a 007 CF added with appropriate values 008/23 s 100 1 $aBremner, Lynn M. 245 10 $aIntranet bible /$cby Lynn M. Bremner, Anthony F. Iasi, and Al Servati. 300 $axvi, 464 p. :$bill. ;$c24 cm. +$e1 computer laser optical disc (4 3/4 in.) 500 $a"CD-ROM contains: an electronic version of the Intranet Bible, the Java and Perl programming languages, Adobe Acrobat reader, and other utilities"--p.  of cover." - If the primary item described in the record (non-electronic) has accompanying material that is electronic, 008 is not coded for electronic. However, the 006 and 007 may optionally be coded to bring out the electronic aspects. Ldr/06 a 006 CF added with appropriate values (if desirable) 007 CF added with appropriate values 008/23 not coded as s 100 1 $aMurray, James D. 245 10 $aEncyclopedia of graphics file formats /$cJames D. Murray and William vanRyper. 300 $axxxvi, 1116 p. :$bill. ;$c24 cm. +$e1 computer laser optical disc (4 3/4 in). - If the record is one for an original in another medium (non- electronic) with an electronic version delineated or noted in field 856, then only 007 is coded for electronic (optional). Ldr/06 a Ldr/07 s 007 CF added with appropriate values if desired 008/23 not coded as s 245 00 $aLibrary of Congress information bulletin 300 $av. :$bill. ;$c26-28 cm. 530 $aSome issues also available in an electronic version: Library of Congress information bulletin (Online), via Internet gopher and from the LC web site. 856 7 $zOnline version: $ugopher://marvel.loc.gov/11/loc/pubs/lcib$2gopher 856 4 $zOnline version: $uhttp://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib$zScroll down and click on desired issue in either full graphics or text only format. Ldr/06 k 007 CF added with appropriate values if desired 008/23 not coded as s 245 00 $aDaguerreotype Collection (library of Congress) $h[graphic]. 300 $a<599 > photographs :$bdaguerreotypes 530 $aAvailable also through the Library of Congress Web site under title: America's first look into the camera: daguerreotype portraits and views ... This finding aid in electronic form, with reproductions, captions, and subject indexing for each image, was produced in 1995 for the National Digital Library Program... 856 4 $3Finding aid $uhttp://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/daghtml/daghome.html - If the primary item described in the record is considered a computer file (according to the revised Leader/06 code m definition), then the Leader/06 and 007 are coded for electronic. Ldr/06 m 007 CF added with appropriate values 008 coded as computer file 245 00 $aArctic fisheries database$h[computer file] /$cproduced by the University of Alaska Anchorage in cooperation with NOAA and MMS. 300 $a1 computer laser optical disc ;$c4 3/4 in. +$e1 user's manual (ii, 58 p.) + 1 computer disk (3 1/2 in.) 500 $aDatabase of raw fisheries data collected over a period ... Aslo includes Arctic fisheries data retriever (version 2.00) software which can extract any subset of the database ...