DATE: December 15, 1996

NAME: New 007 field type for Remote-Sensing Images in the Bibliographic and Holdings Formats

SOURCE: ALA Committee on Cataloging and Classification, Map and Geography Round Table

SUMMARY: This proposal suggests defining a new 007 for information related to the physical description of remote-sensing images in field 007 (Physical Description Fixed Field) for Maps.

KEYWORDS: Field 007 (Bibliographic/Holdings); Remote-sensing images; Physical Description Fixed Field



12/15/96 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the February 1997 MARBI meetings.

2/17/97 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Approved with the following changes:

The group discussed making obsolete code r (Remote sensing image) in the Map 007/01. The representative from MAGRT expresssed some concern about including this change without broader consultation. On consultation with others in the cartographic community, this change was not endorsed. It is thus removed from this approval and will need to be presented as a separate proposal if the community wants it considered. It was not originally included in proposal 97-6 as presented.

2/28/97 - Result of final LC reveiew - Agreed with MARBI decision.

PROPOSAL NO. 96-9: Enhancements to field 007 (RSI) for 
Remote-Sensing Images 


This proposal suggests adding a new field 007 (Physical Description
Fixed Field - RSI) in the USMARC Bibliographic and Holdings formats
to accommodate information related to cartographic remote-sensing
images (RSIs).  The changes proposed will permit the encoding of
information relating to position of the sensor, cloud cover,
platform, and technique.  These physical characteristics related to
RSIs are collectively referred to as "coverage" information.

For many years it has been possible to encode certain physical
characteristics of maps in the eight character positions defined in
the maps field 007.  When the cartographic item is an RSI (i.e.,
when field 007 character position 00 contains code a and 01
contains code r), the currently-defined positions are not adequate
to encode all the physical characteristics that might be desired in
coded form.  The Committee on Cataloging and Classification, Map
and Geography Round Table has identified several data elements that
are important for the retrieval of RSIs.  The cartographic
cataloging community would like to include these new data elements
in machine-readable records and has determined that the data would
be most useful if represented in coded form.  Representation of
this information in coded form is needed to allow systems to limit
searching to known items that represent images with coverage
meeting the desired characteristics.  Most of these categories of
information are fairly straightforward.

The National Archives of Canada is currently able to code RSI
information in a 009 field in CAN/MARC and, as part of format
harmonization, Canada would like to bring the coding into a non-
local field in the format.  All of the RSI elements in the CAN/MARC
field 009 that Canada finds valuable are accommodated below.


Discussion Paper 95 described seven new bytes for the field 007
(Physical Description Fixed Field) for Maps in the USMARC
Bibliographic and Holdings formats to accommodate additional
information related to RSIs.  Discussion indicated that the
Committee preferred that the RSI coded data be contained in a
separate 007, rather than using add-on positions that would be used
only for one special type of map or using the two length approach
to the 007 taken for the motion picture 007.  

This proposal suggests that presence of clouds when the image was
taken can be handled by a single position with numeric codes
representing percentage of cloud cover in increments of 10%.  The
division of cloud cover requested in this proposal differs somewhat
from similar data elements in other formats where, for example,
only 8 increments may be defined.  The Map and Geography Round
Table is asking for 10 increments for several reasons.  They want
to align the data element for remote-sensing images to the "Content
Standard for Digital Geo-Spatial Metadata", which uses increments
of 10%.  They also indicated that despite suggestions that land
images with more than 10% cloud cover are unusable, images cover
the full range of views of the Earth from a distance taken from
various platforms.

The proposed new field is shown in Appendix A.  The data elements
for the new field have been determined and reviewed by several US
and Canadian archivists. 


In the Bibliographic and Holdings formats:

  -  Add field 007 (RSI) for cartographic remote-sensing images as
     specified in Appendix A.


                           APPENDIX A

007  Remote-sensing Cartographic Images (R)  [New field]

Code r indicates that the item is a cartographic remote-sensing
image or remote-sensing map.  This is an image produced by a
recording device that is not in physical or intimate contact with
the object under study.  This is a map or an image that is obtained
through various remote sensing devices such as cameras, computers,
lasers, radio frequency receivers, radar systems, sonar,
seismographs, gravimeters, magnetometers, and scintillation
counters.  If the image has cartographic or bibliographic
information added it is referred to as a remote-sensing map.

The specific categories of information with proposed values and
character positions are given below.
Char. Pos.     Data
     00        Category of material
     01        Specific material designation
     02        Undefined
     03        Altitude of sensor
     04        Attitude of sensor
     05        Cloud cover
     06        Platform construction type
     07        Platform use category
     08        Sensor type
     09-10     Data type

00   Category of material
     A one-character alphabetic code indicates the category of
     material to which the item belongs is cartographic
     remote-sensing image.  The meaning of the remaining character
     positions in field 007 are dependent upon the value in this
     character position.
          r    Remote-sensing image

01   Specific material designation
     A one-character code indicates the specific material
     designation of the cartographic remote-sensing image.  In this
     case, no specific types are identified.
          #    No type specified

02   Undefined

03   Altitude of sensor
     A one-character alphabetic code indicates the general position
     of the sensor relative to the earth.
          a    Terrestrial
          b    Airborne
          c    Spaceborne
          n    Not applicable
          u    Unknown
          z    Other

04   Attitude of sensor
     A one-character alphabetic code indicates the general angle of
     the sensing device. 
          a    Low oblique
          b    High oblique
          c    Vertical
          n    Not applicable
          u    Unknown

05   Cloud cover
     A one-character alphabetic code indicates the amount of cloud
     cover when the image was taken.
          0    0-9%
          1    10-19%
          2    20-29%
          3    30-39%
          4    40-49%
          5    50-59%
          6    60-69%
          7    70-79%
          8    80-89%
          9    90-100%
          n    Not applicable
          u    Unknown

06   Platform construction type
     A one-character alphabetic code indicates the base used for
     the sensing device.
          a    Balloon
          b    Aircraft--low altitude (<29,500 ft.)
          c    Aircraft--medium altitude (29,500-49,000 ft.)
          d    Aircraft--high altitude (>49,000 ft.)
          e    Manned spacecraft
          f    Unmanned spacecraft
          g    Land-based remote-sensing devices 
               Example includes trucks.
          h    Water surface-based remote-sensing devices
               Examples include buoys, floating instrument
               platforms (FLIP), platforms, ships)
          i    Submersibles
          n    Not applicable
          u    Unknown
          z    Other

07   Platform use category
     A one-character alphabetic code indicates the primary use
     intended for the platform specified in position 06.
          a    Meteorological
          b    Earth observing
          c    Space observing
          m    Mixed uses
               The platform is used for several purposes.
          n    Not applicable
          u    Unknown
          z    Other

08   Sensor type
     A one-character alphabetic code indicates the recording mode
     of the sensor.
          a    Active
               Sensor measures transmissions from the sensor
               reflected by the target.
          b    Passive
               Sensor measures radiation emitted by the target.

09-10  Data type
     A one-character alphabetic code indicates spectral, acoustic
     or magnetic characteristic of the sensor.  It indicates both
     the wave length of radiation measured and the type of sensor
     used to measure it.
          mm   Combination of various data types
          nn   Not applicable
          uu   Unknown
          zz   Other (e.g., x-ray)
                    Data fusion (combinations)
               Includes combinations from any of
               the below data types as well as
               fusions with other kinds of
               cartographic data.
          ma   Multi-spectral, multidata
          mb   Multi-temporal
          aa   Visible light
          da   Near infrared
          db   Middle infrared
          dc   Far infrared
          dd   Thermal infrared
          de   Shortwave infrared (SWIR)
          df   Reflective infrared
          dv   Combinations
          dz   Other infrared data 
                    Microwave (radar)
          ga   Sidelooking airborne radar (SLAR)
          gb   Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) - Single frequency
          gc   SAR - multi-frequency (multichannel)
          gd   SAR - like polarization
          ge   SAR - cross polarization
          gf   Infometric SAR
          gg   polarmetric SAR
          gu   Passive microwave mapping
          gz   Other microwave data
          ja   Far ultraviolet
          jb   Middle ultraviolet
          jc   Near ultraviolet
          jv   Ultraviolet combinations
          jz   Other ultraviolet data 
                    Acoustical (elastic waves)
          pa   Sonar - water depth (echo-sounding, etc.)
          pb   Sonar - bottom topography images (sidescan imaging
               Includes both pc and pd.
          pc   Sonar - bottom topography - near surface
          pd   Sonar - bottom topography - near bottom (10-150 m.
          pe   Seismic surveys
          pz   Other acoustical data
          ra   gravity anomalies (general)
          rb   Free-air
          rc   Bouger
          rd   Isostatic
                    Magnetic field
          sa   Magnetic field
               Includes inclination, declination and anomalies.
                    Radiometric surveys (gamma rays)
          ta   radiometric surveys

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