NAME: Encoding of Digital Maps in the USMARC Bibliographic Format
SOURCE: Library of Congress and University of California, Santa Barbara
SUMMARY: This proposal calls for adding guidelines for the treatment of digital maps in the USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data following Format Integration. It suggests renaming the Leader byte 06 value "e" and the definition of an additional code in the field 008 (Fixed-Length Data Elements) for cartographic materials to accommodate digital maps which, until Format Integration, were treated as computer files.
KEYWORDS: Leader/06; Digital maps; 008/25 (Maps); Type of cartographic material; Type of record
RELATED: 94-7 (Feb. 1994)
5/5/95 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the June 1995 MARBI meetings.
6/25/95 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Approved in part.
The change to Leader/06 was approved (change printed map to cartographic material). To be consistent, manuscript map will be changed to manuscript cartographic material. This would give the cataloger an option as to how to handle digital material. The 008/25 addition of a code for digital was rejected, because it was felt that the information could be conveyed in 006 or 007. The Group requested a discussion paper on the broader issue of content vs. carrier in the USMARC bibliographic format.
7/26/95 - Results of final LC review - Agreed with the MARBI decision.
PROPOSAL NO. 95-9: Encoding of Digital Maps I. BACKGROUND With the implementation of Format Integration, it becomes possible to accommodate all forms of cartographic materials in the Maps format, coded as record type "e" (now defined as printed map), or "f" for manuscript items. The first step toward this occured with the approval of Proposal No. 94-7 (Encoding of Atlases in the USMARC Bibliographic Format), which changed the coding of atlases from record type "a" in Leader/06 (Type of record) to type "e" (Printed map) or "f" (Manuscript map). With the changes in technology in the field of cartography and increasing trend to distribute cartographic products in digital form, as well as the availability of cartographic datasets on the Internet, a method for handling digital maps needs to be included in the USMARC Bibliographic Format. The University of California at Santa Barbara is creating records for digital maps as part of a Digital Library Project grant funded by the National Science Foundation and wants to code them as maps records. In addition, the Federal Geographic Data Committee's Content Standards for Geospatial Metadata has been mandated for documenting geospatial data. II. DISCUSSION Like most librarians who deal primarily with one type of information, map librarians as well as map users want all cartographic materials, no matter what the physical form or carrier, to be retrievable as a "map." In all cases a map librarian or user would feel that the content or information type (cartographic) is always primary and the physical format is secondary. The fact that the publishing media is a CD, a book, a piece of paper, a microform, or a set of computer disks is secondary in importance to a user. Many institutions, including the Library of Congress, are beginning to create digital images of some of the paper maps in their collections. In most cases these digital images will not be separately cataloged, due to economic considerations, but the bibliographic record for the paper copy will be modified to contain the pertinent information about how to locate the digital image. If cartographic items which originate in a digital version are not treated in a compatible manner, the access to this material could become very murky indeed. For example, a digital image of a paper map could be downloaded and data added to it, making it a new cartographic item that originated as a digital file. Without a method for handling such items as maps, much of the cartographic information will be lost if the item were described as a computer file. Additionally, handling a CD containing cartographic information in a digital form as a computer file would be inconsistent with handling a CD containing music in a digital form as recorded sound. The type of information, cartographic or music, should be the primary focus rather than the medium or container. The approach in AACR2 is problematic, based on concepts of originals and reproductions than on content and carriers. This problem is being brought to the attention of the Joint Steering Committee for further clarification. Impact on existing records. Modifications that would be required in existing records for digital cartographic items to reorient them as cartographic would be: a) Change of Leader/06 from code "m" (Computer file) to code "e" or "f" b) New coding for field 008 character positions 18-24, 29-30, and 33-34 to correspond with the changed coding in Leader/06. These positions could also be set to the fill character ( | ). This proposal does not suggest any REQUIREMENTS for dealing with existing USMARC records for digital cartographic materials. Institutions should consider, however, what their policy might be regarding existing records, if this proposal is approved. The Library of Congress computer files file contains the approximately 25 records for digital cartographic items. The records contain a record type "m" in Leader/06 and 008 for computer file. LC would change these records to be oriented to their cartographic character. III. PROPOSED CHANGES The following is presented for consideration: - Rename Leader byte 06 value "e" from Printed map to Cartographic material. Code "e" indicates that the content of the record is for cartographic material. See Attachment A for a description of the field if this proposal is approved. - In field 008/25 (Type of cartographic material) and field 006/08 define the following code: g (Digital) See Attachment B for a description of the field if this proposal is approved. ---------------------------------------------------------------- ATTACHMENT A Leader Indicators and Subfield Codes The Leader has no indicators or subfield codes; the data elements are positionally defined. Validity by Material Type Character Positions 00-04 Logical record length 05 Record status a Increase in encoding level c Corrected or revised d Deleted n New p Increase in encoding level from prepublication 06 Type of record a Printed language material c Printed music d Manuscript music e [Printed map]
f Manuscript map g Projected medium i Nonmusical sound recording j Musical sound recording k Two-dimensional nonprojectable graphic m Computer file o Kit p Mixed material r Three-dimensional artifact or naturally occurring object t Manuscript language material 07 Bibliographic level a Monographic component part b Serial component part c Collection d Subunit m Monograph/item s Serial 08 Type of control # No specified type of control a Archival control ---------------------------------------------------------------- Leader--p. 6 e - [Printed map] Code e indicates that the content of the record is for [a printed map or a microform of a printed map] . This code is also used for atlases, globes, and other [printed] cartographic items. f - Manuscript map Code f indicates that the content of the record is for a manuscript map or a microform of a manuscript map. g - Projected medium Code g indicates that the content of the record is for a motion picture, videorecording, filmstrip, slide, or transparency. All of these media are intended for projection. Material specifically designed for overhead projection is also included in this type of record category. i - Nonmusical sound recording Code i indicates that the content of the record is for a recording of nonmusical sounds (e.g., speech). j - Musical sound recording Code j indicates that the content of the record is for a musical sound recording. k - Two-dimensional nonprojectable graphic Code k indicates that the content of the record is for a two-dimensional nonprojectable graphic such as, activity cards, charts, collages, computer graphics, drawings, duplication masters, flash cards, paintings, photonegatives, photoprints, pictures, postcards, posters, prints, spirit masters, study prints, technical drawings, transparency masters, and reproductions of any of these. m - Computer file Code m indicates that the content of the record is for a body of information encoded in a manner which allows it to be processed by a computer. The information in the computer file may be numeric or textual data, computer software, or a combination of these types. Although a file may be stored on a variety of media (such as magnetic tape or disk, punched cards, or optical character recognition font documents), the file itself is independent of the medium on which it is stored. o - Kit Code o indicates that the content of the record is for a mixture of components from two or more of the Type of record categories defined for Leader/06, no one of which is identifiable as the predominant component of the item. This category includes the packages of material called laboratory kits, and packages of assorted materials, such as a set of K-12 social studies curriculum material (books, workbooks, guides, activities, etc.), or packages of educational test materials (tests, answer sheets, scoring guides, score charts, interpretative manuals, etc.). p - Mixed materials Code p indicates a collection of items in which no one form of material is emphasized or predominates. ---------------------------------------------------------------- ATTACHMENT B 008/25 Type of cartographic material (006/08) Codes a Single map b Map series c Map serial d Globe e Atlas CHARACTER POSITION DEFINITION AND SCOPE A one-character alphabetic code indicates the type of cartographic item being described. GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS CODES a - Single map Code a indicates that the record describes a single map. 008/25 a 300 ##$a1 map :$bcol. ;$c10 x 40 cm. b - Map series Code b indicates that the record describes a series of maps. A map series is a number of related but physically separate and bibliographically distinct cartographic units intended by the producer(s) or issuing body(s) to form a single group. This code is not for atlas series. 008/25 b 300 ##$a50 maps :$b2 col. ;$c40 x 25 cm. c - Map serial Code c indicates that the record describes a map serial. A map serial is a publication issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. For serially issued atlases, code e (Atlas) is used. 008/25 c 300 ##$a maps :$bcol. ;$c20 x 60 cm., on sheets 25 x 65 cm. [Three spaces in subfield #a given for an incomplete set.] 315 ##$aQuarterly. d - Globe Code d indicates that the record describes a globe. 008/25 d e - Atlas Code e indicates that the record describes an atlas, including atlas series, and serially issued atlases. 008/25 e 300 ##$a1 atlas (288 p.) :$bchiefly col. maps ;$c38 cm. g - Digital Code g indicates that the record describes cartographic material which originated in digital form. CONTENT DESIGNATOR HISTORY Prior to the definition of code e (Atlas) in 1995, atlases were treated as printed language material. The field 008 configuration for books was used.