MARC 21 Bibliographic - Concise
MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data is designed to be a carrier for
bibliographic information about printed and manuscript textual materials, computer
files, maps, music, continuing resources, visual materials, and mixed materials.
Bibliographic data commonly includes titles, names, subjects, notes, publication
data, and information about the physical description of an item. The bibliographic
format contains data elements for the following types of material:
- Books (BK) - used for printed, electronic,
manuscript, and microform textual material that is monographic in nature.
- Continuing resources (CR) - used for printed,
electronic, manuscript, and microform textual material that is issued in parts
with a recurring pattern of publication (e.g., periodicals, newspapers,
yearbooks). (NOTE: Prior to 2002, Continuing resources (CR)
were referred to as Serials (SE)).
- Computer files (CF) - used for computer software, numeric
data, computer-oriented multimedia, online systems or services. Other classes of
electronic resources are coded for their most significant aspect. Material may
be monographic or serial in nature.
- Maps (MP) - used for all types of printed,
electronic, manuscript, and microform cartographic materials, including atlases,
sheet maps, and globes. Material may be monographic or serial in nature.
- Music (MU) - used for printed, electronic,
manuscript, and microform music, as well as musical sound recordings, and
non-musical sound recordings. Material may be monographic or serial in nature.
- Visual materials (VM) - used for projected media,
non-projected media, two-dimensional graphics, three-dimensional artifacts or
naturally occurring objects, and kits. Material may be monographic or serial in
- Mixed materials (MX) - used primarily for archival and
manuscript collections of a mixture of forms of material. Material may be
monographic or serial in nature. (NOTE: Prior to 1994, Mixed
materials (MX) were referred to as Archival and manuscript material
Kinds of Bibliographic Records
MARC bibliographic records are distinguished from all other types of MARC records by
specific codes in Leader/06 (Type of record) which identifies the following
bibliographic record types.
||Nonmusical sound recording
|Manuscript language material
||Musical sound recording
||Two-dimensional nonprojectable graphic
|Manuscript cartographic material
||Three-dimensional artifact or natural objects
A fill character (ASCII 7C hex), represented in this document as a vertical bar (|),
may be used in bibliographic records in fields 006, 007, and 008, and subfield
$7 of field 533 (Reproduction note) and the linking entry fields
(760-787). A fill character may not be used in the leader, or in tags, indicators,
or subfield codes. The use of the fill character in records contributed to a
national database may also be dependent upon the national level requirements
specified for each data element. The presence of a fill character in a bibliographic
record indicates that the format specifies a code to be used but the creator of the
record has decided not to attempt to supply a code.
Throughout this document, the following typographical conventions are used:
- 0 - The graphic 0 represents the digit zero in tags, fixed-position character
positions, indicator positions, and other places numerics are used. This
character must be distinguished from an uppercase letter O in examples or text.
- # - The graphic symbol # is used for a blank in coded fields and in other
special situations where the existence of the character blank might be
ambiguous. (In most textual examples, the blank is represented in the
conventional way, by the absence of a character.)
- $ - The graphic symbol $ is used for the delimiter
portion of a subfield code. Within the text, subfield codes are referred to as
subfield $a, for example.
- / - Specific character positions of the Leader, Directory, field 007, field
008 are expressed using a slash and the number of the character position, e.g.,
Leader/06, 007/00, 008/12.
- 1 - The graphic 1 represents the digit one (hex 31). This character must be
distinguished from a lowercase roman alphabet letter l (hex 6C) and uppercase
alphabetic letter I (hex 4C) in examples or text.
- | - The graphic | represents a fill character in MARC examples. When this mark
appears in the left margin, it indicates areas of the text of this document
where changes have been made.