Has no indicators or subfield codes; the data elements are positionally defined.
|00-04 - Record length|
|05 - Record status|
|06 - Type of record|
|07 - Bibliographic level|
|08 - Type of control|
|09 - Character coding scheme|
|10 - Indicator count|
|11 - Subfield code count|
|12-16 - Base address of data|
|17 - Encoding level|
|18 - Descriptive cataloging form|
|19 - Multipart resource record level|
|20 - Length of the length-of-field portion|
|21 - Length of the starting-character-position portion|
|22 - Length of the implementation-defined portion|
|23 - Undefined|
Fixed field that comprises the first 24 character positions (00-23) of each bibliographic record and consists of data elements that contain numbers or coded values that define the parameters for the processing of the record.
Character positions 20-23 comprise the Entry map for the Directory. They contain four one-character numbers that specify the structure of the entries in the Directory. More detailed information about the structure of the Leader is contained in MARC 21 Specifications for Record Structure, Character Sets, and Exchange Media.
Computer-generated, five-character number equal to the length of the entire record, including itself and the record terminator. The number is right justified and unused positions contain zeros.
One-character alphabetic code that indicates the relationship of the record to a file for file maintenance purposes.
Encoding level (Leader/17) of the record has been changed to a higher encoding level.
Indicates an increase in the level of cataloging (e.g., code a is used when a preliminary cataloging record (code 5 in Leader/17) is raised to full cataloging level (code # in Leader/17)).
Addition/change other than in the Encoding level code has been made to the record.
Record has been deleted.
Record is newly input.
Prepublication record has had a change in cataloging level resulting from the availability of the published item.
Example: a CIP record (code 8 in Leader/17)) upgraded to a full record (code # or 1 in Leader/17.)
One-character alphabetic code used to define the characteristics and components of the record.
Used to differentiate MARC records created for various types of content and material and to determine the appropriateness and validity of certain data elements in the record.
Microforms, whether original or reproductions, are not identified by a distinctive Type of record code. The type of content characteristics described by the codes take precedence over the microform characteristics of the item. Computer files are identified by a distinctive Type of record code only if they belong to certain categories of electronic resources as specified below; in all other cases the type of content characteristics described by the other codes take precedence over the computer file characteristics of the item.
Determination of the code for a multi-item bibliographic entity (types of material are those specified by values a through t below):
Items are multiple forms of material
Items are all one form of material
Used for non-manuscript language material. Manuscript language material uses code t.
Includes microforms and electronic resources that are basically textual in nature, whether they are reproductions from print or originally produced.
Used for printed, microform, or electronic notated music.
Used for manuscript notated music or a microform of manuscript music.
Used for non-manuscript cartographic material or a microform of non-manuscript cartographic material.
Includes maps, atlases, globes, digital maps, and other cartographic items.
Used for manuscript cartographic material or a microform of manuscript cartographic material.
Used for motion pictures, videorecordings (including digital video), filmstrips, slide, transparencies or material specifically designed for projection.
Material specifically designed for overhead projection is also included in this type of record category.
Used for a recording of nonmusical sounds (e.g., speech).
Used for a musical sound recording (e.g., phonodiscs, compact discs, or cassette tapes.
Used for two-dimensional nonprojectable graphics such as, activity cards, charts, collages, computer graphics, digital pictures, drawings, duplication masters, flash cards, paintings, photo CDs, photomechanical reproductions, photonegatives, photoprints, pictures, postcards, posters, prints, spirit masters, study prints, technical drawings, transparency masters, and reproductions of any of these.
Used for the following classes of electronic resources: computer software (including programs, games, fonts), numeric data, computer-oriented multimedia, online systems or services. For these classes of materials, if there is a significant aspect that causes it to fall into another Leader/06 category, the code for that significant aspect is used instead of code m (e.g., vector data that is cartographic is not coded as numeric but as cartographic). Other classes of electronic resources are coded for their most significant aspect (e.g. language material, graphic, cartographic material, sound, music, moving image). In case of doubt or if the most significant aspect cannot be determined, consider the item a computer file.
Used for a mixture of various components issued as a unit and intended primarily for instructional purposes where no one item is the predominant component of the kit.
Examples are packages of assorted materials, such as a set of school social studies curriculum material (books, workbooks, guides, activities, etc.), or packages of educational test materials (tests, answer sheets, scoring guides, score charts, interpretative manuals, etc.).
Used when there are significant materials in two or more forms that are usually related by virtue of their having been accumulated by or about a person or body. Includes archival fonds and manuscript collections of mixed forms of materials, such as text, photographs, and sound recordings.
Intended primary purpose is other than for instructional purposes (i.e., other than the purpose of those materials coded as o (Kit)).
Includes man-made objects such as models, dioramas, games, puzzles, simulations, sculptures and other three-dimensional art works, exhibits, machines, clothing, toys, and stitchery. Also includes naturally occurring objects such as, microscope specimens (or representations of them) and other specimens mounted for viewing.
Used for manuscript language material or a microform of manuscript language material. This category is applied to items for language material in handwriting, typescript, or computer printout including printed materials completed by hand or by keyboard. At the time it is created, this material is usually intended, either implicitly or explicitly, to exist as a single instance. Examples include marked or corrected galley and page proofs, manuscript books, legal papers, and unpublished theses and dissertations.
One-character alphabetic code indicating the bibliographic level of the record.
Monographic bibliographic unit that is physically attached to or contained in another unit such that the retrieval of the component part is dependent on the identification and location of the host item or container. Contains fields that describe the component part and data that identify the host, field 773 (Host Item Entry).
Examples of monographic component parts with corresponding host items include an article in a single issue of a periodical, a chapter in a book, a band on a phonodisc, and a map on a single sheet that contains several maps.
Serial bibliographic unit that is physically attached to or contained in another unit such that the retrieval of the component part is dependent on the identification and location of the host item or container. Contains fields that describe the component part and data that identify the host, field 773 (Host Item Entry).
Example of a serial component part with corresponding host item is a regularly appearing column or feature in a periodical.
Made-up multipart group of items that were not originally published, distributed, or produced together. The record describes units defined by common provenance or administrative convenience for which the record is intended as the most comprehensive in the system.
Part of collection, especially an archival unit described collectively elsewhere in the system. Contains fields that describe the subunit and data that identify the host item.
Subunits may be items, folders, boxes, archival series, subgroups, or subcollections.
Bibliographic resource that is added to or changed by means of updates that do not remain discrete and are integrated into the whole. Examples include updating loose-leafs and updating Web sites.
Integrating resources may be finite or continuing.
Item either complete in one part (e.g., a single monograph, a single map, a single manuscript, etc.) or intended to be completed, in a finite number of separate parts (e.g., a multivolume monograph, a sound recording with multiple tracks, etc.).
Bibliographic item issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. Includes periodicals; newspapers; annuals (reports, yearbooks, etc.); the journals, memoirs, proceedings, transactions, etc., of societies; and numbered monographic series, etc.
No type applies to the item being described.
Material is described according to archival descriptive rules, which focus on the contextual relationships between items and on their provenance rather than on bibliographic detail. The specific set of rules for description may be found in field 040, subfield $e. All forms of material can be controlled archivally.
Identifies the character coding scheme used in the record.
Coding scheme used affects the number of octets needed per character, the placement of non-spacing characters, and the use of escape sequences and may affect the character repertoire. Detailed information on the character sets used in MARC 21 records is contained in MARC 21 Specifications for Record Structure, Character Sets, and Exchange Media.
Character coding in the record uses the 8-bit character sets described in MARC 21 Specifications for Record Structure, Character Sets, and Exchange Media. Non-default character sets used are identified in field 066.
Character coding in the record makes use of characters from the Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) (ISO 10646), or Unicode™, an industry subset.
Computer-generated number 2 that indicates the number of character positions used for indicators in a variable data field.
An indicator character position contains a code which conveys information that interprets or supplements the data found in the field. In MARC 21, two character positions at the beginning of each variable data field are reserved for indicators; therefore, the Indicator count is always 2.
Computer-generated number 2 that indicates the number of character positions used for each subfield code in a variable data field.
Each data element in a variable data field is identified by a subfield code. In MARC 21, a subfield code consists of a delimiter ($) and a lowercase alphabetic or numeric data element identifier; therefore, the Subfield code count is always 2.
Computer-generated, five-character numeric string that indicates the first character position of the first variable control field in a record. The number is right justified and each unused position contains a zero.
The number is the base from which the starting character position of all the other fields in the record is addressed in the Directory. (The starting character position in the Directory entry for each field of the record is relative to the first character of the first variable control field rather than the beginning of the record.) The Base address of data is equal to the sum of the lengths of the Leader and the Directory, including the field terminator character at the end of the Directory.
One-character alphanumeric code that indicates the fullness of the bibliographic information and/or content designation of the MARC record.
Most complete MARC record created from information derived from an inspection of the physical item.
For serials, at least one issue of the serial is inspected.
Next most complete MARC record after the full level created from information derived from an extant description of the item (e.g., a printed catalog card or a description in an institutional guide) without reinspection of the physical item. Used primarily in the retrospective conversion of records when all of the information on the extant description is transcribed. Certain control field coding and other data (e.g., field 043 (Geographic Area Code)) are based only on explicit information in the description.
Less-than-full level record (i.e., a record that falls between minimal level and full) created from an extant description of the material (e.g., a printed catalog card) without reinspection of the physical item. Used primarily in the retrospective conversion of records when all of the descriptive access points but only a specified subset of other data elements are transcribed. Authoritative headings may not be current.
Brief record that does not meet minimal level cataloging specifications. Headings in the records may reflect established forms to the extent that such forms were available at the time the record was created.
Less-than-full but greater-than-minimal level cataloging record that meets core record standards for completeness.
Preliminary cataloging level record that is not considered final by the creating agency (e.g., the headings may not reflect established forms; the record may not meet national-level cataloging specifications).
Record that meets the U.S. National Level Bibliographic Record minimal level cataloging specifications and is considered final by the creating agency. Headings have been checked against an authority file and reflect established forms to the extent that such forms were available at the time the minimal level record was created. The U.S. requirements for minimal-level records can be found in National Level and Minimal Level Record Requirements
Prepublication level record. Includes records created in cataloging in publication programs.
Used by an agency receiving or sending data with a local code in Leader/17 cannot adequately determine the appropriate encoding level of the record. Code u thus replaces the local code. Not used in newly input or updated records.
For example, code u is used in Dublin Core originated records.
Concept of encoding level does not apply to the record.
One-character alphanumeric code that indicates characteristics of the descriptive data in the record through reference to cataloging norms. Subfield $e (Description conventions) of field 040 (Cataloging Source) also contains information on the cataloging conventions used.
Descriptive portion of the record does not follow International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) cataloging and punctuation provisions.
Descriptive portion of the record is formulated according to the description and punctuation provisions as incorporated into the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd Edition (AACR 2) and its manuals.
Descriptive portion of the record contains the punctuation provisions of ISBD, except ISBD punctuation is not present at the end of a subfield.
Descriptive portion of the record contains the punctuation provisions of ISBD.
Institution receiving or sending data in Leader/18 cannot adequately determine the appropriate descriptive cataloging form used in the record. May be used in records converted from another metadata format.
Record level to which a resource pertains and any record dependencies. This information will facilitate processing the record in different situations. For example, the record may describe a set of items, or it may describe a part of a set. The part may only have a dependent title to be used for identification purposes thus requiring use of additional information to understand its context.
The distinction between record levels is not specified or not applicable for the type of resource.
Record is for a set consisting of multiple items.
The record is for a resource which is part of a set and has a title that allows it to be independent of the set record.
The record is for a resource which is part of a set but has a title that makes it dependent on the set record to understand its context.
Always contains a 4.
Always contains a 5.
Always contains a 0.
Always contains a 0.
System-Generated Elements - Following Leader elements are usually system generated:
|00-04||Logical record length|
|09||Character coding scheme|
|11||Subfield code count|
|12-16||Base address of data|
|19||Linked record requirement|
It is common for default values in other Leader elements to be generated automatically as well.
|Field 008/18-34 Configuration|
|If Leader/06 = a and Leader/07 = a, c, d, or m: Books|
|If Leader/06 = a and Leader/07 = b, i, or s: Continuing Resources|
|If Leader/06 = t: Books|
|If Leader/06 = c, d, i, or j: Music|
|If Leader/06 = e, or f: Maps|
|If Leader/06 = g, k, o, or r: Visual Materials|
|If Leader/06 = m: Computer Files|
|If Leader/06 = p: Mixed Materials|
Capitalization - Alphabetic codes are input as lowercase letters.