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008 - Maps (NR)


MARC 21 Bibliographic - full
April 2015

Indicators and Subfield Codes

Field has no indicators or subfield codes; the data elements are positionally defined.

Character Positions
18-21 - Relief (006/01-04)
# - No relief shown
a - Contours
b - Shading
c - Gradient and bathymetric tints
d - Hachures
e - Bathymetry/soundings
f - Form lines
g - Spot heights
i - Pictorially
j - Land forms
k - Bathymetry/isolines
m - Rock drawings
z - Other
|||| - No attempt to code
22-23 - Projection (006/05-06)
## - Projection not specified
aa - Aitoff
ab - Gnomic
ac - Lambert's azimuthal equal area
ad - Orthographic
ae - Azimuthal equidistant
af - Stereographic
ag - General vertical near-sided
am - Modified stereographic for Alaska
an - Chamberlin trimetric
ap - Polar stereographic
au - Azimuthal, specific type unknown
az - Azimuthal, other
ba - Gall
bb - Goode's homolographic
bc - Lambert's cylindrical equal area
bd - Mercator
be - Miller
bf - Mollweide
bg - Sinusoidal
bh - Transverse Mercator
bi - Gauss-Kruger
bj - Equirectangular
bk - Krovak
bl - Cassini-Soldner
bo - Oblique Mercator
br - Robinson
bs - Space oblique Mercator
bu - Cylindrical, specific type unknown
bz - Cylindrical, other
ca - Albers equal area
cb - Bonne
cc - Lambert's conformal conic
ce - Equidistant conic
cp - Polyconic
cu - Conic, specific type unknown
cz - Conic, other
da - Armadillo
db - Butterfly
dc - Eckert
dd - Goode's homolosine
de - Miller's bipolar oblique conformal conic
df - Van Der Grinten
dg - Dimaxion
dh - Cordiform
dl - Lambert conformal
zz - Other
|| - No attempt to code
24 - Undefined (006/07)
# - Undefined
25 - Type of cartographic material (006/08)
a - Single map
b - Map series
c - Map serial
d - Globe
e - Atlas
f - Separate supplement to another work
g - Bound as part of another work
u - Unknown
z - Other
| - No attempt to code
26-27 - Undefined (006/09-10)
# - Undefined
28 - Government publication (006/11)
# - Not a government publication
a - Autonomous or semi-autonomous component
c - Multilocal
f - Federal/national
i - International intergovernmental
l - Local
m - Multistate
o - Government publication-level undetermined
s - State, provincial, territorial, dependent, etc.
u - Unknown if item is government publication
z - Other
| - No attempt to code
29 - Form of item (006/12)
# - None of the following
a - Microfilm
b - Microfiche
c - Microopaque
d - Large print
f - Braille
o - Online
q - Direct electronic
r - Regular print reproduction
s - Electronic
| - No attempt to code
30 - Undefined (006/13)
# - Undefined
31 - Index (006/14)
0 - No index
1 - Index present
| - No attempt to code
32 - Undefined (006/15)
# - Undefined
33-34 - Special format characteristics (006/16-17)
# - No specified special format characteristics
e - Manuscript
j - Picture card, post card
k - Calendar
l - Puzzle
n - Game
o - Wall map
p - Playing cards
r - Loose-leaf
z - Other
|| - No attempt to code

FIELD DEFINITION AND SCOPE

Maps definition of field 008/18-34 is used when Leader/06 (Type of record) contains code e (Cartographic material) or f (Manuscript cartographic material). Field 008 positions 01-17 and 35-39 are defined the same in all 008 fields and are described in the 008-All materials section.

Field 008/18-34 character positions are equivalent to those in field 006/01-17 when field 006/00 (Form of material) contains code e (Cartographic material) or f (Manuscript cartographic material). Details about specific codes defined for the equivalent character positions in field 006 and 008 for maps are provided in the Guidelines for Applying Content Designators section of 008-Maps only.


GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS

CHARACTER POSITIONS

18-21 - Relief (006/01-04)

Up to four one-character alphabetic codes that indicate the relief type specified on the item. Codes are recorded in order of their importance to the described item. If fewer than four codes are assigned, the codes are left justified and each unused position contains a blank (#).

Codes used in this field indicate only the relief forms most commonly found on maps and are usually derived from information given in field 500 (General Note). If more than four codes are appropriate to an item, only the four most important are recorded.

# - No relief shown
008/18-21 ####
[No note field]
a - Contours

Relief shown by contours.

008/18-21 ae##
500 ##$aRelief shown by contours. Depths shown by soundings.
b - Shading

Relief shown by shading (generally of a single color).

008/18-21 b###
500 ##$aRelief shown by shading.
c - Gradient and bathymetric tints

Relief shown by gradient or bathymetric tints.

008/18-21 c###
500 ##$aRelief shown by gradient tints.
d - Hachures

Relief shown by hachures (short lines which follow the direction of maximum slope).

008/18-21 dg##
500 ##$aRelief shown by hachures and spot heights.
e - Bathymetry/soundings

Underwater relief (depth) shown by soundings or spot depths.

008/18-21 e###
500 ##$aDepths shown by soundings.
f - Form lines

Relief shown by form lines.

008/18-21 f###
500 ##$aRelief shown by form lines.
g - Spot heights

Relief shown by spot heights.

008/18-21 g###
500 ##$aRelief shown by spot heights.
i - Pictorially

Land forms and other topographic features shown in the correct planimetric position by pictorial symbols representing their appearance from a high oblique view.

008/18-21 i###
500 ##$aRelief shown pictorially.
j - Land forms

Relief shown by land forms.

008/18-21 jg##
500 ##$aRelief shown by land forms, and spot heights.
k - Bathymetry/isolines

Underwater relief (depth) shown by isolines (lines that represent constant depths).

008/18-21 kb##
500 ##$aDepths shown by isolines. Relief shown by shading.
m - Rock drawings

Relief rock drawing.

z - Other

None of the other defined codes are appropriate.

|||| - No attempt to code

22-23 - Projection (006/05-06)

Two-character alphabetic code that indicates the projection used in producing the item.

Specifically named projections are not described in this document. The presence of the name of the projection identifies the appropriate code for 008/22-23. Cartographic reference sources may be consulted for a more detailed explanation of specific projections.

## - Projection not specified

Used for most globes.

aa - Aitoff
ab - Gnomic
ac - Lambert's azimuthal equal area
ad - Orthographic
ae - Azimuthal equidistant
af - Stereographic
ag - General vertical near-sided
am - Modified stereographic for Alaska
an - Chamberlin trimetric
ap - Polar stereographic
au - Azimuthal, specific type unknown

Only the projection type (azimuthal) is known, not the specific projection.

az - Azimuthal, other

Azimuthal projection for which none of the other defined codes are appropriate.

ba - Gall
bb - Goode's homolographic
bc - Lambert's cylindrical equal area
bd - Mercator
be - Miller
bf - Mollweide
bg - Sinusoidal
bh - Transverse Mercator
bi - Gauss-Kruger
bj - Equirectangular
bk - Krovak
bl - Cassini-Soldner
bo - Oblique Mercator
br - Robinson
bs - Space oblique Mercator
bu - Cylindrical, specific type unknown

Only the projection type (cylindrical) is known, not the specific projection.

bz - Cylindrical, other

Cylindrical projection for which none of the other defined codes are appropriate.

ca - Albers equal area
cb - Bonne
cc - Lambert's conformal conic
ce - Equidistant conic
cp - Polyconic
cu - Conic, specific type unknown

Only the projection type (conic) is known, not the specific projection.

cz - Conic, other

Conic projection for which none of the other defined codes are appropriate.

da - Armadillo
db - Butterfly
dc - Eckert
dd - Goode's homolosine
de - Miller's bipolar oblique conformal conic
df - Van Der Grinten
dg - Dimaxion
dh - Cordiform
dl - Lambert conformal
zz - Other

None of the other defined codes are appropriate.

|| - No attempt to code

24 - Undefined (006/07)

Undefined; contains a blank (#) or a fill character (|).


25 - Type of cartographic material (006/08)

One-character alphabetic code that indicates the type of cartographic item described.

a - Single map
008/25 a
300 ##$a1 map :$bcol. ;$c10 x 40 cm.
b - Map series

Number of related but physically separate and bibliographically distinct cartographic units intended by the producer(s) or issuing body(s) to form a single group.

Not used for atlas series.

008/25 b
300 ##$a50 maps :$b2 col. ;$c40 x 25 cm.
c - Map serial

Issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely.

For serially issued atlases, code e (Atlas) is used.

008/25 c
300 ##$amaps :$bcol. ;$c20 x 60 cm., on sheets 25 x 65 cm.
[Three spaces in subfield $a given for an incomplete set.]
315 ##$aQuarterly.
d - Globe
008/25 d
300 ##$a1 globe :$bcol., plastic, mounted on metal stand ;$c70 cm. in diam.
e - Atlas

Includes atlas series, and serially issued atlases.

008/25 e
300 ##$a1 atlas (288 p.) :$bchiefly col. maps ;$c38 cm.
f - Separate supplement to another work

Other work being supplemented does not have to be cartographic material.

g - Bound as part of another work

Other work included does not have to be cartographic material.

u - Unknown
z - Other

None of the other defined codes are appropriate.

| - No attempt to code

26-27 - Undefined (006/09-10)

Undefined; each contains a blank (#) or a fill character (|).


28 - Government publication (006/11)

One-character alphabetic code that indicates whether the item is published or produced by or for an international, national, provincial, state, or local government agency, or by any subdivision of such a body, and, if so, the jurisdictional level of the agency.

Government bodies and all their subdivisions are treated as government bodies regardless of how they may be entered as headings (i.e., entered under jurisdiction or not). In the bibliographic record, the body does not have to be a main or added entry, but it should be named as publisher, etc. in the publication, distribution, etc. area, or have caused the item to be published (usually inferred when the governmental body is responsible for the content of the work). When in doubt, treat the item as a government publication.

Guidelines for certain types of publications

  • Socialist countries- Since the coding of all items published in socialist countries as government publications would limit the usefulness of this element, coding should be used only for the same type of bodies that would be considered government in a non-socialist country. In coding items in this manner, when in doubt, treat the item as a government publication.
  • Two levels- If an item is published or produced jointly by government agencies at two different levels, record the code for the higher government level.
  • Academic publications- In the U.S., items published by academic institutions are considered government publications if the institutions are created or controlled by a government.
# - Not a government publication

Not published by or for a government body.

008/28 #
110 2#$aRand McNally.
008/28 #
260 ##$aNew York :$bMacmillan,$c1983.
a - Autonomous or semi-autonomous component

Published or produced by or for a government body of an autonomous or semi-autonomous component of a country.

008/28 a
110 1#$aSabah.
c - Multilocal

Published or produced by or for a multilocal jurisdiction which is defined as a regional combination of jurisdictions below the state level.

008/28 c
110 2#$aHouston Independent School District.
f - Federal/national

Published or produced by or for a federal or national government body, e.g., a sovereign nation, such as Canada. Used for the governments of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Also used for American Indian tribes.

008/28 f
110 2#$aServicio Geológico Nacional (Argentina)
i - International intergovernmental

Published or produced by or for an international intergovernmental body.

008/28 i
110 2#$aWorld Health Organization.
l - Local

Published or produced by or for a local government jurisdiction such as a county, city, town, etc.

008/28 l
110 1#$aKippenheim (Germany)
008/28 l
110 1#$aDistrict of Columbia.
m - Multistate

Published or produced by or for a regional combination of jurisdictions at the state, provincial, territorial, etc., level.

008/28 m
110 2#$aLake Erie Regional Transportation Authority.
o - Government publication-level undetermined

Published or produced by or for a government body but that the jurisdictional level cannot be determined.

s - State, provincial, territorial, dependent, etc.

Jurisdictional level of the government body is a state, province, territory, etc.

008/28 s
110 1#$aWyoming.$bAir Resources Council.
u - Unknown if item is government publication

Whether or not the item is published or produced by or for a government agency is unknown.

z - Other

None of the other defined codes are appropriate.

| - No attempt to code

29 - Form of item (006/12)

One-character alphabetic code that indicates the form of material for the item.

# - None of the following

Not specified by one of the other codes.

a - Microfilm
b - Microfiche
c - Microopaque
d - Large print
f - Braille
o - Online

The resource is accessed by means of hardware and software connections to a communications network. If a distinction between types of electronic resources is not necessary, code s can be used as a generic code for any form of electronic resource.

q - Direct electronic

Storage on a directly accessible tangible recording medium, e.g. disc, tape, playaway device, flashdrive, portable hard drive, etc. If a distinction between types of electronic resources is not necessary, code s can be used as a generic code for any form of electronic resource.

r - Regular print reproduction

Eye-readable print, such as a photocopy.

s - Electronic

Intended for manipulation by a computer. May reside in a carrier accessed either directly or remotely, in some cases requiring the use of peripheral devices attached to the computer (e.g., a CD-ROM player). Not used for items that do not require the use of a computer (e.g., music compact discs, videodiscs). This code can be used as a generic code for any form of electronic resource. Codes o and q may be used if there is a need to separately identify online and direct electronic resources.

| - No attempt to code

30 - Undefined (006/13)

Undefined; contains a blank (#) or a fill character (|).


31 - Index (006/14)

One-character numeric code that indicates whether the item or accompanying material includes a location index or gazetteer.

Information for this data element is derived from mention of an index or gazetteer in other parts of the bibliographic record (e.g., in the title or in a note). A map index to adjoining sheets is not considered an index when coding this position. This data element refers only to gazetteers, place name indexes, etc. Graphic indexes such as index maps are not coded.

0 - No index

Does not include an index or gazetteer to its own contents.

008/31 0
[No indication of index or gazetteer in bibliographic data]
1 - Index present

Includes an index or gazetteer to its own contents.

008/31 1
500 ##$aIndex to points of interest on verso.
008/31 1
500 ##$aIncludes gazetteer and glossary.
| - No attempt to code

32 - Undefined (006/15)

Undefined; contains a blank (#) or a fill character (|).


33-34 - Special format characteristics (006/16-17)

Up to two one-character alphabetic codes that indicate the special format characteristics of the map. Codes are recorded in order of their importance to the described item. If only one code is assigned, it is left justified and the unused position contains a blank (#).

If more than two characteristics are appropriate to an item, only the two most important are recorded.

# - No specified special format characteristics
e - Manuscript

Drawn or fashioned by hand.

j - Picture card, post card
k - Calendar
l - Puzzle

Image may be disassembled into pieces and reassembled.

n - Game

Intended to be used as or is part of a game.

o - Wall map
p - Playing cards
r - Loose-leaf

Separate leaves intended to be stored in a binder or case. Loose-leaf items are often meant to be updated.

z - Other

None of the other defined codes are appropriate.

|| - No attempt to code

INPUT CONVENTIONS

Capitalization - Alphabetic codes are input in lowercase.

Field length - Field 008 should always consist of forty (40) character positions.


CONTENT DESIGNATOR HISTORY

008/18-21 - Relief

Prior to the definition of code k and the redefinition of code e, both soundings and isolines were identified by code e (Bathymetry). Code h was made obsolete in favor of the use of code c (Gradient and bathymetric tints) to record coloration.

e - Bathymetry/soundings [REDEFINED, 1980]
k - Bathymetry/isolines [NEW, 1980]
h - Color [OBSOLETE, 1980]
008/22-23 - Projection
bk - Krovak [NEW, 2009]
bl - Cassini-Soldner [NEW, 2009]
008/24 - Prime meridian [OBSOLETE, 1997] [USMARC only]

Defined codes were: # (Not specified), e (Greenwich), f (Ferro), g (Paris), p (Philadelphia), w (Washington, D.C.), and z (Other).

008/24-25 - Prime meridian [OBSOLETE, 1997] [CAN/MARC only]

Prior to 1997, this position was used to indicate the prime meridian that was named on a map. Defined codes were:

aa Greenwich, England
ab Ferro, Canary Is.
ac Paris, France
ad Amsterdam, Neth.
ae Athens, Greece
af Batavia, (Djakarta) Indonesia
ag Berne, Switzerland
ah Bogota, Columbia
ai Bombay, India
aj Brussels, Belgium
ak Cadiz, Spain
al Capetown, S.A.
am Caracas, Venezuela
an Copenhagen, Denmark
ao Cordoba, Argentina
ap Helsinki, Finland
aq Julianehaab, Greenland
ar Lisbon, Portugal
as Madras, India
at Madrid, Spain
ba Mexico City, Mex.
bb Munich, Germany
bc Naples, Italy
bd Oslo (Christiana), Norway
be Philadelphia, Pa.
bf Pulkovo (St. Petersburg), Russia
bg Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
bh Rome, Italy
bi Santiago, Chile
bj Stockholm, Sweden
bk Sydney, Aust.
bl Tirana, Albania
bm Tokyo, Japan
bn Washington, D.C.
bo London, England
bp Moscow, Russia
bq Istanbul, Turkey
br Peking, China
uu Unknown
zz Other
008/25 - Type of cartographic material

Prior to the definition of code e (Atlas), atlases were treated as printed language material. The field 008 configuration for books was used.

e - Atlas [NEW, 1995]
008/26-27 - Publisher code [OBSOLETE, 1980]

Name of the publisher may be contained in subfield $b of field 260.

008/28 - Government publication

Prior to 2015, university press publications were included as examples of government publications.

008/29 - Form of item
o - Online [NEW, 2010]
q - Direct electronic [NEW, 2010]
008/30 - Narrative text [OBSOLETE, 1997] [CAN/MARC only]

Defined codes were: 0 (No text present), 1 (Text on cartographic item), 2 (Text accompanies cartographic item).

008/31 - Index [CAN/MARC only]
2 - Index or gazetteer accompanies cartographic item [OBSOLETE, 1997] [CAN/MARC only]
008/32 - Citation indicator [OBSOLETE, 1980]

Defined codes were: a (Bibliographic cartographique internationale), b (American Revolution), h (Hummel purchases), r (Railroad), t (Treasure), v (Vellum), w (Warner purchase), y (American Revolution and vellum), z (Treasure and B.C.I.), # (Not applicable).

008/33-34 - Special format characteristics
a - Photocopy, blue line print [OBSOLETE, 1982]
b - Photocopy [OBSOLETE, 1982]
c - Negative photocopy [OBSOLETE, 1982]
d - Film negative [OBSOLETE, 1982]
f - Facsimile [OBSOLETE, 1982]
g - Relief model [OBSOLETE, 1982]
h - Rare [OBSOLETE, 1982]
m - Braille [OBSOLETE, 1998]
q - Large print [OBSOLETE, 1998]

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(04/29/2015)
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