This field has no indicators or subfield codes; the data elements are positionally defined.
|00-05 - Date entered on file|
|06 - Type of date/Publication status|
|07-10 - Date 1|
|11-14 - Date 2|
|15-17 - Place of publication, production, or execution|
|18-34 - Material specific coded elements|
|35-37 - Language|
|38 - Modified record|
|39 - Cataloging source|
Field 008 character positions 00-17 and 35-39 are defined the same for field 008 in the MARC 21 bibliographic format, regardless of record type. The definition of field 008 character positions 18-34 varies according to the Type of record code in Leader/06 and Bibliographic level code in Leader/07. Certain data elements are defined the same in more than one 008 field configuration. When similar data elements are defined for inclusion in a field 008 for different record types/bibliographic level, they generally occupy the same field 008 character positions.
Computer-generated, six-character numeric string that indicates the date the MARC record was created. Recorded in the pattern yymmdd.
Pattern yymmdd is yy for the year, mm for the month, and dd for the day. The date entered on file in 008/00-05 is never changed. The date and time of latest transaction information in field 005 changes each time a transaction is made to the record. The latest transaction information enables an organization handling more than one version of a record to identify the most current version. The fill character (|) is not allowed in any of these positions. Field 008/00-05 is usually system generated.
One-character alphabetic code that indicates that categorizes the type of dates given in 008/07-10 (Date 1) and 008/11-14 (Date 2). For continuing resources, the code in 008/06 also indicates the publication status.
The choice of code for 008/06 is made concurrently with a determination of the appropriate dates for 008/07-14. For most records data is derived from information in field 260 (Publication, Distribution, etc. (Imprint)), field 264 (Production, Publication, Distribution, Manufacture, and Copyright Notice), field 362 (Dates of Publication and/or Sequential Designation), or from note fields.
Dates are represented by four digits. Missing digits in the date are represented by the character u.
For continuing resources, 008/07-10 contain the beginning date of publication (chronological designation) and 008/11-14 contain the ending date. For reprints of serials and for reproductions of serials being described in the body of the entry, the beginning and ending dates of the original are input in these character positions.
Precedence of codes (monographic items) - When more than one code applies to a bibliographic item, use the table below to determine the appropriate code to use. The codes listed first take precedence over codes listed subsequently. The left column covers single part items and multipart items completed in one year. The right column covers multipart items for which a span of dates is required.
|Single part/multipart items
complete in one year
|Collections/multipart items complete
in more than one year
Legal characters - Date 1 and Date 2 each usually consist of four digits (e.g., 1963). When part of the date is unknown, missing digits are represented by the character u (e.g., "19??" would be recorded as 19uu). If the date is totally unknown, the millennium may be inferred (e.g., 1uuu). For Common Era (C.E.) dates of the first millennium, the year is right justified and unused positions contain zeros (e.g., "946 A.D." would be recorded as 0946). When Date 1 or Date 2 is not applicable, such as when Before Common Era (B.C.) dates are involved, blanks are used (e.g., ####). For active serials (i.e., when the serial has not ceased publication) and incomplete multipart nonserial items, the date in 008/11-14 is represented by 9999 to indicate that the year is not yet available. The fill character (|) may also be used in 008/06-14 when no attempt has been made to code dates, but its use in 008/07-10 is discouraged. Many MARC-based systems rely on non-fill characters in 008/07-10 for retrieval and duplicate detection. When fill is used in either 008/07-10 or 008/11-14, it should be used in all four character positions, thus a combination of fills and any other character in either of these positions should never occur.
One or more dates associated with the item are Before Common Era (B.C.) dates. B.C. date information can be specifically coded in field 046 (Special Coded Dates).
Each character position in fields 008/07-10 and 008/11-14 contains a blank.
Currently published is defined as an item for which an issue has been received within the last three years.
008/07-10 contain the beginning date of publication; 008/11-14 contain the characters 9999.
|260||##$aNew York :$bXerox Films,$c1984-|
|260||##$aChicago :$bUniversity of Chicago Press,|
|362||1#$aBegan with vol. for 1953.|
|500||##$aDescription based on: Vol. 2, no. 2 (Feb.
[Date of first issue is unknown.]
|260||##$aNew York :$bWiley Interscience,|
|500||##$aDescription based on: 1981.
[Date of first issue is unknown but can be estimated.]
|260||##$aNew York :$bDoubleday,|
|500||##$aDescription based on: 1901.
[Date of first issue is unknown and cannot be estimated.]
New issues of a continuing resource have ceased to be published or that a change in author or title has caused a successive entry record to be created. When a new title supersedes a previously existing one, the earlier title is considered dead and coded d in field 008/06. An item is considered to have ceased publication only when there is clear evidence that it has. Generally, a period of more than three years during which no new issue of a continuing resource has been published is considered evidence that it has ceased publication.
008/07-10 contain the beginning date of publication; 008/11-14 contain the date the item ceased to be published.
|362||0#$aVol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 1928)-v. 14, no. 2 (Feb. 1941).|
|260||##$aNew York :$bAmerican Statistical Association,$c -1959.|
|260||##$aBoston :$bThe Society,$c -1929.
[Beginning date is unknown but can be estimated.]
|260||##$aChicago :$bThe Association,$c1945-|
|515||##$aNo more published?
[Ending date is unknown but can be estimated.]
Detailed date which contains the month (and possibly the day) in addition to the year is present.
008/07-10 contain the year and 008/11-14 contain the month and day formatted mmdd.
If the day is unknown, uu is used; if the detail on the item indicates only the month, blanks are used. For visual materials, this code may be used with televised material to give the date of the original broadcast.
|260||##$aWashington, D.C. :$bDept. of Commerce,$cJune 15, 1983.|
[Day is not applicable because the publication is identified by month only.]
|260||##$aU.S. :$bTriangle Film Corp.,$cNov. 1976.
[Day of month is unknown.]
008/07-10 and 008/11-14 contain the inclusive dates applicable to a collection. If the inclusive dates are represented by a single year, that date is given in both places. A collection, whether or not it consists of individually published items, is not considered to exist in a published form. Multipart items are not treated as a collection (see code m).
008/07-10 and 008/11-14 contain the range of years applicable to most of the material in a collection. If the bulk dates are represented by only a single year, that date is given in both places. A collection, whether or not it consists of individually published items, is not considered to exist in a published form. Multipart items are not treated as a collection (see code m).
008/07-10 and 008/11-14 contain the range of years of publication of a multipart item. If both dates for a multipart item are represented by a single year, then code s is used. The code is also used for a single part unpublished item that has been executed over a period of time, such as a painting.
008/07-10 usually contain the initial (or beginning) date and 008/11-14 the terminal (or ending) date.
|260||##$aParis :$bÉditions du Cerf,$c1972-1975.|
|260||##$aBoston :$bMacmillan,$c -
[Multipart item for which the earliest volume is not held.]
[Multipart item for which the publication date of the first volume is uncertain.]
|260||##$aNew York :$bDover,$c1943-[197-?]
[Multipart item for which the publication date of the last volume is uncertain.]
[Single part item for which the publication date spans more than one year.]
|260||##$aBrescia : $bLa scuola,$c<c1998- >
[Multipart item for which the publication date is ongoing.]
Dates appropriate for 008/07-10 and 008/11-14 are unknown, (e.g., when no dates are given in field 260).
[Naturally occurring object; field 260 is not present in the record.]
Both a date of distribution/release/issue (008/07-10) and a date of production/recording (008/11-14) are present because there is a difference between the two dates. For computer files, code p is used when there is a difference between the date the file first became operational for analysis and processing in machine-readable form (i.e., production date) and the date the file became available to the public, usually through an established agency (i.e., distribution date). For moving images, if a work with identical content but in a different medium has a later release date than the original work, code p is used (e.g., a videorecording released in 1978 that was originally produced as a motion picture in 1965).
|260||##$aWashington :$bU.S. Navy Dept.,$c1967 :$bDistributed by National Audiovisual Center,$c1982.|
Exact date for a single date item is not known but a range of years for the date can be specified (e.g., between 1824 and 1846).
Earliest possible date is given in 008/07-10; latest possible date in 008/11-14.
|260||##$aNew York :$bHippocrene Books,$c[between 1963 and 1966]|
|260||##$aAmsterdam :$bElsevier,$c[19th and early 20th century]
[Decade is unknown for both earliest and latest date.]
008/07-10 contain the date of reproduction or reissue; 008/11-14 contain the date of the original, if known. 008/11-14 contain code u ("uuuu"), if unknown.
If multiple dates are available for the original publication, 008/11-14 contain the earlier date. With original photographic material, the work being described would be a later photoprint made from an earlier created photonegative. With original prints, the work being described would be a restrike made from the (usually deceased) artist's earlier-created plate or block.
|500||##$aOriginal version: Pittsburg, Pa. : W'm Schuchman & Bro. Lith., .|
|500||##$aReprinted from Green Howard's
[Original date of publication is unknown.]
|260||##$aNew York :$b[s.n.,$cn.d.]|
|500||##$aPreviously published in 1963.|
Date consists of one known single date of distribution, publication, release, production, execution, writing, or a probable date that can be represented by four digits. The single date associated with the item may be actual, approximate, or conjectural (e.g., if the single date is uncertain). Code s is also used for a single unpublished item such as an original or historical graphic when there is a single date associated with the execution of the item.
008/07-10 contain the date; 008/11-14 contain blanks (####).
|260||##$aWashington :$bDept. of State,$c1977.|
|260||##$a[Darmstadt] :$bTetzlaff,$c1980 [i.e. 1981]|
|260||##$aLondon :$bHarcourt, World & Brace,$c[1969?]|
|260||##$a[Yerushalayim :$bE. Fisher,$c744 i.e. 1983 or 1984]
[Non-Gregorian dates with no single Gregorian equivalent.]
|260||##$aBerlin :$b[s.n.,$cca. 1946]|
|260||##$aNew York :$bHaworth,$c[198-]|
|260||##$aNew York :$bS.R.A.,$c[19--]|
Span of dates associated with a single item of uncertain date is coded as questionable (code q). Multiple certain dates needed for a single item are coded as multiple dates (code m). Single or multiple dates associated with a collection are coded as either bulk dates (code k) or inclusive dates (code i).
Date of publication/release/production/execution is present in 008/07-10 and a copyright notice date or phonogram copyright notice date is present in 008/11-14. Deposit dates (i.e., those preceded by "D.L." (Dépot légal), etc.) may be treated as copyright dates.
|260||##$aLondon :$bMacmillan,$c1982, c1949.|
|260||##$aNew York :$bEpic,$c2002, p2001.|
|260||##$aRio de Janeiro :$bDelta,$c[198-?], c1979.|
Used for continuing resources when there is no clear indication that publication of the item has ceased.
008/07-10 contain a beginning date of publication; 008/11-14 contain the characters uuuu since no ending date is known.
|500||##$aDescription based on: 1983.|
[No information is contained in the source record.]
A date specified by the code in 008/06 (Type of date/Publication status).
Determination of dates for 008/07-10 is made concurrently with the choice of code for 008/06. See the section above on 008/06 for examples and input conventions related to coded date information. The use of fill characters in 008/07-10, although possible, is discouraged since the data in Date 1 is used for retrieval and duplicate detection in many systems. When fill is used in 008/07-10, all four positions must contain the fill character.
A date specified by the code in 008/06 (Type of date/Publication status).
Determination of dates for 008/11-14 is made concurrently with the choice of code for 008/06. See the section above on 008/06 for examples and input conventions related to coded date information. Four fill characters (||||) are used when no attempt has been made to code these character positions.
Two- or three-character alphabetic code that indicates the place of publication, production, or execution. Place code is an authoritative-agency data element. Code from: MARC Code List for Countries. Choice of a MARC code is generally related to information in field 260 (Publication, Distribution, etc. (Imprint)). The code recorded in 008/15-17 is used in conjunction with field 044 (Country of Producer Code) when more than one code is appropriate to an item. The first code in subfield $a of field 044 is recorded in 008/15-17. Three fill characters (|||) may be used in place of a valid code, but their use in 008/15-17 is discouraged. The data in this field 008 data element is used for retrieval and duplicate detection in many systems. When fill is used in 008/15-17, all three positions must contain the fill character.
Two-character codes are left justified and the unused position contains a blank (#). For items reprinted in the original print size, the code is based on the jurisdiction where the reprint was published and not on the jurisdiction associated with the original place of publication.
For sound recordings, the code represents the place where the recording company is located. For still images that are original or historical graphics, if geographic information can be deduced (as with some photographs), a place code is recorded in this character position. For archival moving images, the code represents the country of producing entity from field 257. For mass-produced videorecordings, the code represents the place of publication in field 260 (Publication, Distribution, etc. (Imprint)).
|260||##$aBurbank, Calif. :$bColumbia Tristar Home Video,$cc1996.
[Video published in California of a film co-produced in France, Spain and Germany]
|260||##$a[New York ] :$bGardner & Co.,$cc1899.|
|245||00$a[Portrait of Cyrus Patten] /$cAnson, New York.|
[A single unpublished graphic item.]
|245||00$aVanity Fair /$cF. Depero.|
[An unpublished graphic item where geographic information cannot be deduced.]
|260||##$aTokyo :$cShobido & Co.,$c1919.
[A collection consisting wholly of published items.]
When the place of publication/production/execution is totally unknown, code xx# is used.
|260||##$aS. l. :$bs.n.,$c1983.
[Place is completely unknown]
[Field 260 is not present in the record]
When more than one place is involved, the first-named jurisdiction is coded in 008/15-17. The code for the first jurisdiction is repeated in field 044 (Country of producer code), followed by the codes for the other jurisdictions.
|260||##$aLondon ;$aNew York :$bAcademic Press,$c1979.|
For visual materials and music, if the work is a multi-country production, the code for the first country is recorded in 008/15-17. The code for the first country is repeated in field 044 (Country of Producer Code), followed by the codes for countries of other bodies involved in the production. For serials and integrating resources, the country code reflects the place of publication of the latest issue, part or iteration. If the record is updated at a later time and the place has changed, the place of publication code is updated. For mixed materials, the code represents the repository where the material is assembled.
No place of publication, production, etc. can be provided; the place is unknown, or it is undetermined. Examples of such items are: 1) naturally occurring objects; 2) ancient manuscripts.
Various places are associated with different parts of items, generally a collection.
See one of the material specific 008/18-34 sections
Three-character alphabetic code that indicates the language of the item. Code from: MARC Code List for Languages. Choice of a MARC code is based on the predominant language of the item. Three fill characters (|||) may also be used if no attempt is made to code the language or if non-MARC language coding is preferred (and coded in field 041 (Language code)).
For language material (i.e., books and continuing resources), the language code is based on the text of the item. The term text refers to the principle work(s) included within the publication, excluding the preface, introduction, foreword, appendices, etc. For computer files, the language associated with the data and/or the user interface (e.g., textual displays, audible output in a language) determines the code used in 008/35-37, not the programming language. (Accompanying documentation in a language other than that of the data and/or user interface is coded in field 041.) For maps, the language of names and text associated with the map or globe determines the code used. For music, the predominant language of the sung or spoken text associated with the score or sound recording is recorded in 008/35-37. For visual materials, coding depends on the type of material. For moving image materials, the language content is defined as the sound track, the accompanying sound, or sign language. For moving image materials with no sound or sign language content or, if with sound, no narration, use zxx (no linguistic content). For filmstrips and slides, code for the text on the film, the accompanying sound or the accompanying printed script (for works with no sound or, if with sound, no narration). For all other still images, including original or historical graphic material and opaque and non-opaque graphic material, and three-dimensional materials, the language content is that associated with the material, i.e., captions or other text associated with the item or collection that are part of the chief source of information. For mixed materials the language code is based on the predominant language of an item or materials in a collection.
When only one language is associated with an item, the code for that language is recorded.
|245||00$aRentabilidad bruta del inversionista en bolsa.$pBonos del tesoro.|
If more than one language code is applicable, the code for the predominant language is recorded in 008/35-37, and the codes for all of the languages, including the predominant language, are recorded in field 041 (Language Code). The code recorded in 008/35-37 is always the same as the language code recorded in the first occurrence of subfields $a or $d (for sound recordings).
|500||##$aChiefly in Russian; with some contributions in English.|
If there is no predominant language, the language codes are recorded in English alphabetical order in field 041 and the first one is recorded in 008/35-37.
|546||##$aText in English and Spanish.|
When formulating a bibliographic record for a translation, the code for the language of the translation, not the language of the original, is given in 008/35-37. (The code for the language of the original is recorded in subfield $h of field 041.)
[English translation of a German title]
Item has no sung, spoken, or written textual content. Examples of such items are: 1) instrumental or electronic music; 2) sound recordings consisting of nonverbal sounds; 3) moving image materials with no sound or sign language content, or if sound, no narration; 4) visual materials other than moving images with no printed titles, captions, etc.; 5) computer files that consist of no more than the machine language (e.g., COBOL) or character codes (e.g., ASCII) used in source programs.
Item is multilingual with no predominant language and the cataloging institution has chosen not to specify a language in 008/35-37.
Primary medium of communication is a sign language, e.g., a book containing pictures of the handshape of each letter of a particular sign system, or a videorecording that is signed. The particular sign language system is stated in field 546 (Language Note), e.g., American Sign Language. The codes for secondary and related languages may be indicated in field 041 (Language Code).
|546||##$aAmerican Sign Language, with some text in English.|
Language of the item cannot be determined. Also used for works having content consisting of arbitrary syllables, humming, or other human-produced sounds for which a language cannot be specified.
One-character code that indicates whether any data in a bibliographic record is a modification of information that appeared on the item being cataloged or that was intended to be included in the MARC record.
Such modifications include: the romanization of data that originally appeared in a non-roman script; substitution of characters available for those characters that could not be converted to machine-readable form (e.g., special symbols, "¤"); shortening of records because the amount of data exceeded a system imposed maximum allowable length. A record is not considered to be modified when romanizing fields in the record that are not transcriptions of data from the item (e.g., headings, complete nonquoted fields, subscription address, etc.). MARC equivalents for certain letters used in lesser known languages using the Roman alphabet are also not considered to be modified.
Precedence of codes - When more than one code applies to a bibliographic item, use the following table to determine the appropriate code to use. The codes are listed in precedence order, with codes listed first taking precedence over codes listed subsequently. Code # is the highest priority.
|d||Dashed-on information omitted|
|r||Completely romanized/printed cards in script|
|o||Completely romanized/printed cards romanized|
Codes are assigned a priority (recorded in the order of the following list) that determines which code is input when more than one code applies to the item.
Record has not been modified in any way (e.g., it is not shortened and it contains no characters that could not be converted to machine-readable form).
MARC record does not contain "dashed-on" information found on the corresponding manual copy, either because the dashed-on information was input as a separate record, recorded in field 500 (General Note), or because it was omitted. "Dashed-on" information is generally the brief description of material related to a main item being cataloged that is not considered important enough to catalog separately. The "dashed-on" technique has not been used heavily since the introduction of machine-readable bibliographic records.
Bibliographic data in the MARC record is completely romanized and any printed cards produced are also in romanized form.
Bibliographic data in the MARC record is completely romanized but the printed cards are available in the original (vernacular) script.
Some of the data was omitted because the data exceeded the maximum length allowed by the system used to create or process it.
In systems where the length of data is restricted, it is usually at the field or record level. MARC bibliographic records have a maximum length of 99,999 characters. (For further information, see MARC 21 Specifications for Record Structure, Character Sets, and Exchange Media.) Code s is rarely used in current records.
Record contained characters that could not be converted to machine-readable form (e.g., incidental nonroman characters on predominantly roman alphabet records, mathematical symbols, etc.).
Note: Many institutions choose to simply romanize any nonroman characters encountered in bibliographic data. The technique of representing special symbols by a descriptive word or phrase is often used as an alternative to omitting the special symbol completely (e.g., "[tree]" included in data to represent the picture of a tree that was meant to be an integral part of the title). It is unlikely that code x will be used in current records.
One-character code that indicates the original cataloging source of the record. If the cataloging source is known, it is identified in subfield $a of field 040 (Cataloging Source).
Creator of the original cataloging data is a national bibliographic agency (e.g., U.S. Library of Congress or Library and Archives Canada).
[Record was created and transcribed by the U.S. Library of Congress.]
[Record was created by the Library of Congress, transcribed by West Virginia University, and modified by West Virginia University, University of California, and RLIN.]
[Record was created and transcribed by National Library of Canada.]
Creator of the cataloging data is a participant (other than a national bibliographic agency) in a cooperative cataloging program.
[Harvard University Library cataloging input online as part of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging.]
[Record created by the Univ. of British Columbia and transcribed by NLC.]
Source of the cataloging data is an organization that is other than a national bibliographic agency or a participant in a cooperative cataloging program.
[Record was created and transcribed by the University of Wyoming.]
[Record was created by Northwestern University and modified by RLIN and the University of Michigan.]
Creator of the cataloging data is unknown. Used when an organization transcribes manual cataloging data from an unknown source. In this case, field 040 lacks a subfield $a and subfield $c contains the MARC code for the transcribing organization.
[The University of Wisconsin--Milwaukee is responsible for the content designation and transcription of cataloging from an unknown source.]
Capitalization - Alphabetic codes are input in lowercase.
Field length - Field 008 should always consist of forty (40) character positions.
Prior to the definition of this code and field 046 (Special Coded Dates), data elements for coded information about B.C. dates were not provided in MARC.
Prior to its redefinition, code c had a different definition for books, computer files, maps, music, and visual materials than it did for serials. The difference was eliminated by the definition of a new code t (Publication date and copyright date) which is used in place of the obsolete nonserial code c. The definition of the serial code c was retained.
Prior to its redefinition, code d had a different definition for books and visual materials than it did for serials. The difference was eliminated by the definition of a new code e (Detailed date) which is used in place of the obsolete nonserial code d. The definition of the serial code d was retained.
Prior to the definition of code p (Date of distribution/release/issue and production/recording session when different) for music in 1978, this type of date was identified by code i. The current definition of code i (Inclusive dates of collection) was approved in 1983.
Prior to the definition of code p (Date of distribution/release/issue and production/recording session when different) for music in 1978, this type of date was identified by code i.
Prior to the introduction of AACR 2, code n was used with all forms of material when subfield $c (Date of publication, distribution, etc.) in field 260 (Publication, Distribution, etc. (Imprint)) contained the statement "n.d." for "no date". In cataloging formulated according to AACR 2, code n is used only 1) in records for mixed materials when there is no date in field 260 or in field 245, and 2) in visual material records for naturally occurring objects and artifacts when subfield $g (Date of manufacture) is not present in field 260 . Prior to 1995, zeros or blanks were used for unknown portions of Date 1 and Date 2 for some forms of material.
Technique for indicating a questionable place by modifying the MARC country code was made obsolete in 1972. Prior to that time, the letter q was added to a two-character place code (e.g., Paris? was coded as frq) or the letters d, l, s, or v were used instead of the letters c, k, r, or u as the third character in the three-character codes for jurisdictions within Canada, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States (e.g, Chicago? was coded as ilv instead of ilu). Prior to 1980, place codes were limited to two character positions (positions 15-16) in the visual materials specifications. The three-character codes for Canada, the U.K., the U.S., and the U.S.S.R. were not used (e.g., London was coded uk).
Prior to 2006, three blanks were used to indicate that the item has no sung, spoken or written text. Code zxx (No linguistic content) was added at that time to indicate this situation and three blanks were redefined as no information provided.
Code n was made obsolete following the cessation of publication of New serial titles.