Law Library of Congress - Global Legal Monitor: Global Legal Monitor: European-Union http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?home The Global Legal Monitor is an online publication from the Law Library of Congress covering legal news and developments worldwide. It is updated frequently and draws on information from the Global Legal Information Network, official national legal publications, and reliable press sources. You can search previous news by searching the archive. en-us Global Legal Monitor: European Union: New Rules on Unaccompanied Minors Entering the EU Illegally http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404068_text Asylum; Child welfare; Immigration; Undocumented immigrants - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 09 Jul 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404068_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Draft Directive on Damage Claims by Victims of Antitrust Violations http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404047_text Commerce; Competition and antitrust; International organizations - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 30 Jun 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404047_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Draft Directive on the Protection of Trade Secrets http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404026_text Trade secrets - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 12 Jun 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404026_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Central Bank Board Member Speaks on Bitcoin http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404011_text Banks and financial institutions; Currency; Internet - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 06 Jun 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205404011_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Russia Challenges EU Energy Laws Before WTO http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403970_text International organizations - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 06 May 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403970_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Commission Proposes New Standards Regulating Use of Civil Drones http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403956_text Aviation and airports - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner"... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 30 Apr 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403956_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Adoption of the Revised Tobacco Directive http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403940_text Consumer protection; Public health; Tobacco and smoking - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 24 Apr 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403940_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: New Regulation on Clinical Trials http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403932_text Health; International organizations; Medical research - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 17 Apr 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403932_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Parliament Endorses Stricter Rules on Personal Data Protection http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403911_text Crime and law enforcement; Right of privacy - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 28 Mar 2014 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403911_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Proposal to Prohibit Proprietary Trading by Banks http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403849_text Banks and financial institutions - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 04 Feb 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403849_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: New Recommendations to Prevent Radicalization http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403837_text Terrorism - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 29 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403837_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: New Measures Adopted on Shale Gas Initiative http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403843_text Energy; Environmental protection; Oil and gas - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 29 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403843_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: New Rules on the Generalized System of Preferences http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403830_text Foreign trade and international finance; Tariffs - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 16 Jan 2014 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403830_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: New Rules Proposed to Fight Tax Evasion http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403789_text Corporate income tax; Tax avoidance; Taxation - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidance... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 13 Dec 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403789_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: New Proposed Rules on Misappropriation of Trade Secrets http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403776_text Intellectual property; Trade secrets - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 06 Dec 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403776_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: European Citizens Demand Ban on Animal Experimentation http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403754_text Animal protection; Animals - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 12 Nov 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403754_text Global Legal Monitor: Canada; European Union: Trade Agreement http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403730_text International affairs; Foreign trade and international finance - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 22 Oct 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403730_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union; China; World Trade Organization: EU Deems Anti-Dumping Duties on Steel imports from China Discriminatory http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403701_text Foreign trade and international finance - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 13 Sep 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403701_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Stricter Penalties for Insider Trading Proposed by the Parliament http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403703_text Banks and financial institutions; Securities - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 13 Sep 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403703_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Temporary Ban on Pesticides Harmful to Bees Challenged http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403691_text Environmental protection - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 09 Sep 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403691_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: New Regulation on Biocides http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403688_text Environmental protection; Workers safety and health - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 04 Sep 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403688_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Commission Gives Green Light to Proposed Merger Between Two U.S. Air Carriers http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403660_text Aviation and airports; Commerce; Transportation and public works - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 08 Aug 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403660_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: EU Adds Hezbollah Military Wing to Terrorist List http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403647_text Terrorism - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 24 Jul 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403647_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: More Stringent Rules on Cigarettes Proposed http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403646_text Tobacco and smoking - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 23 Jul 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403646_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Revision of Flight Restrictions and Rest Requirements for Pilots http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403641_text Aviation and airports - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 17 Jul 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403641_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union; Lithuania: Lithuania in Charge of European Council Presidency http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403637_text Executive power - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 12 Jul 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403637_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union; Russian: EU Challenges Russia Before WTO http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403639_text Foreign trade and international finance - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 12 Jul 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403639_text Global Legal Monitor: Croatia; European Union: Enlargement http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403628_text Government - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 08 Jul 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403628_text Global Legal Monitor: Court of Justice of the European Union; European Union: "Right to Be Forgotten" at Stake http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403625_text Right of privacy - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 28 Jun 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403625_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Latvia Will Join the Euro in 2014 http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403615_text Economics and Public Finance - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 14 Jun 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403615_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union; Russian: Agreement on Illicit Drugs Signed http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403610_text International affair; Narcotics and drug abuse - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 07 Jun 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403610_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: European Parliament Committee Approves Legislation Requiring Mineral and Oil Companies to Disclose Payments to Governments http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403611_text Corporations; Government ethics and transparency; Mining; Natural resources - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 07 Jun 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403611_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Response to Factory Collapse in Bangladesh http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403598_text Labor - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 21 May 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403598_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Draft Agreement Allows Police Access to Fingerprints of Asylum Seekers http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403586_text Asylum - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 08 May 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403586_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Proposal on Deposit Guarantee Scheme http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403539_text Banks and financial institutions - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 09 Apr 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403539_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Draft Rules on Bankers' Bonuses and Bank Capital Requirements http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403525_text Banks and financial institutions - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements.... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 20 Mar 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403525_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: New Rules Proposed to Improve Border Control and Facilitate Entry of Frequent Travelers http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403512_text Immigration and nationality - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 11 Mar 2013 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403512_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Ireland Holds the Presidency of the European Council http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403472_text Executive power - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 31 Jan 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403472_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Inauguration of Cyber Crime Center http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403457_text Police power - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 14 Jan 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403457_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Finance Ministers Give Green Light to Single Supervisory Mechanism http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403447_text Banks and financial institutions - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 07 Jan 2013 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403447_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Draft Directive on Accessibility of Government Websites to All http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403432_text Communications - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 18 Dec 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403432_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Agreement on Unitary Patent http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403434_text Intellectual property - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 14 Dec 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403434_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Annual Growth Survey Adopted http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403421_text Economics and Public Finance - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 04 Dec 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403421_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union; Faroe Islands; Iceland; Norway: Dispute over Mackerel Fishing Not Resolved by Talks http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403384_text Natural resources - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 07 Nov 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403384_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Parliamentary Committee on Organized Crime and Money Laundering http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403375_text Crime and law enforcement - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 19 Oct 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403375_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Increase in Counterfeit Goods http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403259_text Customs enforcement - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 01 Aug 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403259_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: European Commission Addresses Cloud Computing http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403262_text Communications - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 01 Aug 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403262_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Commission Asks the Council for Mandate to Open Free Trade Negotiations with Japan http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403253_text Foreign trade and international finance - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 25 Jul 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403253_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Parliament Rejects Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403229_text Intellectual property - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 13 Jul 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403229_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Cyprus Takes over EU Presidency on July 1, 2012 http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403228_text Elections and politics - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 06 Jul 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403228_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Commission Recommends Measures to Fight Tax Evasion http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403224_text Taxation - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 02 Jul 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403224_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Notice of Rights for Suspects and the Accused in Criminal Proceedings http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403218_text Crime and law enforcement - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 27 Jun 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403218_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union; Vietnam: Steps Taken Towards a New Relationship http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403175_text International affairs - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 04 Jun 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403175_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Justice and Home Affairs Council Adopts Conclusions on De-Radicalization and Disengagement from Terrorist Activities http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403137_text Terrorism - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 09 May 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403137_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Commission Requests Opinion of European Court of Justice on Legality of Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403108_text Intellectual property - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 20 Apr 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403108_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Benefits of a Proposal for a Financial Transaction Tax http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403079_text Taxation - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 12 Apr 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403079_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Proposal to Establish a European Cybercrime Center http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403081_text Crime and law enforcement - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 09 Apr 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403081_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: European Court of Justice Rules on Illegal Downloading of Songs by Internet Users http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403073_text Intellectual property - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 04 Apr 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403073_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: European Parliament Adopts Draft Regulation on Cross-Border Inheritances http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403074_text Families - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 04 Apr 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403074_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: New Regulation on Export, Import, and Transit of Firearms http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403060_text Firearms and explosives - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 30 Mar 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403060_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: European Parliament Adopts Resolution Endorsing Women's Preferential Treatment in Elections and High Public Offices http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403056_text Elections and politics - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 27 Mar 2012 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403056_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Revision of Civil Protection Mechanism http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402999_text Disasters - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 24 Feb 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402999_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: ACTA Signed in Tokyo http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402976_text Intellectual property - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 07 Feb 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402976_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Treaty on Fiscal Compact http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402973_text Budget - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 03 Feb 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402973_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union; Hungary: Criticism of Laws on the Judiciary, Data Protection, and the National Bank http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402953_text Constitution - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 23 Jan 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402953_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union; Libya: Assistance Package Authorized and Bank Funds Released http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402939_text International exchanges - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 11 Jan 2012 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402939_text Global Legal Monitor: China; European Union: Agreement to Use Chinese-English Machine Translations for Patents http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402923_text Intellectual property - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 20 Dec 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402923_text Global Legal Monitor: Croatia; European Union: European Parliament Approves EU Membership for Croatia http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402913_text International affairs - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 14 Dec 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402913_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union; United States: Joint Declaration Issued at Recent Summit http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402909_text Foreign trade and international finance - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 07 Dec 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402909_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Revision of Directive on Return of Unlawfully Removed Cultural Objects http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402904_text Cultural heritage - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 06 Dec 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402904_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Prohibition on Shark Finning http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402897_text Natural resources - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 28 Nov 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402897_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Evaluation of Legislation on GMOs http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402881_text Consumer protection - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 16 Nov 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402881_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union; Turkey: 2011 Progress Report on Turkey's Accession http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402884_text Boundaries - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 16 Nov 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402884_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Court Bans Patents When Human Embryos Destroyed http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402875_text Intellectual property - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 07 Nov 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402875_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Adoption of General EU Criminal Policy on Euro-Crimes http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402817_text Crime and law enforcement - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism,... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 26 Sep 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402817_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Commission Considers Possible Regulation of Online Gambling http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402810_text Gambling - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 19 Sep 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402810_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union; Serbia: Agreement on Security Procedures in Exchanging Classified Information http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402789_text National security - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 30 Aug 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402789_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union; Spain: Temporary Limitation of Free Movement of Romanian Workers http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402782_text Immigration and nationality - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 17 Aug 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402782_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Implementation of Judgments Issued by European Court of Human Rights http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402772_text Human rights - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is the main court defending human rights in Europe and applying the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHRFF).... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 08 Aug 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402772_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: New Toy Safety Rules Enter into Force http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402760_text Consumer protection - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is the main court defending human rights in Europe and applying the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHRFF). On July 20, 2011, Directive 2009/48/EC on the Safety of Toys, which repeals Directive 88/368/EEC on toy safety rules, entered into force in the European Union. (Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 28 Jul 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402760_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Framework Regulation on Financial Assistance to Third Countries http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402743_text Budget - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is the main court defending human rights in Europe and applying the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHRFF). On July 20, 2011, Directive 2009/48/EC on the Safety of Toys, which repeals Directive 88/368/EEC on toy safety rules, entered into force in the European Union. (Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the On July 4, 2011, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Framework Regulation for Macro-Financial Assistance (MFA) to third countries. According to a Commission press release, MFA is "a financing instrument under which exceptional financial... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 11 Jul 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402743_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Draft Directive on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402698_text Taxation - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is the main court defending human rights in Europe and applying the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHRFF). On July 20, 2011, Directive 2009/48/EC on the Safety of Toys, which repeals Directive 88/368/EEC on toy safety rules, entered into force in the European Union. (Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the On July 4, 2011, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Framework Regulation for Macro-Financial Assistance (MFA) to third countries. According to a Commission press release, MFA is "a financing instrument under which exceptional financial The European Union is composed at present of 27 dissimilar tax systems, in which each Member State has its own rules for computing the tax base for associated enterprises. As a result, companies seeking to start... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Fri, 03 Jun 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402698_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Council Recommends Introduction of the European Case Law Identifier and a Minimum Set of Uniform Metadata for Case Law http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402675_text Judiciary - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is the main court defending human rights in Europe and applying the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHRFF). On July 20, 2011, Directive 2009/48/EC on the Safety of Toys, which repeals Directive 88/368/EEC on toy safety rules, entered into force in the European Union. (Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the On July 4, 2011, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Framework Regulation for Macro-Financial Assistance (MFA) to third countries. According to a Commission press release, MFA is "a financing instrument under which exceptional financial The European Union is composed at present of 27 dissimilar tax systems, in which each Member State has its own rules for computing the tax base for associated enterprises. As a result, companies seeking to start On April 29, 2011, the Council of the European Union, within the framework of its multi-annual European e-Justice Action Plan of 2009-2012, adopted its conclusions on the introduction of the European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) and... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Tue, 17 May 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402675_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Net Neutrality http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402650_text Communications - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is the main court defending human rights in Europe and applying the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHRFF). On July 20, 2011, Directive 2009/48/EC on the Safety of Toys, which repeals Directive 88/368/EEC on toy safety rules, entered into force in the European Union. (Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the On July 4, 2011, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Framework Regulation for Macro-Financial Assistance (MFA) to third countries. According to a Commission press release, MFA is "a financing instrument under which exceptional financial The European Union is composed at present of 27 dissimilar tax systems, in which each Member State has its own rules for computing the tax base for associated enterprises. As a result, companies seeking to start On April 29, 2011, the Council of the European Union, within the framework of its multi-annual European e-Justice Action Plan of 2009-2012, adopted its conclusions on the introduction of the European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) and The question of net neutrality, that is, whether access to Internet services or content should be regulated or should be unfettered and provided pursuant to the principle of "best effort," has moved to the forefront of... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 28 Apr 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402650_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Trafficking in Human Beings and Protection of Victims http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402651_text Human trafficking - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is the main court defending human rights in Europe and applying the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHRFF). On July 20, 2011, Directive 2009/48/EC on the Safety of Toys, which repeals Directive 88/368/EEC on toy safety rules, entered into force in the European Union. (Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the On July 4, 2011, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Framework Regulation for Macro-Financial Assistance (MFA) to third countries. According to a Commission press release, MFA is "a financing instrument under which exceptional financial The European Union is composed at present of 27 dissimilar tax systems, in which each Member State has its own rules for computing the tax base for associated enterprises. As a result, companies seeking to start On April 29, 2011, the Council of the European Union, within the framework of its multi-annual European e-Justice Action Plan of 2009-2012, adopted its conclusions on the introduction of the European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) and The question of net neutrality, that is, whether access to Internet services or content should be regulated or should be unfettered and provided pursuant to the principle of "best effort," has moved to the forefront of In early April 2011, the European Union adopted Directive 2011/36/EU on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting Its Victims, 2011 (OFFICIAL JOURNALOF THE EUROPEAN UNION (L101) 1 (Apr. 15, 2011)). The Directive... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 28 Apr 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402651_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Report on the Quality of Fiscal Data Provided by EU Members in 2010 http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402629_text Economics and Public Finance - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is the main court defending human rights in Europe and applying the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHRFF). On July 20, 2011, Directive 2009/48/EC on the Safety of Toys, which repeals Directive 88/368/EEC on toy safety rules, entered into force in the European Union. (Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the On July 4, 2011, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Framework Regulation for Macro-Financial Assistance (MFA) to third countries. According to a Commission press release, MFA is "a financing instrument under which exceptional financial The European Union is composed at present of 27 dissimilar tax systems, in which each Member State has its own rules for computing the tax base for associated enterprises. As a result, companies seeking to start On April 29, 2011, the Council of the European Union, within the framework of its multi-annual European e-Justice Action Plan of 2009-2012, adopted its conclusions on the introduction of the European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) and The question of net neutrality, that is, whether access to Internet services or content should be regulated or should be unfettered and provided pursuant to the principle of "best effort," has moved to the forefront of In early April 2011, the European Union adopted Directive 2011/36/EU on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting Its Victims, 2011 (OFFICIAL JOURNALOF THE EUROPEAN UNION (L101) 1 (Apr. 15, 2011)). The Directive One of the essential requirements in order for the European Monetary Union (EMU) to function properly is that the EU members must avoid excessive budget deficits. The Protocol on the Excessive Deficit Procedure provides that EU... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 18 Apr 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402629_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Smart Tags Raise Privacy Concerns http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402620_text Communications - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is the main court defending human rights in Europe and applying the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHRFF). On July 20, 2011, Directive 2009/48/EC on the Safety of Toys, which repeals Directive 88/368/EEC on toy safety rules, entered into force in the European Union. (Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the On July 4, 2011, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Framework Regulation for Macro-Financial Assistance (MFA) to third countries. According to a Commission press release, MFA is "a financing instrument under which exceptional financial The European Union is composed at present of 27 dissimilar tax systems, in which each Member State has its own rules for computing the tax base for associated enterprises. As a result, companies seeking to start On April 29, 2011, the Council of the European Union, within the framework of its multi-annual European e-Justice Action Plan of 2009-2012, adopted its conclusions on the introduction of the European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) and The question of net neutrality, that is, whether access to Internet services or content should be regulated or should be unfettered and provided pursuant to the principle of "best effort," has moved to the forefront of In early April 2011, the European Union adopted Directive 2011/36/EU on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting Its Victims, 2011 (OFFICIAL JOURNALOF THE EUROPEAN UNION (L101) 1 (Apr. 15, 2011)). The Directive One of the essential requirements in order for the European Monetary Union (EMU) to function properly is that the EU members must avoid excessive budget deficits. The Protocol on the Excessive Deficit Procedure provides that EU Radio Frequency Identifications (RFIDs), or smart tags, are small, affordable circuits that communicate with a portable device (the reader) and are attached to goods and other consumer products. Smart tags have certain practical applications including their... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 11 Apr 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402620_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Microsoft Institutes Antitrust Complaint Against Google http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402621_text Corporations - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is the main court defending human rights in Europe and applying the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHRFF). On July 20, 2011, Directive 2009/48/EC on the Safety of Toys, which repeals Directive 88/368/EEC on toy safety rules, entered into force in the European Union. (Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the On July 4, 2011, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Framework Regulation for Macro-Financial Assistance (MFA) to third countries. According to a Commission press release, MFA is "a financing instrument under which exceptional financial The European Union is composed at present of 27 dissimilar tax systems, in which each Member State has its own rules for computing the tax base for associated enterprises. As a result, companies seeking to start On April 29, 2011, the Council of the European Union, within the framework of its multi-annual European e-Justice Action Plan of 2009-2012, adopted its conclusions on the introduction of the European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) and The question of net neutrality, that is, whether access to Internet services or content should be regulated or should be unfettered and provided pursuant to the principle of "best effort," has moved to the forefront of In early April 2011, the European Union adopted Directive 2011/36/EU on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting Its Victims, 2011 (OFFICIAL JOURNALOF THE EUROPEAN UNION (L101) 1 (Apr. 15, 2011)). The Directive One of the essential requirements in order for the European Monetary Union (EMU) to function properly is that the EU members must avoid excessive budget deficits. The Protocol on the Excessive Deficit Procedure provides that EU Radio Frequency Identifications (RFIDs), or smart tags, are small, affordable circuits that communicate with a portable device (the reader) and are attached to goods and other consumer products. Smart tags have certain practical applications including their On March 31, 2011, the U.S.-based Microsoft Corporation filed an antitrust complaint with the European Commission alleging violation of European Union competition rules by Google, on the ground that Google's "pattern of actions" inhibits competition. Google... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 11 Apr 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402621_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Response to Catastrophic Events in Japan http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402595_text Disasters - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is the main court defending human rights in Europe and applying the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHRFF). On July 20, 2011, Directive 2009/48/EC on the Safety of Toys, which repeals Directive 88/368/EEC on toy safety rules, entered into force in the European Union. (Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the On July 4, 2011, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Framework Regulation for Macro-Financial Assistance (MFA) to third countries. According to a Commission press release, MFA is "a financing instrument under which exceptional financial The European Union is composed at present of 27 dissimilar tax systems, in which each Member State has its own rules for computing the tax base for associated enterprises. As a result, companies seeking to start On April 29, 2011, the Council of the European Union, within the framework of its multi-annual European e-Justice Action Plan of 2009-2012, adopted its conclusions on the introduction of the European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) and The question of net neutrality, that is, whether access to Internet services or content should be regulated or should be unfettered and provided pursuant to the principle of "best effort," has moved to the forefront of In early April 2011, the European Union adopted Directive 2011/36/EU on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting Its Victims, 2011 (OFFICIAL JOURNALOF THE EUROPEAN UNION (L101) 1 (Apr. 15, 2011)). The Directive One of the essential requirements in order for the European Monetary Union (EMU) to function properly is that the EU members must avoid excessive budget deficits. The Protocol on the Excessive Deficit Procedure provides that EU Radio Frequency Identifications (RFIDs), or smart tags, are small, affordable circuits that communicate with a portable device (the reader) and are attached to goods and other consumer products. Smart tags have certain practical applications including their On March 31, 2011, the U.S.-based Microsoft Corporation filed an antitrust complaint with the European Commission alleging violation of European Union competition rules by Google, on the ground that Google's "pattern of actions" inhibits competition. Google In the aftermath of the earthquake that hit Japan on March 11, 2011, the European Union set in motion a number of measures in an effort to assist the Japanese government to deal with the unfolding... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 31 Mar 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402595_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union; Hungary: European Parliament Resolution on Hungary's Media Law http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402575_text Freedom of the press - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is the main court defending human rights in Europe and applying the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHRFF). On July 20, 2011, Directive 2009/48/EC on the Safety of Toys, which repeals Directive 88/368/EEC on toy safety rules, entered into force in the European Union. (Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the On July 4, 2011, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Framework Regulation for Macro-Financial Assistance (MFA) to third countries. According to a Commission press release, MFA is "a financing instrument under which exceptional financial The European Union is composed at present of 27 dissimilar tax systems, in which each Member State has its own rules for computing the tax base for associated enterprises. As a result, companies seeking to start On April 29, 2011, the Council of the European Union, within the framework of its multi-annual European e-Justice Action Plan of 2009-2012, adopted its conclusions on the introduction of the European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) and The question of net neutrality, that is, whether access to Internet services or content should be regulated or should be unfettered and provided pursuant to the principle of "best effort," has moved to the forefront of In early April 2011, the European Union adopted Directive 2011/36/EU on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting Its Victims, 2011 (OFFICIAL JOURNALOF THE EUROPEAN UNION (L101) 1 (Apr. 15, 2011)). The Directive One of the essential requirements in order for the European Monetary Union (EMU) to function properly is that the EU members must avoid excessive budget deficits. The Protocol on the Excessive Deficit Procedure provides that EU Radio Frequency Identifications (RFIDs), or smart tags, are small, affordable circuits that communicate with a portable device (the reader) and are attached to goods and other consumer products. Smart tags have certain practical applications including their On March 31, 2011, the U.S.-based Microsoft Corporation filed an antitrust complaint with the European Commission alleging violation of European Union competition rules by Google, on the ground that Google's "pattern of actions" inhibits competition. Google In the aftermath of the earthquake that hit Japan on March 11, 2011, the European Union set in motion a number of measures in an effort to assist the Japanese government to deal with the unfolding Although the threat of the European Union taking legal action against Member State Hungary for its controversial new Media Law has subsided, the European Parliament passed a resolution on March 10, 2011, that criticizes the Law... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Wed, 16 Mar 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402575_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: European Commission Publishes First Report on Trade Barriers http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402568_text Foreign trade and international finance - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is the main court defending human rights in Europe and applying the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHRFF). On July 20, 2011, Directive 2009/48/EC on the Safety of Toys, which repeals Directive 88/368/EEC on toy safety rules, entered into force in the European Union. (Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the On July 4, 2011, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Framework Regulation for Macro-Financial Assistance (MFA) to third countries. According to a Commission press release, MFA is "a financing instrument under which exceptional financial The European Union is composed at present of 27 dissimilar tax systems, in which each Member State has its own rules for computing the tax base for associated enterprises. As a result, companies seeking to start On April 29, 2011, the Council of the European Union, within the framework of its multi-annual European e-Justice Action Plan of 2009-2012, adopted its conclusions on the introduction of the European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) and The question of net neutrality, that is, whether access to Internet services or content should be regulated or should be unfettered and provided pursuant to the principle of "best effort," has moved to the forefront of In early April 2011, the European Union adopted Directive 2011/36/EU on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting Its Victims, 2011 (OFFICIAL JOURNALOF THE EUROPEAN UNION (L101) 1 (Apr. 15, 2011)). The Directive One of the essential requirements in order for the European Monetary Union (EMU) to function properly is that the EU members must avoid excessive budget deficits. The Protocol on the Excessive Deficit Procedure provides that EU Radio Frequency Identifications (RFIDs), or smart tags, are small, affordable circuits that communicate with a portable device (the reader) and are attached to goods and other consumer products. Smart tags have certain practical applications including their On March 31, 2011, the U.S.-based Microsoft Corporation filed an antitrust complaint with the European Commission alleging violation of European Union competition rules by Google, on the ground that Google's "pattern of actions" inhibits competition. Google In the aftermath of the earthquake that hit Japan on March 11, 2011, the European Union set in motion a number of measures in an effort to assist the Japanese government to deal with the unfolding Although the threat of the European Union taking legal action against Member State Hungary for its controversial new Media Law has subsided, the European Parliament passed a resolution on March 10, 2011, that criticizes the Law On March 10, 2011, the European Commission published its first Report on Trade and Investment Barriers; it is designed to generate opportunities in exports and investment for European companies and individuals. The economic partners concerned include... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 14 Mar 2011 12:00:00 EDT http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402568_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Prohibition of Bisphenol A in Baby Bottles http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402552_text Workers safety and health - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is the main court defending human rights in Europe and applying the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHRFF). On July 20, 2011, Directive 2009/48/EC on the Safety of Toys, which repeals Directive 88/368/EEC on toy safety rules, entered into force in the European Union. (Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the On July 4, 2011, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Framework Regulation for Macro-Financial Assistance (MFA) to third countries. According to a Commission press release, MFA is "a financing instrument under which exceptional financial The European Union is composed at present of 27 dissimilar tax systems, in which each Member State has its own rules for computing the tax base for associated enterprises. As a result, companies seeking to start On April 29, 2011, the Council of the European Union, within the framework of its multi-annual European e-Justice Action Plan of 2009-2012, adopted its conclusions on the introduction of the European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) and The question of net neutrality, that is, whether access to Internet services or content should be regulated or should be unfettered and provided pursuant to the principle of "best effort," has moved to the forefront of In early April 2011, the European Union adopted Directive 2011/36/EU on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting Its Victims, 2011 (OFFICIAL JOURNALOF THE EUROPEAN UNION (L101) 1 (Apr. 15, 2011)). The Directive One of the essential requirements in order for the European Monetary Union (EMU) to function properly is that the EU members must avoid excessive budget deficits. The Protocol on the Excessive Deficit Procedure provides that EU Radio Frequency Identifications (RFIDs), or smart tags, are small, affordable circuits that communicate with a portable device (the reader) and are attached to goods and other consumer products. Smart tags have certain practical applications including their On March 31, 2011, the U.S.-based Microsoft Corporation filed an antitrust complaint with the European Commission alleging violation of European Union competition rules by Google, on the ground that Google's "pattern of actions" inhibits competition. Google In the aftermath of the earthquake that hit Japan on March 11, 2011, the European Union set in motion a number of measures in an effort to assist the Japanese government to deal with the unfolding Although the threat of the European Union taking legal action against Member State Hungary for its controversial new Media Law has subsided, the European Parliament passed a resolution on March 10, 2011, that criticizes the Law On March 10, 2011, the European Commission published its first Report on Trade and Investment Barriers; it is designed to generate opportunities in exports and investment for European companies and individuals. The economic partners concerned include The European Union Directive 2011/8/EU enters into force on March 1, 2011. It contains an important provision for protecting the health of the most vulnerable group of consumer, infants, because it prohibits the manufacturing of baby... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Thu, 03 Mar 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402552_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Proposed Directive on Airlines' Passenger Data Transfer http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402505_text Terrorism - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establishes that only one EU Member is responsible for handling each asylum application. It also lays In April 2014, the European Parliament adopted a proposal for a Directive regulating various aspects of actions for damages suffered by victims of antitrust violations. The European Commission initially proposed the Directive in June 2013. On May 26, 2014, the Competitiveness Council of the European Union adopted a common position on a draft directive concerning the protection of trade secrets, which was initially proposed by the European Commission in November 2013. On May 19, 2014, Yves Mersch, an executive board member of the European Central Bank, in a speech given to Cash Symposium 2014, in Germany, argued in favor of the superiority of the euro as a In May 2014, the Russian Federation filed a formal complaint before the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the European Union (EU) on the grounds that the EU's energy rules, the so-called "Third Energy Package," constitute discrimination. On April 4, 2014, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "A New Era for Aviation, Opening the Aviation Market to the Civil Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in a Safe and Sustainable Manner" On March 14, 2014, the Council of the European Union endorsed the draft Tobacco Products Directive, following the Parliament's approval of the proposal in February 2014. The Parliament and the Council were instrumental in urging the On April 14, 2014, a new regulation on the authorization of clinical trials was adopted at the European Union level by the Council of the EU. The European Parliament approved the regulation in December 2013. (Press On March 12, 2014, the European Parliament voted on a first reading of a major reform of European Union legislation on personal data protection, which had been proposed by the European Commission in 2012. The proposal On January 29, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to prohibit proprietary trading by banks, that is, trading by a bank on its own account in order to make a profit for the bank. If On January 15, 2014, the European Commission adopted a new communication designed to improve the European Union's (EU) response to terrorist attacks by minimizing radicalization and thus reducing the risk of violent extremist acts and strengthening In January 2014, the European Commission put forward three measures to tackle the issue of hydrocarbon extraction by means of hydraulic fracturing. The Commission's initiative was in response to calls for action raised by interested parties, On January 1, 2015, a revised Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) came into force in the European Union. The GSP, originally established in 1971, basically determines which countries will pay less or no duty when exporting Tax evasion is a serious issue across the European Union; the European Commission estimates that the EU Member States lose close to one trillion euros in revenues annually due to tax evasion and tax avoidanceOn November 28, 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a new directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure. Trade secrets, otherwise known A European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) recently met the threshold of being signed by one million European Union citizens. The ECI is a request that the EU take action to discontinue the use of animals in scientific On October 18, 2013, after lengthy negotiations between the European Union Commissioner on Trade, Karel De Gutch, and the Canadian Trade Minister, Ed Fast, the EU and Canada reached a political accord on signing a Comprehensive On August 16, 2013, the European Union (EU) requested that the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva decide on a dispute between the EU and China arising from anti-dumping duties imposed by China on imports On September 10, 2013, the European Parliament endorsed a draft Regulation on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation. 659 Members voted in favor, with 20 voting against and 28 abstentions. (Tougher Sanctions for Financial In August 2013, Syngenta, a Swiss agrochemical company, and Bayer, a German agrochemical company, initiated legal action before the European Court of Justice, challenging the European Commission's decision to ban the pesticide thiamethoxam, which is used On September 1, 2013, a new European Union Regulation on Biocides entered into force. Biocides are chemicals used to control organisms that are harmful to human and animal health and to the environment, such as pests On August 5, 2013, the European Commission approved a proposed merger between US Airways Group and AMR Corporation, including AMR's main subsidiary American Airlines, Inc. The proposed merger could potentially infringe European Union competition rules if On July 22, 2013, the European Union's 28 foreign ministers, at a meeting held in Brussels and chaired by Catherine Ashton, the EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, added the military wing of the Lebanese organization On July 10, 2013, the European Parliament's Committee on Environment and Public Health endorsed new, stricter rules on cigarette distribution and marketing previously put forward by the European Commission. The new proposed directive is designed to On July 12, 2013, the Council of the European Union endorsed new rules proposed by the European Commission concerning the flight and duty limitations and rest requirements for pilots contained in Regulation No. 3922/1991. (Press Release, On July 1, 2013, Lithuania assumed the rotating Presidency of the European Council for the first time. There is an ambitious agenda to achieve a number of objectives during the six-month period of the Presidency. Highlights On July 9, 2013, the European Union (EU) filed a request with the World Trade Organization (WTO) for consultations with Russia on the Russian government's imposition of a "recycling fee" on imported vehicles. (Press Release, European On July 1, 2013, Croatia, a state belonging to the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and with a population of under five million, officially joined the The June 25, 2013, opinion of the Advocate-General of the European Court of Justice, in which he held that Internet service providers are not required to delete personal data in the absence of a legal provision On June 5, 2013, a press release presented the conclusion of the European Commission's Convergence Report on Latvia that Latvia "has achieved a high degree of sustainable economic convergence with the euro area." Based on the On June 4, 2013, during a summit meeting between the European Union and Russia, representatives of the two sides signed a new agreement on the control of drug precursors. (Press Release, European Commission, Fight Against The Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament has endorsed draft legislation that requires companies involved in gas, oil, and mineral extraction as well as logging, to provide full disclosure of payments made to national governments. In a statement issued on April 30, 2013, Catherine Ashton, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Karel De Gucht,the Commissioner for Trade, expressed the EU's commitment to assisting Bangladeshi authorities On April 24, 2013, Members of the European Parliament (EP) and the Council of Europe reached a provisional agreement to allow national police authorities and Europol officers access to the fingerprints of individuals over the age The current banking crisis in Cyprus sparked debate at the European Union (EU) level as to whether bank depositors should be immune from bail-ins for troubled banks or whether only deposits in excess of 100,000 (about On February 28, 2013, the European Parliament and representatives of the Council of the European Union reached a political agreement to put limits on bankers' annual bonuses and to adopt new rules on bank capital requirements. On February 28, 2013, the European Commission put forward two proposals to introduce two major innovations in the European Union's border control system. The first is the establishment of an Entry/Exit System (EES) to create a On January 1, 2013, Ireland assumed the Presidency of the European Council, a postion that rotates among the European Union (EU) Member States every six months. This is the seventh time that Ireland has held the On January 11, 2013, the Cyber Crime Center (EC3), whose establishment had been planned by the European Commission since 2010, became a reality. The EC3 is located in the European Police Office (Europol) in On December 12, 2012, the European Union (EU) Finance Ministers made progress towards a closer banking union by approving a legislative package designed to establish a single supervisory mechanism (SSM). The SSM will be composed of On December 2, 2012, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive on the accessibility to all individuals of government websites. (Press Release, European Commission, IP 12/1305, Digital Agenda: Commission Proposes Rules to Make On December 11, 2012, the European Union, after several unsuccessful attempts over a period of 30 years, finally succeeded in creating an EU-wide patent, following the European Parliament's approval of a three-part package of legislative measures On November 28, 2012, the European Commission adopted the Annual Growth Survey (AGS), which serves to provide guidance to the European Union (EU) Member States to ensure that their budgetary and economic policies are in line On October 22-24, 2012, representatives of Iceland, Norway, the Faroe Islands, and the European Union met in London to discuss the sustainable management of mackerel In March 2012, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Organized Crime, Corruption, and Money Laundering (COCCML) with the mandate of making recommendations to tackle organized crime across the European Union. On October 1, 2012, On July 24, 2012, the European Commission, in its annual report, released statistics indicating an increase in counterfeit goods entering the European Union. In 2011, national Customs authorities detained close to 115 million products deemed as On July 20, 2012, the European Commission announced that it will soon publish a communication addressing the issue of cloud computing in a comprehensive manner. The communication deals with three major and interrelated issues in that On July 18, 2012, the European Commission requested that the Council of the European Union give the required mandate to open negotiations with Japan for a free trade agreement. (Press Release, IP/12/810, Commission Proposes to On July 4, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) voted against the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) that had been negotiated between the European Union, its Member States, and other countries, including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, On July 1, 2012, Cyprus, itself on the brink of a bailout and still divided, with Turkish forces occupying 37% of its northern territory, assumed the six-month rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union On June 28, 2012, the European Commission published the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Concrete Ways to Reinforce the Fight Against Tax Fraud and Tax Evasion Including in Relation On June 1, 2012, Directive 2012/13/EU on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings entered into force. (2012 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (142/1) (May 22, 2012), EUR-LEX.) Directive 2012/13/EU establishes rules pertaining Based on the European Union (EU) Council Decision No. 2012/279/EU of May 14, 2012 (EURLEX database), the representatives of Member States approved the signing of a partnership and cooperation agreement with Vietnam. (EU States On April 26 and 27, 2012, the Justice and Home Affairs Council of the Council of the European Union convened in Luxembourg, where it adopted a set of conclusions on handling the twin issues of promoting On April 4, 2012, the European Commission referred the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for an opinion on the legality and compatibility of ACTA with certain fundamental rights. The rights On March 23, 2012, the European Commission released some data and information related to the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), which was initially proposed through a directive issued on September 28, 2011. If the FTT is adopted, On March 28, 2012, the European Commission re-introduced a 2010 proposal to create a European Cybercrime Center (ECC), designed to protect the interests of individuals and businesses from ever-increasing cyber threats. (Press Release, European Commission, On February 16, 2012, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) rendered an important judgment on the illegal downloading of songs by Internet users. The ECJ held that online social network sites cannot be forced to adopt A new regulation adopted by the European Parliament on March 15, 2012, establishes rules to settle inheritance disputes if someone dies and his/her heir raises questions about the estate in more than one Member State of On March 8, 2012, the European Union (EU) adopted a new Regulation to ratify the UN Protocol on Firearms. (UN Protocol General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/255, June 8, 2001, UN website.) The Commission had signed the On March 13, 2012, the European Parliament (EP) adopted a resolution on Women in Political Decision-Making Quality and Equality (Resolution (Mar. 13, 2012), European Parliament website.) As the EP explains, the impetus On December 20, 2011, the European Commission came up with a proposal to reform the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism (CPM), established in 2001, "from the current ad-hoc co-ordination to a pre-planned and predictable system," in st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } On January 26, 2012, the European Union and 22 of its member countries signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a controversial pact designed to tighten international controls On January 30, 2012, in the midst of Greece's desperate attempts to avert fiscal default, the European Union (EU) Members except the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic agreed on a new Treaty on On January 17, 2012, President Jose Manuel Barroso of the European Commission (EC) announced the initiation of legal action against Hungary by means of three Letters of Formal Notice, regarding three issues in new Hungarian legislation On December 15, 2011, in response to a request made by Libyan authorities, the European Union adopted a package of assistance for Libya, in an effort to assist civil society and facilitate the stabilization process in It was reported on December 1, 2011, that China's State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) and the European Union's European Patent Office (EPO) had signed an agreement on the use of Chinese-English machine-translations for patents, "in an On December 1, 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution granting its consent to Croatian membership in the European Union, with 564 votes in favor, 38 against, and 32 abstentions. The accession treaty is expected to On November 28, 2011, during their annual summit, which was held in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the European Union and the United States met at the White House and issued a joint declaration. Both partners On November 29, 2011, the European Commission launched a public consultation inviting interested stakeholders, such as museums, libraries, archives, and cultural or customs authorities, to submit their ideas on a possible revision of Directive 1993/7/EEC on On November 21, 2011, the European Union (EU) introduced a proposal to ban shark finning, a widespread practice across the globe that involves the cutting off by fishermen of the fins of sharks while the sharks On October 28, 2011, the European Commission released the findings of two independent evaluations of the European Union's general legal framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs are defined under EU law as those plants or On October 12, 2011, the European Commission published its annual overview of the enlargement policy and the progress made by candidate countries in their efforts to join the European Union. The Report on Turkey is composed On October 18, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) adopted a landmark decision in the case of Oliver Brustle v. Greenpeace e.V. and held that a process that involves the removal of a stem cell On September 20, 2011, the European Commission adopted a communication that establishes the new legislative authority of the Commission, granted by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, to introduce directives regulating what are called Euro-crimes, including fraud, terrorism, On September 7, 2011, following the publication of a green paper and a public consultation, the European Commission announced that it intends to draft a communication on a proposal regulating online gambling. It is anticipated that In May 2011, an agreement was signed between the European Union and Serbia in an effort to strengthen security cooperation between the two partners. The agreement is designed to establish security procedures for exchanging classified information On August 11, 2011, the European Commission allowed Spain to temporarily restrict the access of Romanian workers to its labor market. (2011/503/EU: Commission Decision of 11 August 2011 Authorising Spain to Temporarily Suspend the Application The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is the main court defending human rights in Europe and applying the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHRFF). On July 20, 2011, Directive 2009/48/EC on the Safety of Toys, which repeals Directive 88/368/EEC on toy safety rules, entered into force in the European Union. (Directive 2009/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the On July 4, 2011, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Framework Regulation for Macro-Financial Assistance (MFA) to third countries. According to a Commission press release, MFA is "a financing instrument under which exceptional financial The European Union is composed at present of 27 dissimilar tax systems, in which each Member State has its own rules for computing the tax base for associated enterprises. As a result, companies seeking to start On April 29, 2011, the Council of the European Union, within the framework of its multi-annual European e-Justice Action Plan of 2009-2012, adopted its conclusions on the introduction of the European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) and The question of net neutrality, that is, whether access to Internet services or content should be regulated or should be unfettered and provided pursuant to the principle of "best effort," has moved to the forefront of In early April 2011, the European Union adopted Directive 2011/36/EU on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting Its Victims, 2011 (OFFICIAL JOURNALOF THE EUROPEAN UNION (L101) 1 (Apr. 15, 2011)). The Directive One of the essential requirements in order for the European Monetary Union (EMU) to function properly is that the EU members must avoid excessive budget deficits. The Protocol on the Excessive Deficit Procedure provides that EU Radio Frequency Identifications (RFIDs), or smart tags, are small, affordable circuits that communicate with a portable device (the reader) and are attached to goods and other consumer products. Smart tags have certain practical applications including their On March 31, 2011, the U.S.-based Microsoft Corporation filed an antitrust complaint with the European Commission alleging violation of European Union competition rules by Google, on the ground that Google's "pattern of actions" inhibits competition. Google In the aftermath of the earthquake that hit Japan on March 11, 2011, the European Union set in motion a number of measures in an effort to assist the Japanese government to deal with the unfolding Although the threat of the European Union taking legal action against Member State Hungary for its controversial new Media Law has subsided, the European Parliament passed a resolution on March 10, 2011, that criticizes the Law On March 10, 2011, the European Commission published its first Report on Trade and Investment Barriers; it is designed to generate opportunities in exports and investment for European companies and individuals. The economic partners concerned include The European Union Directive 2011/8/EU enters into force on March 1, 2011. It contains an important provision for protecting the health of the most vulnerable group of consumer, infants, because it prohibits the manufacturing of baby On February 2, 2011, the European Commission made public a proposal for a new European Union directive aimed at fighting serious crime and terrorism through uniform regulation of Passenger Name Record (PNR) sharing between airline carriers... The Global Legal Monitor from the Law Library of Congress covers legal news and developments worldwide. Mon, 07 Feb 2011 12:00:00 EST http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402505_text Global Legal Monitor: European Union: Ratification of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205402480_text Treaties and international agreements/human rights; Civil rights and liberties - On June 26, 2014, the European Commission adopted a proposal to amend EC Regulation No. 343/2003, the Dublin Regulation, which establish