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Summary

South Africa’s Ministry of Transportation and Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) recently added a chapter on remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) to the Civil Aviation Regulations and issued a number of other supplementary documents, including technical standards and aeronautical information circulars.  Under these laws and standards, South Africa permits different forms of RPAS operations: private, commercial, corporate and nonprofit operations. 

While there are some universally applicable rules and restrictions, the level of both technical and operational requirements appears to be in part tied to the form of the operation, with private operation on one side and all the other forms on the other.  For instance, conducting a private operation is only permitted with a Class-1A or Class-1B RPAS, within the operator’s visual line of sight, and at a maximum of 400 feet above ground, rules that are inapplicable to or can be waived for other forms of operations.  Such private operations are exempt from a host of requirements applicable to other forms of operations, including requirements to obtain a letter of approval and a certification of registration, remote pilot license, and RPA operator certificate.  The level of restrictions is also related to the complexity of the operation in question.  Operations in a controlled airspace and beyond visual line-of-sight are subject to tighter restrictions.    

The CAA is the RPAS regulatory agency.  Its powers include the authority to enact aviation regulations, set safety and security standards, issue all required licenses and permits, and develop enforcement mechanisms to ensure compliance with all relevant laws and standards. 

I.  Introduction

South Africa’s Constitution establishes a three-tiered government structure consisting of national, provincial, and local governments that are “distinctive, interdependent and interrelated,” and vested both with legislative and executive authorities.[ 1]  While this means that each level of government enjoys “legislative and executive autonomy of each sphere,” aviation-related matters, including the regulation of remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), are under the exclusive jurisdiction of the national government.[ 2]  However, local laws and authorities may govern aspects of RPA operations.  For instance, the use of a public area as an RPA takeoff and landing strip may require compliance with local laws and obtaining permission from local governments.

This report describes the remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) regulatory landscape, mainly focusing on the various requirements applicable to different uses of RPAS, specifically private, corporate, commercial and nonprofit operations.  It also describes the RPAS regulatory agency and its powers.  

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II.  National Legal Framework

The 2009 Civil Aviation Act[ 3] forms the basis for regulating RPAS.  Based on the regulatory authority accorded to it under the Act (see Part III, below), the Ministry of Transportation and Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) have recently developed regulations, technical standards, technical guidance material, and circulars to govern RPAS. 

Regulations governing RPAS were issued by the Minister of Transportation on May 27, 2015.[ 4]  These regulations, which were issued as an amendment to the 2011 Civil Aviation Regulations,[ 5] now constitute part 101 of such Regulations, and are (when referenced separately) known as the Eighth Amendment of the Civil Aviation Regulations, 2015.[ 6]  Under section 163 of the Act and part 11 of the 2011 Regulations, the Director of Civil Aviation also recently issued technical standards on RPAS known as the South Africa Civil Aviation Technical Standards (SA-CATS).[ 7]  Both took effect on July 1, 2015.[ 8]  In addition, the Director has issued a number of aeronautical information circulars (AICs) applicable to RPAS.[ 9]  Further, the CAA issued technical guidance material, the Technical Guidance Material for RPAS−Part 101, in September 2015.[10]

A. Application

The Civil Aviation Regulations apply to what are known as Class-1 and Class-2 RPA and to owners, operators, pilots and those who maintain such RPA.[11]  An RPA is “an unmanned aircraft which is piloted from a remote pilot station, excluding model aircraft[12] and toy aircraft.”[13]  These classes of RPA are defined in the SA-CATS, including in terms of their weight.  Class-1 and Class-2 RPAs are further divided into subclasses: Class-1A (less than 1.5 kilograms/3.3 pounds), Class-1B (less than 7 kilograms/15.4 pounds), and Class-1C and Class 2A (less than 20 kilograms/44 pounds).[14]  The application of the Regulations does not extend to

  • autonomous unmanned aircraft,[15] unmanned free balloons and their operations, or other types of aircraft that cannot be managed on a real-time basis during flight;

  • aircraft operated in terms of Part 94 of the Civil Aviation Regulations (which addresses the Operation of “Non-type Certificated Aircraft”[16]);

  • model aircraft; and

  • toy aircraft.[17]

Under the Regulations, different uses of RPA are permitted.  RPA may be used for private, commercial, corporate, and nonprofit purposes.[18]

B. Private RPA Operations

A private operation is “the use of an RPA for an individual’s personal and private purpose where there is no commercial outcome, interest or gain.”[19] 

Private operations are subject to specific restrictions.  They may only be conducted with a Class-1A RPA (less than 1.5 kilograms in weight) or Class-1B RPA (less than 7 kilograms in weight), both of which cannot be flown more than 400 feet above the ground.[20]  All private operations must be conducted only in restricted visual line of sight (R-VLOS), specifically, “within 500 meters of the remote pilot and below the height of the highest obstacle within 300 meters of the RPA, in which the remote pilot maintains direct unaided visual contact with the RPA to manage its flight and meet separation and collision avoidance responsibilities.”[21]  In addition, RPA may only be operated over property owned by the operator or other property with the permission of the owner.[22]

The Regulations also impose restrictions on certain uses of RPA.  An RPA may not tow another aircraft, perform aerial or aerobatic displays, or be flown in formation or swarm.[23]  It may not be flown within a 10 kilometer (about 6.2 mile) radius of an airfield, within restricted or prohibited airspace, or above or near a sensitive area, including a nuclear power plant, correctional institution, police station, crime scene, or court.[24]  An RPA may not be operated directly overhead of any person or within a lateral distance of 50 meters (164 feet) from any person.[25]  It may not be used for the purpose of releasing, dispensing, dropping, delivering or deploying of an object or substance.[26]  It may only be used in daylight and under clear weather conditions.[27]  
Private RPA operations are exempt from various rules applicable to other forms of RPA operations.  For instance, rules on the need for approval and registration of an RPA before operation, personnel licensing requirements, and RPA operator certificate and maintenance requirements do not apply to private operations of RPA (for more on these requirements, see Part II(C), below).[28]  They are also exempt from rules governing the conveyance of dangerous goods and safety considerations (for instance, ensuring that an RPA is in a “fit-to-fly condition”).[29]  They are further exempt from regulations on the manner in which flight time is recorded and reported, and on the use of flight logbooks, power reserves, first-aid kits, and hand-held fire extinguishers.[30]

C.  Commercial, Corporate, and Nonprofit Operations

Commercial, corporate, and nonprofit RPA operations are subject to various restrictions.

1. Approval and Registration

An RPA cannot be operated for non-private purposes in South Africa unless the CAA Director has issued the operator an RPA letter of approval (RLA) and a certificate of registration.[31]  In order for the Director to issue an RLA, the applicant must submit

  • documentation regarding the standard to which the RPAS was designed; or

  • equivalent documentation that demonstrates a level of safety acceptable to the Director; or

  • documentation demonstrating system safety as prescribed in Document SA-CATS 101.[32]

An application for an initial approval of an RPA requires the submission of the RPA manufacturer’s operating manual and, for Class-1 and Class-2 operations, submission of the following information about the RPA:

  • 1.1       RPAS type
  • 1.2       RPA structure
  • 1.3       RPA composition
  • 1.4       flight envelope capability
  • 1.5       RPA dimensions/measurements and mass together with drawings
  • 1.6       mass and balance
  • 1.7       payloads (specific or generic)
  • 1.8       use of frequencies
  • 1.9       remote pilot station
  • 1.10      ground support equipment
  • 1.11      flight recovery system.[33]

The submission must also include the following information regarding performance characteristics of the RPA:

  • 2.1       maximum altitude
  • 2.2       maximum endurance
  • 2.3       maximum range
  • 2.4       Airspeed (take-off, cruise, landing, stall, maximum)
  • 2.5       maximum rate of climb
  • 2.6       maximum rate of descent
  • 2.7       maximum bank angle
  • 2.8       turn rate limits
  • 2.9       propulsion system (such as engine/motor, fuel, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, gas, solar).[34]

2. Identification Marks

An RPA registered in South Africa is considered to have South African nationality and it must be engraved with an identification plate including its nationality and registration marks.[35]  The SA-CATS include additional particulars on the required identification plates, display of marks (including the appropriate colors and fonts), and location, as well as the allocation and specification of marks.[36]

3. Personnel Licensing

A valid remote pilot license (RPL) is required for commercial, corporate, and nonprofit operations of an RPA.[37]  There are three categories of an RPL: Remote Pilot License (Aeroplane) (RPL(A)), Remote Pilot License (Helicopter) (RPL(H)), and Remote Pilot License (Multi-rotor) (RPL(MR)).[38]  There are also three different ratings of an RPL: visual line-of-sight (VLOS) operations; extended visual line-of-sight (E-VLOS)[39] operations; and beyond visual line-of-sight (B-VLOS)[40] operations.[41]  There are a number of requirements for obtaining an RPL, including the following:

  1. An applicant should not be less than 18 years of age.

  2. Applicants must hold current medical assessments.

  3. An ATO [aviation training organization] for training must be identified.

  4. Foreign theoretical training will be approved and validated (ASK).

  5. Only successful completion will be accepted.

  6. Applicants must pass the RPL practical assessment.

  7. Applicants must also pass Radiotelephony Examination.

  8. Achieved English Language Proficiency (ELP) level 4 or higher.

  9. All applications must be submitted to the CAA.[42]

An RPL is issued for a two-year period at the end of which the holder must submit to a “revalidation check” before the RPL can be renewed.[43]

4. RPAS Operator Certificate

An RPAS operator certificate (ROC) is also required for commercial, corporate and nonprofit operations of an RPA.[44]  For a commercial operator, obtaining an air service license under the relevant law[45] is one of the conditions to getting an ROC.[46]  The ROC application process is said to follow the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) five-step process: pre-application, formal application, document evaluation, demonstration and inspection, and certification.[47]  An ROC is issued for a one-year period at the end of which the holder of the certificate must apply for a renewal.[48]

An ROC holder has various responsibilities.  The ROC holder is required to develop an operations manual to be approved by the Director.[49]  The manual must include the “type and scope of operations, including the manner in which each type of RPAS and operation will be safely conducted,” and any change to the type or scope of operations requires the prior approval of the Director.[50]  The holder must also “establish a safety management system commensurate with the size of the organisation or entity and the complexity of its operations.”[51]  This must include

a process to identify actual and potential safety hazards and assess the associated risks, . . . a process to develop and implement remedial action necessary to maintain an acceptable level of safety . . . [and] . . . provision for continuous and regular assessment of the appropriateness and effectiveness of safety management activities.[52] 

Further, the ROC holder is required to take various security measures, including conducting background checks and periodic criminal record checks on personnel that work with RPAS.[53]  Further, the holder must always carry adequate third-party liability insurance.[54]

5. RPAS Operational Restrictions

There are various restrictions applicable to commercial, corporate, and nonprofit operations of RPAS.  Some of these restrictions are summarized below:

a. Public Roads

Use of public roads as a takeoff and landing ground is not permitted unless the operator is an ROC holder and such use has been approved by the Director and the relevant local authority.[55]

b. Controlled Airspace

RPAS may be operated in controlled airspace only by an ROC holder and upon the approval of the Director.[56]  The director may issue such approval only in a visual meteorological condition (VMC) in an airfield traffic zone (ATZ) and control zone (CTR) below 400 ft.[57]  In addition, in order for an RPA to be used in an operation within an ATZ or CTR, it must

  • Be fitted with a mode C or S transponder capable of displaying the unique squawk code issued to them, unless otherwise exempted by the Director and/or the applicable ATSU or CAMU according to an FUA application;

  • Be fitted with an altimeter, capable of displaying to the operator on the RPS, the RPA’s altitude above ground level, corrected for ambient pressure (QNH);

  • Be fitted with a functioning strobe light or lights, installed in such a way that such strobe lights are visible from both below and above the RPA; at all azimuth angles, and 

  • In the instance of an aeroplane, be fitted with functioning navigation lights.[58]

All of the abovementioned components must be “serviceable and functioning” during the entire period of the operation and the failure of one of them would result in the termination of the operation.[59] 

In addition to the above technical requirements imposed on the RPA, operation in an ATZ or CTR requires an ROC holder to fulfill certain operational requirements.[60]

c. Objects or Substances

The Civil Aviation Regulations prohibit the use of an RPA for releasing, dispensing, dropping, delivering, or deploying any object or substance unless it is done by an ROC holder and with the Director’s approval.[61]

d. General Restrictions

This category includes various restrictions.  For instance, operators are banned from using RPAS to tow other aircraft, perform aerial or aerobatic displays, or for the purpose of flying them in formation or swarm.[62]  In addition, unless done by an ROC holder and with the Directors approval, an RPAS operator is prohibited from flying an RPAS

  • above 400 feet above ground;

  • within a 10 kilometers radius of an airfield;

  • within restricted or prohibited airspace; or

  • near or above sensitive areas, including a nuclear power plant, prison, police station, crime scene, or court.[63]


e. Beyond Visual Line of Sight

A B-VLOS operation is permitted only for ROC holders approved for such operations by the Director.[64]  The Director may approve such operations only if the operator meets certain requirements, which vary depending on whether the operation is in or outside of a controlled airspace.[65]  If the intended operation is outside a controlled airspace, the operator must show compliance with the following technical requirements:

  • that the APA will only be operated using command inputs;

  • has met the requirements prescribed in Technical Standard 101.02.2 [see Part II(C)(1), above];

  • that the APA has the ability to remain clear from obstacles and any other hazards and can take appropriate action to execute collision avoidance from such obstacles or other aircraft where necessary. This ability shall be applicable for normal and lost/degraded C2 links unless:

    • (aa)    The area is void of other air traffic; or

    • (bb)   The operation occurs in specifically delimited or segregated airspace; or

    • (cc)    Any other mitigation is in place to avoid other aircraft, obstacles or any hazards.

  • the C2 data link frequency to be used for data link is deemed appropriate by the Director; and

  • he C2 performance requirements as specified in Technical Standard 101.05.8 (this relates to command and control link operational requirements) are acceptable to the Director.[66]

In addition, the operator must demonstrate operational capabilities, including the ability to command the RPA to “follow a predetermined course or group of way-point inputs.”[67]

For operations inside a controlled airspace, the operator must fulfill additional technical requirements (see Part II(C)(5)(b), above).[68]

f. Operation in Vicinity of People, Property, or Public Roads

Operating an RPA directly overhead or a lateral distance of 50 meters from any person is permitted only by an ROC holder and with the approval of the Director.[69]  The same rule applies to the operation of an RPAS in the vicinity of structures or buildings; however, in this instance it is also possible to operate an RPA by simply obtaining the permission of the owner of the structure or building in question.[70] 

Operating an RPA along the length of a public road or at a distance of less than 50 m from a public road in use is permitted only for an ROC holder upon obtaining the Director’s approval.[71]

g. Radio Communication Requirements

All operations of RPAS (R-VLOS, VLOS, E-VLOS, and B-VLOS) must be conducted within a radio line of sight (RLOS).[72]  An RLOS is a direct, electronic, point-to-point contact between a transmitter and receiver.[73]  The Regulations require that “the air-band radio shall have the required output and be configured in such a way that the range, strength of transmission and quality of communication extends beyond the furthest likely position of the RPA from the pilot.”  Additional requirements may apply depending on the specific operation in question.[75]

D.  Sale and Labeling

The requirements applicable to the sale or resale of RPAS are limited to labeling.  The Regulations state that “[n]o RPA shall be sold within the Republic unless the seller, by way of a packaging label, or in the case of the resale thereof, by way of written notification, notified the buyer of the requirements as prescribed in Document SA-CATs101.”[76]  This is applicable to all RPA regardless of their intended use.

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III.  National Enforcement Agency

The CAA is the country’s RPAS regulatory agency.  Its stated objectives include overseeing “the functioning and development of the civil aviation industry” and issuing regulations mandated by the Civil Aviation Act.[77]  To that end, the CAA has various functions, including

  1. developing and promoting appropriate, clear and concise regulatory requirements, and technical aviation safety and security standards;

  2. developing effective enforcement strategies to ensure compliance with aviation safety and security standards;

  3. issuing certificates, licences, registrations and permits; [and]

    . . . .

  1. h. formulating and approving supporting regulations and technical standards through a consultative process with the aviation industry . . . .[78]

The standards, technical guidance material, and circulars described above were all issued by the CAA on the basis of this authority.

It appears that functions, duties, and powers of the CAA are shared between the Civil Aviation Authority Board and the Director.  The Director, who is appointed by the Minister of Transportation for a renewable five-year term, is the head of the CAA and in charge of its administration.  The Director is responsible for carrying out the functions of the CAA.  The Board, which consists of the Director and seven other members appointed by the Minister, has various responsibilities including matters relating to corporate governance, human resources, and conditions of employment and remuneration.

The Director answers to the Minister with regard to matters relating to civil aviation safety and security and he is responsible to the Board on matters under the Board’s purview.  Members of the Board are restricted from interfering in the aviation safety and security oversight functions of the Director.

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IV.  Local Regulatory Framework

Every operation that needs the approval of the Director may require the approval of local authorities.  For instance, as noted above, the use of a public road as a takeoff or landing ground requires necessary permissions from local authorities.  In addition, all local laws that relate to various aspects of RPAS operation are applicable.  No specific local laws governing the use of RPAS were located, however.

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Prepared by Hanibal Goitom
Foreign Law Specialist
April 2016



[1] S. Afr. Const., 1996, § 40, http://www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/images/a108-96.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/BXV2-8PUV; Structure and Functions of the South African Government, South African Government, http://www.gov.za/node/ 537988 (last visited Apr. 4, 2015), archived at https://perma.cc/368Z-5N8Q.

[2] S. Afr. Const. scheds. 4 & 5; Victoria Bronstein, Legislative Competence, in Constitutional Law of South Africa 15-i, 15-1 (2d ed. 2012).

[3] Civil Aviation Act 13 of 2009, 4 Butterworths Statutes of South Africa (updated through 2015), available at http://www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/32266_616.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/8SPN-FNFA.

[4] Department of Transport, Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment), 2015, Government Notice R444/2015 (May 27, 2015), available at http://www.caa.co.za/Legal%20Documents/PART%20101%20 GAZETTE.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/EM7G-7JZL.

[ 5] Department of Transport, Civil Aviation Regulations, 2011 (June 2012), available on the Southern African Power Flying Association (SAPFA) website, at http://www.sapfa.org.za/sites/default/files/CIVIL_AVIATION_ REGULATIONS-2011.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/5BJM-KFLP.

[6] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) §§ 4 & 5.   

[7] CAA, South Africa Civil Aviation Technical Standards 101 (SA-CATS 101) (date of operation, July 1, 2015), http://www.caa.co.za/Legal%20Documents/SA-CATS%20101%20approval.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/2FR4-ST74.

[8] Id.; Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 5.

[9] CAA, Remote Pilot License: Training, Examination and Application For RPL Requirements, AIC Series C, 007/2015 (July 23, 2015), http://www.caa.co.za/RPAS%20AICs/AIC%20007-2015.pdf, archived at https://perma. cc/N5QP-6PTK; CAA, Aviation Training Organisations Conducting Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) Training, AIC Series A, 008/2015 (July 23, 2015), http://www.caa.co.za/RPAS%20AICs/ AIC%20008-2015.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/WU4H-34DZ; CAA, Publication in Terms of Regulation 11.04.4(3) of the Full Particulars of a General Exemption Granted by the Director of Civil Aviation from the Requirements of Part 101 Pertaining to Private Operations, AIC Series A, 009/2015 (July 23, 2015), http://www.caa.co.za/RPAS%20AICs/ AIC%20009-2015.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/B9G5-S2ZW.

[10] CAA, Technical Guidance Material (TGM) for RPAS−Part 101 (Sept. 30, 2015), http://www.caa.co.za/RPAS%20 TGM/TGM%20for%20RPAS%20PART%20101.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/SLX6-ZRRV.

[11] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.01.1. 

[12] A “model aircraft” is
a heavier-than-air aircraft of limited dimensions, with or without a propulsion device, unable to carry a human being and to be used for competition, sport or recreational purposes rather than unmanned aeronautical vehicles (UAV) developed for commercial or governmental, scientific, research or military purposes, and not exceeding the specifications as set by the Federation Aeronautique Internationale as listed in Document SA-CATS 24.  Civil Aviation Regulations, 2011, § 1.01.1.

[13] Id.  A “toy aircraft” is “a product falling under the definition of aircraft which is designed or intended for use in play by children.”  Id.

[14] SA-CATS 101 § 101.01.5.

[15] This is “an unmanned aircraft that does not allow intervention in the management of the flight.”  Civil Aviation Regulations, 2011, § 1.01.1.

[16] A non-type certificated aircraft is
any aircraft that does not qualify for the issue of a certificate of airworthiness in terms of Part 21 and shall include any type of certificated aircraft that has been scrapped, of which the original identification plate should have to be removed and returned to the applicable aviation authority and is rebuilt as a full-scale replica.  Id.

[17] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.01.1.

[18] Id.

[19] Id. § 1.01.1

[20] Id. §§ 101.01.2 & 101.05.10; SA-CATS 101 § 1.

[21] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) §§ 1.01.1 & 101.01.2; Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems: RPAS Private Operations, CAA, http://www.caa.co.za/Pages/RPAS/Private%20Operations.aspx (last visited Apr. 5, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/DK5C-XEUQ.

[22] SA-CATS 101.01.7.

[23] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.05.10.

[24] Id.

[25] Id. § 101.05.12.

[26] Id. § 101.05.4.

[27] Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems: RPAS Private Operations, supra note 21.

[28] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.01.2.

[29] Id. §§ 101.05.5 & 101.05.9.

[30] Id. §§ 101.05.21–101.05.25; Publication in Terms of Regulation 11.04.4(3) of the Full Particulars of a General Exemption, supra note 9.

[31] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) §§ 101.02.1 & 101.02.4.

[32] Id. §§ 101.02.1 & 101.02.2.

[33] SA-CATS 101 § 101.02.2.

[34] Id.

[35] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) §§ 101.02.4; SA-CATS 101 § 101.02.4.

[36] SA-CATS 101 § 101.02.4.

[37] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.03.1; CAA, Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (Part 101) Regulations Workshops: RPAS Regulations (Part 101) Compliance Process Flow 108, http://www.caa.co.za/Documents/RPAS/Part%20101%20-%20RPAS%20Workshops.pdf (last visited Apr. 1, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/28WY-S56B.

[38] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.03.1.

[39] This is “an operation below 400 feet above ground level in which an observer, maintains direct and unaided visual contact with the remotely piloted aircraft at a distance not exceeding 1,000 meters from the pilot.”  Civil Aviation Regulations, 2011, § 1.01.1.

[40] This is “an operation in which the remote pilot cannot maintain direct unaided visual contact with the remotely piloted aircraft to manage its flight and to meet separation and collision avoidance responsibilities visually.”  Id.

[41] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.03.1.

[42] Id.; Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems: Pilot Licensing and Instructor Rating, CAA, http://www.caa.co. za/Pages/RPAS/RPAS%20pilot%20licensing.aspx (last visited Apr. 14, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/7TWT-R2BS; Remote Pilot License: Training, Examination and Application for RPL Requirements, supra note 9; SA-CATS 101 § 101.03.2.

[43] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.03.6.

[44] Id. § 101.04.1

[45] Air Service Licensing Act No. 115 of 1990 (assented June 28, 1990; commenced July 1, 1991), available on the Comair Limited website, at https://www.comair.co.za/Media/Comair/files/level-playing-field/Air-Services-Licensing-Act-1990.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/HRQ6-X98L.

[46] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.04.1; Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems: RPAS Operators Certificate, CAA (2016), http://www.caa.co.za/Pages/RPAS/RPAS%20operators%20certificate.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/S8WH-FGEB.

[47] CAA, supra note 37, Subpart 4, RPAS Operators’ Certificate, at 83–85; Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems: Pilot Licensing and Instructor Rating, supra note 42.

[48] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.04.3.

[49] This is “a manual containing Procedures, instructions and guidance for use by operational personnel in the execution of their duties.”  Civil Aviation Regulations, 2011, § 1.01.1 & Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.04.5.

[50] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.04.5.

[51] Id. § 101.04.7.

[52] Id.

[53] Id. § 101.04.8.

[54] Id. § 101.04.12.

[55] Id. § 101.05.2.

[56] Id. § 101.05.3.

[57] Id.

[58] SA-CATS § 101.05.3.

[59] Id.

[60] Id.

[61] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.05.4.

[62] Id. § 101.05.10.

[63] Id.

[64] Id. § 101.05.11.

[65] Id.; SA-CATS § 101.05.11.

[66] SA-CATS § 101.05.11, as referenced in Civil Aviation Regulations § 101.05.11.

[67] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.05.11; SA-CATS § 101.05.11.

[68] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.05.11.

[69] Id. § 101.05.12. 

[70] Id.

[71] Id. § 101.05.15.

[72] TGM § 6.3.1; SA-CATS § 1.

[73] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 1.01.1

[74] Id. § 101.05.16.

[75] Id.

[76] Id. § 101.01.5.

[77] Civil Aviation Act § 72.

[73] Id. § 73(1)(a)–(c), (h).

[79] Id. §§ 85 & 86.

[80] Id. § 87.

[81] Id. §§ 76 & 77.

[82] Id. § 86.

[83] Id. § 76.

[84] TGM § 7.

[85] Civil Aviation Regulations (Eighth Amendment) § 101.05.2.

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Last Updated: 07/22/2016