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In recent years, parliaments around the world have enhanced their websites in order to improve access to legislative information and other parliamentary resources. Innovative features allow constituents and researchers to locate and utilize detailed information on laws and lawmaking in various ways. These include tracking tools and alerts, apps, the use of open data technology, and different search functions. In some cases, information on more than one website is provided where separate sites have been established for different chambers of the national parliament.

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Summary

In recent years, parliaments around the world have enhanced their websites in order to improve access to legislative information and other parliamentary resources. Innovative features allow constituents and researchers to locate and utilize detailed information on laws and lawmaking in various ways. These include tracking tools and alerts, apps, the use of open data technology, and different search functions. In order to demonstrate some of the developments in this area, staff from the Global Legal Research Directorate of the Law Library of Congress surveyed the official parliamentary websites of fifty countries from all regions of the world, plus the website of the European Parliament. In some cases, information on more than one website is provided where separate sites have been established for different chambers of the national parliament, bringing the total number of individual websites surveyed to seventy.

While the information on the parliamentary websites is primarily in the national language of the particular country, around forty of the individual websites surveyed were found to provide at least limited information in one or more other languages. The European Parliament website can be translated into any of the twenty-four official languages of the members of the European Union.

All of the parliamentary websites included in the survey have at least basic browse tools that allow users to view legislation in a list format, and that may allow for viewing in, for example, date or title order. All of the substantive websites also enable searching, often providing a general search box for the whole site at the top of each page as well as more advanced search options for different types of documents. Some sites provide various facets that can be used to further narrow searches.

Around thirty-nine of the individual websites surveyed provide users with some form of tracking or alert function to receive updates on certain documents (including proposed legislation), parliamentary news, committee activities, or other aspects of the website. This includes the ability to subscribe to different RSS feeds and/or email alerts.

The ability to watch live or recorded proceedings of different parliaments, including debates within the relevant chamber as well as committee hearings, is a common feature of the parliamentary websites surveyed. Fifty-eight of the websites surveyed featured some form of video, including links to dedicated YouTube channels, specific pages where users can browse and search for embedded videos, and separate video services or portals that are linked to or viewable from the main site. Some countries also make videos available on dedicated mobile-friendly sites or apps, including Denmark, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, and New Zealand.

In total, apps containing parliamentary information are provided in just fourteen of the countries surveyed. In comparison, the parliamentary websites of thirty countries are available in mobile-friendly formats, enabling easy access to information and different functionalities using smartphones and tablets.

The table also provides information on some of the additional special features available on the surveyed websites. Examples include dedicated sites or pages that provide educational information about the parliament for children (Argentina, El Salvador, Germany, Israel, Netherlands, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey); calendar functions, including those that allow users to save information to their personal calendars or otherwise view information about different types of proceedings or events (available on at least twenty websites); and open data portals or other features that allow information to be downloaded in bulk for reuse or analysis, including through the use of APIs (application programming interfaces) (at least six countries).

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Argentina

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Congress of the Argentine Nation (Congreso de la Nación Argentina): http://www.congreso.gob.ar/[1]

(general information on the legislative branch, the legislative process, and the Palace of Congress; links to both houses of Congress)

Spanish

Yes[2]

No

No

No

No

No

Children’s Congress site[3]

Senado (Senate): http://www.senado.gov.ar/[4]

(bills, debates, committee reports)

Spanish

Yes[5]

Yes[6]

No[7]

Yes[8]

Yes

No

 

Cámara de Diputados (Chamber of Deputies): http://www.hcdn.gob.ar/[9]

(bills, debates, statistics, parliamentary law journal)

Spanish

Yes[10]

Yes[11]

No[12]

Yes[13]

Yes

No

 

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Armenia

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Azgayin Zhoghov (National Assembly): http://parliament.am/[14]

(bills, debates, acts, news, research)

Armenian; limited information in Russian, English, French[15]

Yes[16]

Yes[17]

No[18]

Yes[19]

Yes

No

Calendar with links to other information[20]

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Australia

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Parliament: http://www.aph.gov.au/[21]

(bills, debates (Hansard), journals, committee reports, research)

English

Yes[22]

Yes[23]

Yes[24]

Yes[25]

Yes

No

Calendar[26]

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Austria

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Parlament (Parliament): https://www.parlament.gv.at/[27]

(members, bills, debates, initiatives, petitions, committees, parliament explained, visit information, service)

German English French Spanish Italian

 

Other languages[28]

Easy Language[29]

Sign Language[30]

Yes[31]

Yes[32]

Yes[33]

Yes[34]

Yes

Yes[35]

Calendar[36]

Personalized website[37]

Online signing of petitions[38]

API[39]

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Belgium

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Chambre des représentants (Chamber of Representatives): http://www.lachambre.be/kvvcr/
index.cfm?language=fr
[40]

(bills, debates, motions, committee reports)

French

Dutch

Yes[41]

Yes[42]

No

Yes[43]

No

No

 

Sénat (Senate): http://www.senate.be/www/?MIval=/index_senate&LANG=fr[44]

(bills, debates, motions, committee reports)

French

Dutch

Yes[45]

Yes[46]

No

Yes[47]

No

No

Calendar[48]

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Brazil

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Câmara dos Deputados (Chamber of Deputies):

http://www2.camara.leg.br/[49]

(bills, debates, committee sessions, official gazettes, research)

Portuguese

Yes[50]

Yes[51]

Yes[52]

Yes[53]

Yes

No

Calendar[54]

Senado (Senate): http://www12.senado.leg.br
/hpsenado
[55]

(bills, debates, committee sessions, official gazettes, research)

Portuguese

Yes[56]

Yes[57]

Yes[58]

Yes[59]

Yes

No

Calendar[60]

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Bulgaria

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Narodno sŭbranie (National Assembly): http://www.parliament.bg/[61]

(announcements, plenary sittings, bills, journals, debates, laws, multimedia)

Bulgarian

English[62]

Yes[63]

Yes[64]

No

Yes[65]

Yes

No

Official gazette[66]

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Canada

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

House of Commons: https://www.ourcommons.ca/en[67]

(bills, debates (Hansard), journals, committee reports)

English French[68]

Yes[69]

Yes[70]

Yes[71]

Yes[72]

Yes[73]

No

Live view of House proceedings[74]

Calendar[75]

Open data[76]

Senate of Canada: https://sencanada.ca/en[77]

(bills, debates (Hansard), journals, committee reports)

English French

Yes[78]

Yes[79]

Yes[80]

Yes[81]

Yes[82]

No

Calendar[83]

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China

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (National People’s Congress): http://www.npc.gov.cn/[84]

(leaders’ activities, decisions, laws and regulations)

Simplified Chinese; some English[85]

Yes[86]

Yes[87]

No

Yes[88]

Yes[89]

No

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Denmark

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Folketinget (Parliament): http://www.ft.dk/[90]

(debates, committee reports, bills)

Danish; some information in English[91]

Yes[92]

Yes[93]

Yes[94]

Yes[95]

Yes[96]

Yes[97]

 

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Egypt

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Majlis al-Nuwwāb (Parliament): http://www.parliament.gov.eg
/home/
[98]

(agenda, hearings, news, and laws)

Arabic

Yes[99]

Yes[100]

No

No

No

No

 

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El Salvador

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Asamblea Legislativa (Legislative Assembly): http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/[101]

(legislative agenda, legislation, research)

Spanish

Yes[102]

Yes[103]

Yes[104]

Yes[105]

No

No

Educational portal for children[106]

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European Union

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

European Parliament: http://www.europarl.europa
.eu/portal
[107]

(legislation, official documents, parliamentary research papers, parliamentary and committee debates)[108]

in 24 official languages[109]

Yes[110]

Yes[111]

Yes[112]

Yes[113]

Yes[114]

No[115]

Table of contents[116] Research service[117]

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Finland

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Eduskunta (Parliament): http://www.eduskunta.fi[118]

(bills, committee reports,[119] debates, calendar, links to finalized laws)

Finnish
Swedish English

Yes[120]

Yes[121]

Yes[122]

Yes[123]

No

No

 

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France

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Assemblée nationale (National Assembly): http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/[124]

(bills, debates, committee reports, research)

French

Yes[125]

Yes[126]

Yes[127]

Yes[128]

Yes[129]

No

Calendar[130]

Sénat (Senate): http://www.senat.fr/[131]

(bills, debates, committee reports, research)

French
English
German
Spanish
Portuguese
Italian
Arabic
Chinese
Russian
Turkish

Yes[132]

Yes[133]

Yes[134]

Yes[135]

No

No

Calendar[136]

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Germany

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Bundestag (Parliament): http://www.bundestag.de/[137]

(members, general information on the parliament, committees, EU and international affairs, documents [bills, debates, reports], media center, visit information, service)

German English French Arabic[138]
Easy Language[139]
Sign Language[140]

Yes[141]

Yes[142]

Yes[143]

Yes[144]

Yes

Yes[145]

Calendar[146]

Virtual assistant[147]

Web archive[148]

Sites for teens and children[149]

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Guyana

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Parliament: http://parliament.gov.gy/[150]

(links to constitutions, standing orders, bills, acts of Parliament, parliamentary debates, chamber notes, press releases, publications, and information on parliamentarians and committees)

English

Yes[151]

Yes[152]

No

Yes[153]

Yes

No

Chamber business[154]

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Iceland

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Althingi (Parliament): http://www.althingi.is/[155]

(debates, committee reports, passed legislation)[156]

Icelandic; some Danish[157] and English[158]

Yes[159]

Yes[160]

Yes[161]

Yes[162]

Yes

No

 

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India

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Lok Sabha (House of the People): http://loksabha.nic.in/[163]

(members’ information, bills, parliamentary business, debates, questions, committee reports)

English
Hindi[164]

Yes[165]

Yes[166]

No

Yes[167]

No

No[168]

 

Rajya Sabha (Council of States): http://rajyasabha.nic.in/[169]

(members’ information, bills, parliamentary business, debates, questions, committee reports)

English

Yes[170]

Yes[171]

No

Yes[172]

No

No

 

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Indonesia

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (House of Representatives): http://www.dpr.go.id/[173]

(bills, laws, news, agenda, ministerial and presidential regulations)

Indonesian; limited information in English[174]

No

Yes[175]

Yes[176]

Yes[177]

Yes

No

Calendar[178]

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Iran

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Majles-e Shorā-ye Eslāmī-ye Īrān (Parliament of the Islamic Republic of Iran): http://www.Majlis.ir[179]

(web portal linking to the websites below)

Persian

No

No

No

No

No

No

 

Markaz-e Pazhūhesh’hā-ye Majles (Parliament Research Center): http://rc.majlis.ir/fa[180]

(news, research center information, Parliament information, laws, legislation, speeches, digital library, periodicals, opinion polls, publications)

Persian; limited information in English[181]

Yes[182]

Yes[183]

No

No

Yes[184]

Yes[185]

 

Pāīgāh-ye Eṭelā’-ye Rasānī-ye Majles (Parliament Information Database): http://www.parliran.ir[186]

(news, representatives, parliamentary committees of friendship [with other countries], caucuses, commissions, public session agenda, introduction to the Parliament, laws, legislation)

Persian

Yes[187]

Yes[188]

Yes[189]

No

No

No

 

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Ireland

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Oreachtas (National Parliament): http://www.oireachtas.ie/
parliament/
[190]

(bills, legislation, debates, committee reports, standing orders, research publications)

English
Irish Gaelic

Yes[191]

Yes[192]

Yes[193]

Yes[194]

Yes

Yes[195]

Calendar[196]

Download of daily and hourly video[197]

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Israel

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Knesset (Parliament): http://main.knesset.gov.il/Pages
/default.aspx
[198]

(comprehensive website in Hebrew includes Knesset news; daily events; legislation [text of bills, status of legislation]; link to National Legislative Database;[199] committee schedules; parliamentary debates; Knesset Channel broadcasts; reports of the Knesset Information and Research Center; press releases; etc.)

Hebrew; limited information in English,[200] Arabic,[201] and Russian[202]

Yes[203]

Yes[204]

No

Yes[205]

Yes

Yes

Youth site[206]

Accessibility for vision-impaired person[207]

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Italy

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Parlamento Italiano (Italian Parliament): http://www.parlamento
.it/home
[208]

Italian

Yes[209]

No

No

No

No

No

Access to balance sheets[210]

Links to legislative portal, educational platform, etc.[211]

Senato (Senate): http://www.senato.it/home[212]

(Parliamentary business, European and international affairs, relations with the public)

Italian[213]
English[214]

Yes[215]

Yes[216]

Yes[217]

Yes[218]

Yes[219]

No[220]

TV channel[221]

Camera dei deputati (Chamber of Deputies): http://www.camera.it/leg17/1[222]

(deputies and organs, works, documentation, communications, information on Chamber of Deputies, Europe, international)

Italian[223]
English[224]
French[225]

Yes[226]

Yes[227]

Yes[228]

Yes[229]

Yes[230]

No

TV channel[231]

Facebook[232]

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Japan

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Shugiin (House of Representatives): http://www.shugiin.go.jp/
internet/index.nsf
/html/index.htm
[233]

(schedules, committee information, member information, minutes, bills, etc.)

Japanese; limited information in English

Yes[234]

Yes[235]

No

Yes[236]

No

No

 

Sangiin (House of Councillors): http://www.sangiin.go.jp/[237]

(schedules, committee information, member information, minutes, bills, etc.)

Japanese; limited information in English

Yes[238]

Yes[239]

No

Yes[240]

No

No

 

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Latvia[241]

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Saeima (Assembly): http://www.saeima.lv/[242]

(bills, debates, acts, news)

Latvian; limited information in English, French[243]

Yes[244]

Yes[245]

Yes[246]

Yes[247]

Yes[248]

No

Calendar with committee agendas[249]

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Lebanon

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Majlis al-Nuwwāb (Parliament): https://www.lp.gov.lb/[250]

(bills, debates, committee reports, research)

Arabic

Yes[251]

Yes[252]

No

No

Yes

No

Calendars[253]

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Marshall Islands

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Nitijela (Parliament): https://www.rmiparliament
.org/cms/
[254]

(bills, resolutions, journals, acts)

English[255]

Yes

Yes[256]

No

Yes[257]

No

No

 

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Mexico

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Senado (Senate): http://www.senado.gob.mx/[258]

(agenda, bills, debates, research)

 

Spanish

Yes[259]

Yes[260]

Yes[261]

Yes[262]

Yes

No

 

Cámara de Diputados (House of Representatives): http://www.diputados.gob.mx/[263]

(agenda, bills, debates, research)

Spanish

Yes[264]

Yes[265]

No

Yes[266]

Yes

Yes[267]

Podcast streaming platform[268] Handicap access[269]

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Netherlands[270]

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Staten-Generaal (The States General) (bicameral legislature): http://www.staten-generaal.nl/[271]

(annual reports, joint assemblies, special joint meetings, verbatim reports of inaugurations, related laws)

Dutch; limited information in English[272]

Yes[273]

Yes[274]

Yes[275]

Yes[276]

No

Yes[277]

Read-aloud feature[278]

Tweede Kamer (House of Representatives): https://www.tweedekamer.nl/[279]

(chamber documents
[Kamerstukken], including interpellations, amendments, plenary and committee meetings, voting results, committee decision lists, motions, and bills; work of the chamber, including House Rules)

Dutch; limited information in English[280]

Yes[281]

Yes[282]

Yes[283]

Yes[284]

Yes[285]

Yes[286]

Open data portal[287] API[288] Lobbyists register[289]

Eerste Kamer (Senate): https://www.eerstekamer.nl
/home
[290]

(chamber documents including bills, interpellations, written questions, motions, commitments, petitions)

Dutch; limited information in English[291]

Yes[292]

Yes[293]

Yes[294]

Yes[295]

No

Yes[296]

Agenda[297] Read-aloud feature[298] Interactive seating chart[299]

EU activities website[300] Education[301]

Third Chamber[302]

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New Zealand

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Parliament: http://www.parliament.nz/[303]

(bills, debates (Hansard), committee reports, parliamentary papers, research)

English; limited information in Māori[304]

Yes[305]

Yes[306]

Yes[307]

Yes[308]

No

Yes[309]

Calendar[310]

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Nicaragua

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Asamblea Nacional (National Assembly): http://www.asamblea.gob.ni/[311]

(bills, legislation, debates, research, committees, legislative calendar)

Spanish; machine translation available[312]

Yes[313]

Yes[314]

Yes[315]

Yes[316]

No

No

 

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Nigeria

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

National Assembly: http://nass.gov.ng/[317]

(news, parliamentary documents, Hansard, research, acts, and bills) 

English

Yes[318]

Yes[319]

Yes[320]

Yes[321]

Yes

No

 

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Northern Mariana Islands

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Commonwealth Legislature (House and Senate): http://www.cnmileg.gov.mp/
senate.asp
[322]

http://www.cnmileg.gov.mp/
house.asp
[323]

(bills, resolutions, journals, public laws)

English

Yes

Yes[324]

No

No[325]

No

No

 

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Norway

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Stortinget (Parliament): https://www.stortinget.no/no/[326]

(debates, committee reports, bills, historic material)

Norwegian (Bokmal and Nynorsk); limited information in English[327]

Yes[328]

Yes[329]

Yes[330]

Yes[331]

Yes

No

Flickr[332]

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Panama

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Asamblea Nacional (National Assembly): http://www.asamblea.gob.pa/[333]

(bills, debates, research)

Spanish

Yes[334]

Yes[335]

No

Yes[336]

Yes

No

 

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Portugal

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Assembleia da República (Assembly of the Republic): http://www.parlamento
.pt/Parlamento/Paginas/default.aspx
[337]

(bills, debates, official gazette, research)

Portuguese
English[338]
French

Yes[339]

Yes[340]

No

No

No

No

 

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Russia

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Gosudarstvennaia Duma (State Duma): http://www.duma.gov.ru/[341]

(bills, debates, acts, news, research)

Russian

Yes[342]

Yes[343]

Yes[344]

Yes[345]

Yes

No[346]

API[347]

Site for visually impaired[348]

Statistics[349]

Personal accounts[350]

Sovet Federatsii (Federation Council): http://www.council.gov.ru/[351]

(debates, acts, news, research)

Russian

Yes[352]

Yes[353]

Yes[354]

Yes[355]

Yes

No[356]

Request feature[357]

Back to Top

Saudi Arabia

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Majlis al-Shūrā (Consultative Assembly): https://www.shura.gov.sa
/wps/wcm/connect/ShuraArabic/
internet/Home/
[358]

(agenda, hearings, news, and laws)

Arabic; limited and outdated information in English[359]

Yes[360]

Yes[361]

Yes[362]

Yes[363]

No

No

 

Back to Top

Serbia

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Narodna skupština (National Assembly): http://www.parlament.gov.rs/[364]

(announcements, plenary sittings, bills, adopted laws, committee reports, laws, multimedia)

Serbian (in Cyrillic and Latin script); limited information in English[365]

Yes[366]

Yes[367]

No[368]

Yes[369]

Yes

No

European integration[370]

Back to Top

South Africa

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Parliament: https://www.parliament
.gov.za/
[371]

(bills, debates (Hansard), parliamentary papers, acts)

English

Yes[372]

Yes[373]

No

Yes[374]

Yes

Yes[375]

Calendar[376]

Back to Top

South Korea[377]

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Kukhoe (National Assembly): http://www.assembly.go.kr/assm/
userMain/main.do
[378]

(schedules, committee information, member information, minutes, bills, etc.)

 

Korean; limited information in English

Yes[379]

Yes[380]

No

Yes[381]

No

No

 

Back to Top

Spain

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Cortes Generales (Parliament): http://www
.cortesgenerales.es/
[382]

(portal to Congress of Deputies and Senate websites)

Spanish

No

No

No

No

No

No

 

Congreso de los Diputados (Congress of Deputies): http://www.congreso.es
/portal/page/portal/Congreso/Congreso
[383]

Spanish; limited information in English[384]

Yes[385]

Yes[386]

No[387]

Yes[388]

Yes

Yes[389]

 

Senado (Senate): http://www.senado.es
/web/index.html
[390]

Spanish; limited information in English, Catalan, Basque, Galician, Valencian[391]

Yes[392]

Yes[393]

No

Yes[394]

Yes

No

Children’s education portal[395]

Back to Top

Sweden

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Sveriges Riksdag (Swedish Parliament) http://www.riksdagen.se/[396]

(debates, decisions, committee reports, bills, laws)

Swedish; some info in English and sign language

Additional languages with limited information:
Albanian, Arabic, Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian, Finnish, Tornedalsfinska
Jiddisch, North Curdian, Persian, South Curdian, Polish,
Romani,
Sami (North, South, and Lule dialects),
Spanish,
Turkish, German[397]

Yes[398]

Yes[399]

Yes[400]

Yes[401]

Yes

No

Calendar[402]

API/Open data[403]

Back to Top

Taiwan

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Lifa Yuan (Legislative Yuan): http://www.ly.gov.tw/[404]

(bills, debates, laws, reports)

Traditional Chinese, limited information in English[405]

Yes[406]

Yes[407]

Yes[408]

Yes[409]

Yes[410]

Yes[411]

Children’s version[412]

Back to Top

Tanzania

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Bunge (Parliament): http://www.parliament.go.tz/[413]

(bills, acts, subsidiary legislation, debate (Hansard), order papers, committee reports, parliamentary reports)[414]

Kiswahili; limited information in English[415]

Yes[416]

Yes[417]

Yes[418]

No[419]

No

No

 

Back to Top

Tunisia

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Majlis Nuwwāb al-Sha‘b (Assembly of the People’s Representatives): http://www.arp.tn/site/main/
AR/index.jsp
[420]

(law projects, debates in general sessions, committee reports, research)

Arabic[421]

Yes[422]

Yes[423]

No

Yes[424]

No

No

Calendars[425]

Back to Top

Turkey[426]

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi, TBMM (Grand National Assembly): http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/[427]

(under Legislature [Yasama]: law drafts and proposals, laws, decisions, commission reports; under Organization [Kurumsal]: legislation on TBMM administrative organization; under Publications [Yayinlar]: brochures, booklets, assembly bulletin, e-books)

Turkish; limited information in English, French, Kazak, German, Arabic, Spanish, Chinese, Russian

Yes[428]

Yes[429]

Yes[430]

Yes[431]

Yes[432]

Yes[433]

Calendar[434]

Education/Children’s Portal[435]

Sign-language videos[436]

Back to Top

Ukraine

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Verkhovna Rada (Parliament): http://rada.gov.ua/[437]

(announcements, plenary sittings, bills, journals, debates, laws, multimedia)

Ukrainian
Russian[438]
English[439]

Yes[440]

Yes[441]

Yes[442]

Yes[443]

No

No

Open data portal[444]

Back to Top

United Kingdom

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Parliament: http://parliament.uk[445]

(bills, debates (Hansard), House of Lords judgments, standing orders, committee reports, deposited papers, research briefings)

English

Yes[446]

Yes[447]

Yes[448]

Yes[449]

No

Yes[450]

Open data portal[451]

Back to Top

United States

Website(s)

Languages

Browse Tools?

Search Tools?

Tracking & Alerts?

Watch/Listen?

Mobile-friendly?

App?

Other Features?

Congress: https://www.congress.gov/[452]

(bills, public laws, Congressional Record)

English

Yes[453]

Yes[454]

Yes[455]

Yes[456]

Yes[457]

No[458]

Bulk data[459]

Back to Top

Prepared by the Staff of the Global Legal Research Directorate
July 2017


[2] Users may click on the tabs on the main banner of the page to access general and historical information about the legislative branch, the Palace of Congress, and the legislative process.  Links to publications, the congressional library website, the government health services site, laws and regulations, and the Children’s Congress site are available at the bottom of the page.

[3] A children’s website explaining the legislative process with games, videos, and information is available at http://chicos.congreso.gob.ar/, archived at https://perma.cc/M85Z-T6LQ.

[5] Users may browse bills, session information, and parliamentary documents by clicking “Actividad Legislativa” at the top of the home page.  The session agenda is also displayed on the main home page.  Information on senators is continuously scrolling across the bottom of the page, including name, photograph, political party, duration of term, and links to individual social media accounts.  Users may click on each senator to get further information on each or may sort the entire list by last name, block, commission, and province. 

[6] The Senate website allows users to search all bills by number, title, date, key words, or status of commission consideration, at http://www.senado.gov.ar/parlamentario/parlamentaria/, archived at https://perma.cc/VY5X-RPX9.

[7] Users of the congressional websites may follow congressional news through Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram accounts.

[8] A live stream of Senate sessions is available at http://www.senado.gov.ar/parlamentario/sesiones/enVivo, archived at https://perma.cc/6LKW-P4QW.

[10] The Chamber of Deputies website allows users to browse bills, session information, and parliamentary documents by clicking “Actividad Parlamentaria” at the top of the home page.  The session agenda is also displayed on the main home page.  Information on representatives is continuously scrolling across the bottom of the page, including name, photograph, political party, duration of term, and links to individual social media accounts.  Users may click on each representative to get further information on each or may sort the entire list by last name, block, commission, and province.

[11]  While there is no general search bar for the entire website, users can utilize the Chamber of Deputies website to search all bills under consideration in either chamber by type, number, title, proposing chamber, commission, date, keywords, or sponsor name, at http://www.hcdn.gob.ar/proyectos/buscador2016-99.html, archived at https://perma.cc/M3K7-FXYY.

[12] Although there are no tracking or alert functions on the congressional websites, users may follow congressional news through Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram accounts.

[13] Live coverage of congressional hearings and debates are available on the website of the Chamber of Deputies’ channel, at http://www.hcdn.gob.ar/index.html, archived at https://perma.cc/Z79U-GBMW.

[15] Most of static information is available in four languages.  However, information on bills and other frequently updated data are available only in Armenian.

[16] It is possible to browse current and previous bills (information goes back to 2012) by status (adopted, included or not included in the agenda) and lead committee, http://parliament.am/drafts.php?lang=arm, archived at https://perma.cc/U73V-SC5W.  Enacted legislation can be browsed by topic or in alphabetical order, http://parliament.am/legislation.php?sel=alpha&lang=arm, archived at https://perma.cc/HKS7-3QJ2. Transcripts and minutes of Parliament sessions can be browsed by date, http://parliament.am/transcript.php?lang=arm, archived at https://perma.cc/5XV6-BJ9H.

[17] It is possible to search the entire website or specific parts of the website, e.g., bills, enacted legislation, committees, transcripts, and news.  The search box is available on all pages.

[18] The website gives the option to subscribe to email newsletters and RSS feeds.  However, it is not clear if these functions are operational.

[19] Live and recorded sessions of Parliament can be watched on its YouTube channel, at https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCnbiSB0cBe9AngwbcdwWzng, archived at https://perma.cc/6LB9-EF87.

[20] A calendar shows the dates of sessions and links to the agenda, text, history, and authors of bills, minutes, and transcripts of past sessions, http://parliament.am/agenda.php?lang=arm, archived at https://perma.cc/CG7V-4EC6.

[22] The Australian Parliament website allows users to browse all bills by title or search for bills, at http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Bills_Legislation, archived at https://perma.cc/BS9T-K32A

[23] Id.  Search options can be expanded in order to narrow search by date, current bills, bill status, and type.  The Australian Parliament website also has a search box on each page for searching the whole site.  The ParlInfo advanced search page allows even more specific searching by allowing users to select different parts of the Parliament site to search, at http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/search/search.w3p;adv=yes

[24] Users of the Australian Parliament website can register for a personal “My Parliament” account to track bills, committees, and Senators and Members, at https://www.aph.gov.au/Help/Login, archived at https://perma.cc/97FH-KFTS.  There are also several RSS feeds, at http://www.aph.gov.au/Help/RSS_feeds, archived at https://perma.cc/DW6A-QQEU.

[25] Each chamber of the Australian Parliament can be watched when in session, at http://www.aph.gov.au/News_and_Events/Watch_Parliament, archived at https://perma.cc/BG9G-SMWB.  Live and on demand footage of the chambers, committee hearings, and other events can be browsed on ParlView, at http://parlview.aph.gov.au/browse.php, archived at https://perma.cc/AQ47-MU63

[26] The Parliament events calendar can be accessed from any page and creates a new side menu.  It can also be accessed at http://www.aph.gov.au/News_and_Events/Events_Calendar, archived at https://perma.cc/8K4Z-HFA7.  The calendar provides links to information about committee hearings and sittings of the chambers each day, and allows users to save events to their private calendars.  Events are color-coded on the calendar for ease of reference.  For information about other features on the Australian Parliament website, see Kelly Buchanan, Australian and Parliamentary Website Makeovers, In Custodia Legis (Sept. 18, 2016), http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2016/09/australian-and-new-zealand-parliamentary-website-makeovers/, archived at https://perma.cc/V6V2-NNVA.

[28] Not all content may be available in all languages.  The website of the Austrian parliament provides PDF brochures for download in thirty other languages besides the five languages that the website is offered in.

[29] “Easy Language” (Leichte Sprache) aims to remove linguistic barriers for people that do not understand or have trouble understanding everyday or technical language due to learning disabilities or because German is not their first language.  It is a way to make the content more accessible by using shorter sentences and more pictures.  See https://www.parlament.gv.at/LESP/, archived at http://perma.cc/QY45-6LGA.

[30] Information on parliamentarianism, the Austrian legislative process, and visiting the parliament is available in sign language.  The accessible sign language service offers sign language videos with the option to turn on subtitles.  The sign language interpreter’s words are also simultaneously displayed in text below the video and highlighted so that the viewer may follow along.  See https://www.parlament.gv.at/GESP/, archived at http://perma.cc/KM3M-VD3K.

[31] The bills and parliamentary initiatives of the Austrian parliament can be browsed in a variety of ways, at https://www.parlament.gv.at/PAKT/RGES/, archived at http://perma.cc/2FS8-MQ7M.  They can be sorted by date, type of document, topic, document number, and bill status.

[32] The website of the Austrian parliament has a variety of ways to search data on the whole website.  A full text search is available at https://www.parlament.gv.at/SUCH/, archived at http://perma.cc/NX2W-NLPW.  An advanced search is available at https://www.parlament.gv.at/SUCH/?advanced=true&simple=false&mode=pdadvanced, archived at http://perma.cc/J7BL-7GMX.  A search box with a quick search and an advanced search options is also available in the top right corner on every page. 

[33] Users can subscribe to a variety of RSS feeds.  They are listed at https://www.parlament.gv.at/HILF/RSS-FEED/index.shtml, archived at http://perma.cc/6BLF-K9MT.  Users who sign up for an account can also subscribe to newsletters on various topics and budgetary information.

[34] Parts of the website have a read-aloud function, as designated by a “speaker” symbol.  The read-aloud function is available for the sections “parliament explained,” “building and tours,” and “service.”  See https://www.parlament.gv.at/HILF/VORLES/, archived at http://perma.cc/Q8B8-S5U4.  Plenary sessions are streamed live using a private broadcaster at https://www.parlament.gv.at/PAKT/PLENAR/VIDEO/, archived at http://perma.cc/6ZUZ-H5SF.

[35] An app is available for iOS (Apple), Android, and Windows phones.  The app provides a live stream of parliamentary debates, current information on legislation, petitions, and parliamentary initiatives, a calendar, contact information, virtual tours, frequently asked questions, photo albums, etc.  Information on members of parliament is also available, including the option to call or email the member directly from the app.  See https://www.parlament.gv.at/PAKT/AKT/SCHLTHEM/SCHLAG/J2015/2015_05_20_Neue_App.shtml, archived at http://perma.cc/3XE3-KPV4.

[36] Calendar events may also be imported into a personal calendar.

[37] Users can create an account and personalize the layout of the website, bookmark pages, and sign up for newsletters on various topics and budgetary information.

[38] Users can sign petitions online.  Those available for electronic signature are marked with a “thumbs up” symbol.  See https://www.parlament.gv.at/HILF/EZUSTIM/, archived at http://perma.cc/M8D9-CS2B.

[39] Parliament data is available as an official Application Programming Interface (API) at https://www.data.gv.at/auftritte/?organisation=parlament, archived at http://perma.cc/D4VW-9C7R.  Information on which kind of data is available and in what format can be found at https://www.parlament.gv.at/SERV/OGD/index.shtml, archived at http://perma.cc/5RKC-CHDW.

[41] The Belgium Chamber of Representatives allows users to browse legislative documents, including not only bills but also amendments, resolutions, reports, etc., by number at http://www.lachambre.be/kvvcr/showpage.cfm?section=/flwb&language=fr&cfm=ListDocument.cfm, archived at https://perma.cc/Y5AL-QMHW, or by date at http://www.lachambre.be/kvvcr/showpage.cfm?section=/flwb/recent&language=fr&cfm=/site/wwwcfm/flwb/LastDocument.cfm, archived at https://perma.cc/ZX73-G9D5; documents can be browsed by key terms at http://www.lachambre.be/kvvcr/showpage.cfm?section=/flwb&language=fr&cfm=ListKeyword.cfm?legislat=54, archived at https://perma.cc/MM4Z-6RDV.

[43] The Belgium Chamber of Representatives has a video portal at http://www.lachambre.be/kvvcr/media2/index.html?language=fr, archived at https://perma.cc/Z82D-S2DG (click “See the Screenshot View”), that allows users to watch live and on-demand footage of debates, committee hearings, votes, and other sessions.

[45] The Belgian Senate website allows users to browse bills and other legislative documents at http://www.senate.be/www/?MIval=/index_senate&MENUID=22000&LANG=fr, archived at https://perma.cc/V92T-4C5D; documents may be browsed by number, by date, or by procedural status.

[46] The Belgian Senate website allows users to search bills and other legislative documents at http://www.senate.be/www/?MIval=/index_senate&MENUID=22150&LANG=fr, archived at https://perma.cc/H7DW-UXCR.  

[48] The Belgian Senate publishes its legislative calendar at http://www.senate.be/www/?MIval=/index_senate&MENUID=24120&LANG=fr, archived at https://perma.cc/T77S-DDF4 (click “See the Screenshot View”).

[50] The Brazilian Chamber of Deputies website allows users to browse all bills by title or search for bills, at http://www.camara.leg.br/buscaProposicoesWeb/pesquisaAvancada, archived at https://perma.cc/S9A8-S8B2

[51] Id.  In order to narrow a search, search options can be expanded to include type of bill, number of bill, date presented, subject, author, and bill status.

[53] Live sessions of the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies can be watched on the Chamber of Deputies TV Channel (TV Câmara), at http://www2.camara.leg.br/camaranoticias/tv/aoVivo.html, archived at https://perma.cc/UT5G-LUEG.  

[54] The Legislative Agenda of the Chamber of Deputies can be accessed at http://www.camara.leg.br/internet/agendacamara/, archived at https://perma.cc/TPH5-SSQ3

[56] The Brazilian Federal Senate website allows users to browse all bills by title or search for bills, at http://www25.senado.leg.br/web/atividade/materias, archived at https://perma.cc/48E7-JL8X

[57] Id.  In order to a narrow search, search options can be expanded to include type of bill, number of bill, date presented, subject, author, and bill status.

[58] Users of the Brazilian Federal Senate website can register to track bills, at http://www25.senado.leg.br/web/atividade/materias/acompanhamento/minhas-materias, archived at https://perma.cc/R9SA-ERVW

[59] Live sessions of the Brazilian Federal Senate can be watched on the Federal Senate TV Channel (TV Senado), at http://www.senado.leg.br/noticias/tv/, archived at https://perma.cc/D8YE-BGV3

[60] The Legislative Agenda of the Federal Senate can be accessed at http://www25.senado.leg.br/web/atividade/sessao-plenaria, archived at https://perma.cc/2JHF-N9LG

[62] The National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria website is also available in English, at http://www.parliament.bg/en, archived at https://perma.cc/YL2A-MG3U.  It contains information on the latest news, legislation, and plenary sittings, and provides a link to the state gazette, Derhzaven Vestnik.  The “Legislation” tab on the top of the page only provides general information on how a bill becomes a law and how the National Assembly works.  Clicking on “Plenary Sittings” brings the user to a search page.  Detailed information on Plenary Sittings as well as the text of legislation is available only on the Bulgarian version of the website.

[63] The Bulgarian Parliament website allows the user to browse bills by date, convocation number, title or keyword, date of the Plenary Sittings, and name of the relevant committee, at http://www.parliament.bg/bg/bills, archived at https://perma.cc/EW2L-HAJ4.  The user can also search for Bulgarian laws by date, title, or keyword at http://www.parliament.bg/bg/laws, archived at https://perma.cc/J2LY-VL8B.

[64] The Bulgarian National Assembly website has a search box on each page for searching the content of the entire site, at http://www.parliament.bg/bg, archived at https://perma.cc/DE7T-WG9V.  Search terms should be in Bulgarian.

[65] The Bulgarian National Assembly website provides online broadcasts of its plenary sittings conducted on Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays between 9:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. local time, at http://www.parliament.bg/tv/?lng=1, archived at https://perma.cc/V3VN-JJ4T.  A video archive of earlier plenary sessions is also available.

[66] The Bulgarian Parliament website has a link to the electronic version of the official gazette, Derhzaven Vestnik, where the user can find any issue of the state gazette in PDF format, at http://dv.parliament.bg/DVWeb/broeveList.faces, archived at https://perma.cc/7KHD-KWLW.

[68] Information on the use of Canada’s two official languages in Parliament is provided at http://www.lop.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2015-131-e.html?cat=education, archived at https://perma.cc/42LC-QCP2.

[69] LEGISinfo is a research tool on the Parliament of Canada’s website for finding information on legislation pending before Parliament.  The House of Commons website has a Find box on the Home page that links to Legislation at a Glance, a LEGISinfo tool that “provides an overview of bills under consideration in either the Senate or the House of Commons,” at http://www.parl.ca/LegisInfo/LAAG.aspx?Language=en&Mode=1, archived at https://perma.cc/3HSH-55G9.  In the Find box there is also a link to “all Bills” in LEGISinfo that allows users to browse (on the right-hand side of the screen) by Parliament session, originating chamber, bill type, political affiliation, and bill status, at http://www.parl.gc.ca/LegisInfo/Home.aspx?language=E&ParliamentSession=42-1, archived at https://perma.cc/F5SG-9B7X.

[70] The House of Commons website has a search icon on the top right side of each page of the site that brings down a search box to search all the content on the website, as well as searches for members of Parliament, bills, topics, and e-petitions.  Similarly, the Find box on the front page, which is described by the website as “a multi-faceted search engine,” allows a quick search of all the content on the website, members of Parliament, bills, topics, and e-petitions.  The LEGISinfo website has a quick search box (to search by bill number or title) and a link to an advanced search function, both of which are located on the left-hand menu, at http://www.parl.gc.ca/LEGISInfo/Search.aspx?Language=E&Mode=1, archived at https://perma.cc/97SP-SY4G.  The website also has a publication search tool for House Debates (Hansard), Committee Evidence, and the Journals data sets, allowing for basic, Boolean, and advanced searches, at http://www.parl.gc.ca/Parliamentarians/en/PublicationSearch?PubType=1, archived at https://perma.cc/D5B9-QVE6.

[71] Users of the Parliament of Canada website can subscribe to RSS news feeds to get the latest updates on a number of topics, including new bills for the current session of Parliament, new bills before committees, the latest activity or progress for bills, and new bills matching certain filters or search criteria.

[72] ParlVU offers live and on-demand webcasts of Parliamentary proceedings and public committee hearings.  Webcasts for the House of Commons can be found at http://parlvu.parl.gc.ca/xrender/en, archived at https://perma.cc/7EHV-3AP5.

[73] Users are able to access the legislative information website via mobile devices.  Although the recently updated House of Commons website appears to be mobile friendly, the LEGISinfo website itself notes that “does not offer an optimized version for mobile devices.”  It also notes that “the ‘Text Mode’ hyperlink found on each page may accommodate a more mobile-friendly experience.”  Frequently Asked Questions, Parliament of Canada, LEGISinfo, http://www.parl.gc.ca/LEGISInfo/Faq.aspx?Language=E&Mode=1#ID0ESG, archived at https://perma.cc/QC68-CJ8G.

[74] The home page of the House of Commons website has a “Live View of House Proceedings” section that allows a user to see if the House is in session, House agenda and decisions, committee meetings, and members’ work in the current session (which includes the number of members in office, bills presented, votes recorded, petitions presented, and committees established).

[75] The home page for the House of Commons website provides a calendar for past or scheduled parliamentary business.  The website also provides a link to the House of Commons Sitting Calendar, at http://www.ourcommons.ca/en/sitting-calendar, archived at https://perma.cc/E4QK-MJ6D

[76] The House of Commons website provides open data, which the site defines as “[s]tructured data that is machine-readable, freely shared, used and built on without restrictions.”  Open data is available for Members of Parliament, Bills, Chamber Proceedings, Committees, Publications Search, and E-petitions data sets in XML format, at http://www.ourcommons.ca/en/open-data, archived at https://perma.cc/S8CX-24LK.

[78] A link to the LEGISinfo website is available through a drop-down menu, and a “Find a Bill” icon on the home page leads to the LEGISinfo website where Senate Bills can be browsed.  For more information, see supra note 57.

[79] The Senate website has a search icon on the top right side of each page that, if clicked, leads to a search box to do a quick search of all the content on the website, members of the Senate, bills, committees, chamber debates, and news, at https://sencanada.ca/en/search, archived at https://perma.cc/Q4JG-A4DT.  If a user clicks on the Chamber Debates tab a link below the search box leads to the “Debates search tool,” where Debates of the Senate of Canada (Hansard) can be searched through a quick or advanced search feature.  An In the Chamber drop-down menu provides a link to the LEGISinfo website.  The LEGISinfo website can also be accessed from a Find a Bill icon on the home page.  Steps for conducting searches of bills in LEGISinfo are detailed in note 58, supra.  From the same drop-down menu a link to search Debates of the Senate of Canada (Hansard) is also available.

[80] See supra note 59.

[81] ParlVU is a webcasting service that “allows users to access the live and archived streams of public proceedings of the Senate and its committees,” at http://senparlvu.parl.gc.ca/XRender/, archived at https://perma.cc/STD5-BUDN.

[82] The Senate website was recently updated to make it mobile-friendly.  For more information see supra note 61.

[83] A calendar on the home page displays fixed sitting days, possible sitting days, committee events, and special events for that month.

[85] A separate English page of the National People’s Congress (NPC) website is available but provides limited information: http://www.npc.gov.cn/englishnpc/news/index.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/AGV8-8U22.

[86] The Laws and Regulations page of the NPC website allows browsing laws and regulations: http://law.npc.gov.cn/FLFG/index.jsp, archived at https://perma.cc/64BR-453R.

[87] An advanced search option provide a variety of ways to search data: http://law.npc.gov.cn/FLFG/gjSearch.action, archived at https://perma.cc/CH8U-AL4V.

[88] The NPC website provides live webcasts and recorded videos of the NPC and its Standing Committee, but mostly news reports and press conferences.  Live webcasts are available at http://www.npc.gov.cn/npc/zhibo/zhibo.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/75QP-CESU; recorded videos are available at http://v.npc.gov.cn/index.shtml, archived at https://perma.cc/CAX5-6DC8.

[89] The NPC website has adopted a version suitable for mobile devices.  See http://www.npc.gov.cn/npc/sjb/index.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/U9PU-UALC.

[92]A page is provided related to all document types available on the website, with the option to search or browse, at http://www.ft.dk/dokumenter#dok, archived at https://perma.cc/JK9F-KJ5L.  For a list of legislative proposals for the current parliamentary session organized by date, click on “Lovforslag” under the “Documentlister” tab.

[93]A search box is provided at the top of each page that enables searching across the whole website.  The homepage (http://www.ft.dk, archived at https://perma.cc/TEH5-UMXR) also has a quick search option (“Kvikopslag”) for proposed legislation at the bottom of the page, and links to a full search page (http://www.ft.dk/dokumenter#dok, archived at https://perma.cc/JK9F-KJ5L) that allows searches using various facets, such as year and document type.  This page also includes a “Kvikopslag” (Quick Search) tab to search by law proposal number and a “Søg” tab ‎for a general search.

[94] Users can subscribe to email updates for different aspects of the website, such as the work of particular committees.  Emails can be received at different intervals, and individual subscriptions can be bundled together into a single email newsletter: Abonnement på folketinget.dk, Folketinget, http://www.ft.dk/Aktuelt/abonnementservice/Subscription/CheckLogin.aspx?ReturnUrl=%2fAktuelt%2fAbonnementService.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/W7K3-SRAR.

[95] Meetings of the parliament and committee hearings can be watched live or delayed online: Direkte TV, Folketinget, http://www.ft.dk/webTV/Direkte.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/GAF6-76HL

[96] A page for watching parliament is formatted for use on smartphones and tablets: TV fra Folketinget, Folketinget, http://mobiltv.ft.dk/ archived at https://perma.cc/9K8R-DH4J.

[97] The parliamentary television app enables users to watch all meetings and hearings of the parliament: TV fra Folketinget, Apple iTunes, https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/tv-fra-folketinget/id708314088?mt=8, archived at https://perma.cc/B5J9-H4DZ.

[99] The Egyptian House of Representative’s website allows users to browse by committee names, members’ names, and the House’s history, at http://www.parliament.gov.eg/home (see list on right side of screen), archived at https://perma.cc/M3MB-WGRX.

[100] A search tool box is available on the website, at http://www.parliament.gov.eg/home/ (see upper-left corner), archived at https://perma.cc/M3MB-WGRX.

[102] El Salvador’s Legislative Assembly website allows users to browse the Assembly’s session activities by clicking on the “Sesion Plenaria” tab at the top of the page and then navigating the menu on the left side of the resulting page.  Bills are not searchable or trackable on a separate page, but by clicking the “Correspondencia” tab, users can see a list of bills and initiatives being considered in the latest session, with text related to each available by clicking on “Piezas A” and selecting a document.  See http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/sesion-plenaria/correspondencia, archived at https://perma.cc/U7EE-JH3Y.   Laws and decrees currently in effect may be browsed at http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/eparlamento/indice-legislativo/buscador-de-documentos-legislativos, archived at https://perma.cc/A87N-GE69.  Users can search by key words and narrow by type of legislative document (codes, decrees, laws, regulations).  The latest approved decrees may be viewed by year at http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/eparlamento/indice-legislativo/ultimos-decretos-aprobados, archived at https://perma.cc/R3CF-B69A.

[103] A general search box is available on the top banner of every page.

[104] Users of the Legislative Assembly website can subscribe to RSS news feeds to get the latest news and updates of a list of topics, including the latest activity of the committees and legislation, at http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/noticias/rss-de-noticias, archived at https://perma.cc/66RU-XVFB.

[105] Legislative Assembly TV is available on the home page of the Assembly’s website, by clicking on TVL.  The site requires Adobe Flash.

[106] The home page links to an educational portal for children at https://sitioinfantil.asamblea.gob.sv/, archived at https://perma.cc/AK4S-ETGJ.  The site requires Adobe Flash.

[108] The European Parliament is also active on a number of social media, including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, and YouTube: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/atyourservice/en/20150201PVL00030/Social-media, archived at https://perma.cc/R9JY-VPVU.

[109] The EU has twenty-four official languages: Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, and Swedish.  Parliament’s official documents must be translated and available to the public in all of the official languages.  Parliament’s website is also translated into all official languages.  All of Parliament’s plenary sessions and committees meetings are fully multilingual.  Members may speak their own languages; simultaneous interpretation is ensured.  More information on the language policy in the EU is provided by a European Parliament fact sheet: Language Policy, European Parliament (Feb. 2017), http://www.europarl.europa.eu/atyourservice/en/displayFtu.html?ftuId=FTU_5.13.6.html, archived at https://perma.cc/2ZS8-LVKB

[110] The European Parliament website, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/portal, archived at https://perma.cc/JZ6M-59WK, provides detailed information in all the official languages about the Parliament`s most recent activities.  It is also possible to watch committee and plenary debates and votes via web streaming, at https://www.europarltv.europa.eu/en/home, archived at https://perma.cc/8NHB-X28N

[111] A general search is possible from the main page http://www.europarl.europa.eu/portal/en.  Also, users may search Members of Parliament by name and country, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/meps/en/map.html, archived at https://perma.cc/FH36-8RXH.  The European Parliament has its own database for monitoring the EU decision-making process called the Legislative Observatory.  It allows research by key words, subject matter, year, type of procedures, type of acts, legal basis, etc.: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/home/home.do?lang=en, archived at https://perma.cc/B5D6-L6G7.  The Legislative Observatory website is available in two languages (French and English) but the official documents are available in all twenty-four official languages of the EU.  EUR-Lex is an EU database that provides access to EU law (primary and secondary law, as well as national implementing measures) in all twenty-four of the official languages, at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/content/welcome/about.html, archived at https://perma.cc/V75J-NNEF.  The European Parliament’s online Public Register of Documents provides searchable direct access to most of the Parliament’s documents, and some others are available on request.  See http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegistreWeb/home/welcome.htm?language=EN, archived at https://perma.cc/C5NW-64RZ.

[112] Users of the European Parliament website can subscribe to RSS news feeds to get the latest updates on public documents, Parliamentary activity and progress in legislation, etc., at http://www.europarl.europa.eu/rss/en/rss.html, archived at https://perma.cc/MDU4-BHLR, including podcasts, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/rss/en/audio-podcasts.html, archived at https://perma.cc/TY4U-A37A, and videos produced by EuroparlTV, https://www.europarltv.europa.eu/rss-feeds, archived at https://perma.cc/GQ68-UT5EThe European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), Parliament’s in-house think tank, also offers the possibility to subscribe to RSS http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/rss/search.html, archived at https://perma.cc/TDR8-DNN9.  My Observatory is a tool that allows users to personalize the Legislative Observatory database by saving searches and requesting notifications when changes occur, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/myoeil/login.do, archived at https://perma.cc/DY9J-RM4T.  The European Parliament offers a free electronic subscription service that allows users to receive automatic email notifications when new information is added to certain areas of the website, https://public.govdelivery.com/accounts/EUEPEN/subscriber/new, archived at https://perma.cc/T2J2-8AC8.

[113] Live and recorded sessions of Plenary and Committee meetings are accessible to public at http://www.europarl.europa.eu/plenary/en/debates-video.html, archived at https://perma.cc/4XTQ-XFYM, and http://www.europarl.europa.eu/ep-live/en/schedule, archived at https://perma.cc/T3R4-UY4Q.  EuroparlTV is the European Parliament’s web video service.  It informs citizens about Parliament’s activities. The service includes a mix of news, background, and educational videos.  EuroparlTV programs are available in various formats via an online database and are fully integrated with social media.  Subtitles are available for most videos in all of the EU’s official languages, and all programs are available both in web and broadcast formats.  Anyone with Internet access can watch EuroparlTV online, at https://www.europarltv.europa.eu/home, archived at https://perma.cc/BF8U-KLB4.  The European Commission also provides an EU-related news and archive service for professionals in the media at http://ec.europa.eu/avservices/ebs/schedule.cfm?sitelang=en, archived at https://perma.cc/AS2U-2EQQ.

[114] The Europarl website has a mobile version that contains a selection of information available online.  The whole Europarl website is currently being changed in order to make it more responsive.  It should be completed by 2018.

[115] There is no general App for the Europarl website.  The European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) is developing an APP for its publications, which will be available in September 2017.

[116] An alphabetical index of content is available at http://www.europarl.europa.eu/portal/en/a-z, archived at https://perma.cc/37YE-5UDP. 

[117] EPRS provides independent and objective analysis on topical issues that is also available to the general public at http://www.europarl.europa.eu/atyourservice/en/20150201PVL00031/European-Parliamentary-Research-Service, archived at https://perma.cc/9KR8-4MA7.  A repository of all research studies, called ThinkTank, is part of the Europarl website and allows users to research documents by policy area, type of document, author and geographical area, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank, archived at https://perma.cc/X2TK-TE75.  The European Parliamentary Research service also publishes a blog on its activities, https://epthinktank.eu, archived at https://perma.cc/LU85-F3YU.  The Citizens’ Enquiries Unit (Ask EP) provides information about the European Parliament, its activities, powers, and organisation at https://www.secure.europarl.europa.eu/atyourservice/en/askEP.html, archived at https://perma.cc/3VP2-3UHP.  It cannot provide legal advice or adopt political positions, however.

[120] Proposed legislation is listed in date order on pages related to the Grand Chamber and committees. A page covering issues before the parliament enables browsing based on types of legislation and other documents: https://www.eduskunta.fi/FI/lakiensaataminen/valtiopaivaasiat/Sivut/default.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/NK8F-9LZE.

[121] A search box is available at the topic of each page that enables searching across the whole website. An advanced search option allows searching using multiple search terms, https://www.eduskunta.fi/SV/search/Sidor/advanced.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/9NK9-HWE3.

[122] Users can subscribe to RSS feeds for different documents and press releases, with feeds available in two languages: RSS Swedish, https://www.eduskunta.fi/SV/Sidor/RSS.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/HDK9-HJ2X; RSS Finnish, https://www.eduskunta.fi/FI/Sivut/RSS.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/SY5A-XA4X.

[123] A calendar of parliamentary proceedings that are broadcast live is available at Direktsändning Dagordning [Live Webcasts, Agenda], Eduskunta, https://www.eduskunta.fi/SV/lakiensaataminen/taysistunnon_verkkolahetykset/Sidor/default.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/FRV9-K9LF; previous web broadcasts available at Tidigare webbsändningar [Previous Webcasts], Eduskunta, https://www.eduskunta.fi/SV/lakiensaataminen/taysistunnon_verkkolahetykset/aiemmatverkkolahetykset/Sidor/default.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/92VX-LZCR.

[125] The French National Assembly website allows users to browse bills by date or bill number at http://www2.assemblee-nationale.fr/documents/liste/(type)/projets-loi, archived at https://perma.cc/CGT8-CAMR.  Users can also browse all National Assembly legislative documents (including not only bills but also amendments, resolutions, reports, etc.) at http://www2.assemblee-nationale.fr/documents/liste/(type)/depots, archived at https://perma.cc/8W6R-22R5.

[126] The French National Assembly website allows users to search bills via a simple word search at http://www2.assemblee-nationale.fr/documents/liste/(type)/projets-loi, archived at https://perma.cc/CGT8-CAMR.  Users can also search all National Assembly legislative documents (including not only bills but also amendments, resolutions, reports, etc.) at http://www2.assemblee-nationale.fr/documents/liste/(type)/depots, archived at https://perma.cc/8W6R-22R5.

[127] A number of RSS feeds (Parliamentary documents, transcripts of debates, press re leases, committee activities, etc.) are available at http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/rss/, archived at https://perma.cc/BWQ9-A6QR.

[128] The French National Assembly has a video portal at http://videos.assemblee-nationale.fr/, archived at https://perma.cc/EDU7-9KFD, which allows users to watch live and on-demand footage of National Assembly debates, committee hearings, and other sessions.  A search tool is available at http://videos.assemblee-nationale.fr/recherche.php, archived at https://perma.cc/936P-796H.  Videos are kept freely accessible on the website for a period of one year, but anyone wishing to watch a video over a year old must make a specific request.

[129] A mobile-friendly website is available at http://www.assemblee.mobi/, archived at https://perma.cc/QTT5-2TT7.

[130] The French National Assembly publishes its legislative calendar at http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/14/seance/previsionnel.asp, archived at https://perma.cc/SHQ9-5FAL, and a daily and monthly calendar at http://www2.assemblee-nationale.fr/agendas/les-agendas, archived at https://perma.cc/S8B5-M4ET.

[132] The French Senate (Sénat) website allows users to browse bills from the previous twelve months at http://www.senat.fr/leg/index.html, archived at https://perma.cc/XPL9-H22S.  Bills may be browsed by date, by alphabetical order, or by topic.

[133] The French Senate website has a search tool at http://www.senat.fr/recherche/index.html, archived at https://perma.cc/W3MT-9BV6, which allows users to search for any text or document (bills, debate transcripts, reports, etc.) on the website.

[134] A number of RSS feeds (parliamentary reports, bills, latest videos) are available at http://www.senat.fr/rss.html, archived at https://perma.cc/D6SZ-9FYZ.

[135] The French Senate publishes videos of its debates and hearings at http://videos.senat.fr/index, archived at https://perma.cc/R7RG-M4BY.  A live feed is available at http://videos.senat.fr/direct, archived at https://perma.cc/LG3Z-LCHN.

[136] The French Senate publishes its legislative calendar at http://www.senat.fr/ordre-du-jour/ordre-du-jour.html, archived at https://perma.cc/QBT7-UPK4.

[138] Some information is only available on the German language pages.

[139] “Easy Language” (Leichte Sprache) aims to remove linguistic barriers for people that do not understand or have trouble understanding everyday or technical language either due to learning disabilities or because German is not their first language.  It is a way to make the content more accessible by using shorter sentences and more pictures.  See http://www.bundestag.de/leichte_sprache/, archived at http://perma.cc/DW8Z-QBPH.

[140] Live video is available for most parliamentary debates and other on-demand videos are provided in the media center.  See http://www.bundestag.de/gebaerdensprache/, archived at http://perma.cc/7PBV-V9EX.

[141] Bills and plenary protocols can be sorted by legislative period or date, and reports and analyses can be sorted by topic, document type, and date, at http://www.bundestag.de/dokumente, archived at http://perma.cc/VWD7-9S4P.

[142] The German parliament has a search box on the top right of every page to search all the content on the whole website.

[143] Users of the German parliament website can subscribe to RSS feeds to receive updates on a variety of specific topics or on current topics, press releases, current events at the parliament, reports from the parliamentary research services, parliamentary documentation, plenary protocols, committee meeting agendas, and job announcements, at https://www.bundestag.de/service/rss/rss/196896, archived at http://perma.cc/3J2X-YHQM.  In addition, users can sign up for newsletters to receive updates on daily current events at the parliament, press releases, analyses and reports from the parliamentary research services, and information on art exhibitions and art events at the parliament.  See https://www.bundestag.de/newsletter, archived at http://perma.cc/K59N-DZBT.

[144] The media center of the German parliament offers live broadcasts from the plenary.  Viewers who are following the channel live receive additional information, such as the current agenda or the order of speakers, directly on the homepage.  In addition, the website offers on-demand videos of plenary sessions, committee meetings, interviews, reports, special events, and explanatory videos (“ABC videos”) on the work of the parliament.  See http://www.bundestag.de/mediathek, archived at http://perma.cc/VB9E-WU2J.

[145] The German parliament’s smartphone and tablet app is available for iOS (Apple), Android, Windows 8, and Samsung/Bada operating systems, with information available at https://www.bundestag.de/apps, archived at http://perma.cc/QH7R-6F5N.  The app allows users to watch live debates in the plenary; offers information on debates, committees, members of parliament, bills, and meeting agendas; and provides advice on visiting the parliament, including opening hours for the building and the dome.

[146] Calendar may be found on the home page of the parliamentary website.

[147] The “virtual eagle” is a virtual assistant that answers questions that users type in the search box and provides links to relevant parts of the parliamentary website.  See http://adler.bundestag.de/nmIQ/frage.jsp, archived at http://perma.cc/M6E7-2FDV.

[148] The website has been regularly archived since 2005.  Old versions may be accessed at http://webarchiv.bundestag.de/cgi/archive.php, archived at http://perma.cc/T6QJ-8NVW.

[149] The teen website may be accessed at http://www.mitmischen.de/, archived at http://perma.cc/BN9F-7R2A.  The site for children ages 5–11 may be accessed at http://www.kuppelkucker.de/, archived at http://perma.cc/PTZ8-KADR.  Links to the homepage of the German parliamentary website may be found at the bottom of both websites.

[151] Bills can be browsed by bill number at http://parliament.gov.gy/chamber-business/bill-status/, archived at https://perma.cc/C55T-VA49.

[152] The “Find it Fast” tool at the top of each page enables searches by keyword. Searches can also be conducted within specific areas, such as press releases and documents, and allow for narrowing by date range.

[153] A live stream of parliamentary proceedings is available on the home page.

[154] Chamber business information is available at http://parliament.gov.gy/chamber-business/, archived at https://perma.cc/VX8K-YA6H.

[157] Front Page Dansk, Althingi, http://www.althingi.is/dansk, archived at https://perma.cc/S8FM-2B2H.

[158] Front Page English, Althingi, http://www.althingi.is/english, archived at https://perma.cc/96L9-83JX.

[159] A list of bills that can be arranged by bill number, date, and title is provided at http://www.althingi.is/thingstorf/thingmalalistar-eftir-thingum/lagafrumvorp/, archived at https://perma.cc/Z4N7-LLBZ. Legislation enacted in the different parliamentary sessions is listed by title at http://www.althingi.is/lagasafn/, archived at https://perma.cc/59PS-KNJC.

[160] A search box for the whole website is provided at the top of each page, and enacted legislation can be searched on the above website. Bills can be searched at http://www.althingi.is/thingstorf/leit-ad-thingmalum/thingmal/, archived at https://perma.cc/Z4ZH-BSEF.

[164] Article 120(1) of India’s Constitution stipulates that “business in Parliament shall be transacted in Hindi or in English.”  Article 348(1)(b) stipulates that authoritative texts of bills and acts of Parliament must be in English.  Constitution of India arts. 120(1), 348(1)(b), http://lawmin.nic.in/olwing/coi/coi-english/coi-4March2016.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/ZB2K-T6SU.  Section 5 of the Official Languages Act calls for authorized Hindi translations of bills and central (national-level) acts.  Official Languages Act § 5, Act No. 19 of 1963, as amended 1967, http://socialjustice.nic.in/UserView/PrintUserView?mid=64581, archived at https://perma.cc/GAM5-YVPL.

[165] The Parliamentary Bills Information System is a research tool accessible under the Legislation tab on the Lok Sabha’s home page for finding information on legislation that is before Parliament, at http://164.100.47.194/Loksabha/Legislation/NewAdvsearch.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/BL9F-7QS5.  The site allows users to browse bills by bill status, including bills that have been introduced, passed, pending, granted presidential assent, lapsed, withdrawn, or “negatived” (rejected), under the Legislation tab at the top of the page—for example, http://164.100.47.194/Loksabha/Legislation/billspassed.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/756T-72HF (depicting bills passed).  Tabs running across the top portion of the home page also allow for browsing by Members, Business, Questions, Debates, Papers Laid, and Committees (including committee meetings, schedules, bills referred, etc.).

[166] The Lok Sabha website has a search box on the top of each page to search all the content on the website.  The Parliamentary Bills Information System on the Lok Sabha website allows for general searches in an advanced search box at http://164.100.47.194/Loksabha/Legislation/NewAdvsearch.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/4TUG-JVHB.  A similar box appears once a researcher has clicked on a particular bill status.  Parliamentary debates can be searched on the Lok Sabha website at http://164.100.47.194/Loksabha/Debates/DebateAdvSearch16.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/95RG-MLLM, and the site allows for a text (keyword) search, “subject wise” search, “member wise” search, “contents-datewise” search, or an “advance” (advanced) search using multiple search criteria.  Parliamentary questions can also be searched on the Lok Sabha website at http://164.100.47.194/Loksabha/Questions/Qtextsearch.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/KZ2X-JLF6.  Searches can be made by text, member, or ministry, or through an advanced search page. 

[167] Lok Sabha Television is the “Parliament Channel of India with the mandate to telecast live the proceedings of the Lok Sabha,” which are also webcast at http://loksabhatv.nic.in/, archived at https://perma.cc/V4NB-ELCY

[168] While no official Apps are available, unofficial Apps do exist on MPs and their bios; one such App also includes debates and questions. 

[170] The Rajya Sabha website also uses the Parliamentary Bills Information System.  Bills can be browsed by the session in which the bill was introduced, http://164.100.47.4/newbios_search/intSessionReport3.aspx? session=242&house=bh&typ=All&year=All&sort=0&stitle=, archived at https://perma.cc/FF4N-GJZV, or passed, http://164.100.47.4/newbios_search/sessionreport3.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/547P-EANQ.

[171] The Rajya Sabha website has a search box on the top of each page that allows for searching all the content on the website.  The website also has an advanced search box at http://164.100.47.4/newbios_ search/newadvsearch.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/H9U9-MBAB.  In addition, searches can be made based on the bill type (Govt./Private), bill status, the session in which the bill was introduced or passed, or the member or ministry that introduced the bill.  Questions can be searched by member name, ministry name, date, question type, question number, session, or through an integrated search, http://164.100.47.5/qsearch/qsearch.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/EKB3-Q5VP.  Rajya Sabha official debates can be searched with a simple search or an advanced search at http://rsdebate.nic.in/simple-search?sort_by=dc.date.debatedate_dt&order=DESC.

[172] Live webcasts of Rajya Sabha proceedings are also available through RSTV during the session period, http://rajyasabha.nic.in/rsnew/webcast/rstvlive.html, archived at https://perma.cc/YLG8-HWAL.  

[173] Archived at https://perma.cc/NS8B-6VHK.  The website includes a list of legislation being considered and a special list of priority legislation, and has links to legislation passed by year (with full texts).  All texts are in Indonesian.

[174] Language settings may be adjusted on the top of the page.  Although English translations of legal texts are not included, the English interface does include some of the additional information on the website.

[175] Searches may be performed in the search bar at the top of the page by keyword.  There is also a special “Find Your Representative” search, by either number or member name.

[176] Users can sign up for “web mail” by clicking link on top banner of any page on the website.

[177] Information about the Parliament TV service and a link to live streaming is available at http://www.dpr.go.id/serba-serbi/tv-parlemen, archived at https://perma.cc/4VSD-X47B.

[178] This website also has information about and pictures of the representatives at http://www.dpr.go.id/en/anggota, archived at https://perma.cc/CVV8-DKES.  A drop-down menu about the legislature includes a history of the body, at http://www.dpr.go.id/en/tentang/sejarah-dpr, archived at https://perma.cc/A4UC-MRH6.

[179] Archived at https://perma.cc/2AGD-FGL3.  The Iranian Parliament’s web portal links to six separate websites.  Clicking on the link that says “English” leads to the Islamic Parliament Research Center English website, which contains different content than the Persian website.

[181] The English site’s content is different from and more limited than the Persian site’s content.  The English site is available at http://rc.majlis.ir/en, archived at https://perma.cc/ACP7-LY84.

[182] Browse by banner and/or section tabs, and/or use the site map at the bottom of the home page.

[183] General searches can be conducted from the home page, or more specific searches via some of the tabs.

[184] A mobile version of the website can be viewed at http://rc.majlis.ir/m, archived at https://perma.cc/T2E7-WB34.

[185] Android and iOS versions of the website apps are available at http://rc.majlis.ir/fa/content/mobile, archived at https://perma.cc/NUX6-D45X.  The site also provided an iOS installation guide, http://rc.majlis.ir/rc-assets/uploads/798809302.37046072.ios-help.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/T2WQ-6CB2.  However, Law Library of Congress staff were not successful in downloading these apps on their personal devices during testing. Downloading these apps may require security setting adjustments.

[187] Browse by section tabs or subject links listed at the bottom of the home page for News, Representatives, Parliamentary Committees of Friendship [with other countries], Caucuses, Commissions, Agendas for Public [Parliamentary] Sessions, Weekly Commissions, Introduction to the Parliament, Laws, Legislation, Oversight, Public Relations, Subject Links, and Parliament Contact Information.

[188] Searches can be performed under the “News,” “Subject Links,” and certain individual section tabs.

[189] Users can register to receive a newsletter.

[191] The Irish Parliament’s website, http://www.oireachtas.ie/parliament/, archived at https://perma.cc/CM4Z-JJ98, allows users to browse bills and legislation, debates, committee debates, and publications of both houses of Parliament.

[192] There are two search tools that search specific data sets.  One search tool allows users to search parliamentary and committee debates at http://oireachtasdebates.oireachtas.ie/debates%20authoring/debateswebpack.nsf/combinedsearch?readform, archived at https://perma.cc/3XWN-3F45.  The other enables users to search documents that have been formally presented to Parliament and historical materials, and is available at http://opac.oireachtas.ie/liberty/libraryHome.do, archived at https://perma.cc/B2TK-QLR8

[193] Users may sign up to receive alerts through the RSS feed on a variety of topics, or by the work of individuals members of the Dáil Éireann, the Seanad Éireann, at http://oireachtasdebates.oireachtas.ie/debates%20authoring/debateswebpack.nsf/(webrsstopicfeeds)?readform, archived at https://perma.cc/GXV6-SHGP.

[194] Oireachtas TV is a broadcast television channel that is streamed via the website showing selected parts of live Parliament to viewers: http://www.oireachtas.ie/parliament/watchlisten/watchoireachtastv/, archived at https://perma.cc/PB7F-KRT7.  An additional webcasting service is available that live streams the Dáil Éireann, the Seanad Éireann, and all committee rooms at http://www.oireachtas.ie/parliament/watchlisten/watchlive/, archived at https://perma.cc/2Z9H-B2BT

[195] An app, called Houses of the Oireachtas, is available on both iTunes and Google Play that provides users with the contact details of all Teachtaí Dála (members of the Dáil Éireann) and Senators, as well as constituency boundaries.  Live streaming of both houses and links to press releases are available at https://itunes.apple.com/ie/app/houses-of-the-oireachtas/id783571697?mt=8, archived at https://perma.cc/FGD7-TVG3.

[196] A calendar of events in both houses of the Oireachtas is available at http://www.oireachtas.ie/parliament/#tabs-b1, archived at https://perma.cc/9D24-W7NL.

[197] Daily and hourly videos of both houses of Parliament and committees are available for download as MP4 files at http://www.oireachtas.ie/parliament/watchlisten/downloadvideofiles/, archived at https://perma.cc/T7CE-5ADS. 

[199] The National Legislative Database (NLD) at http://main.knesset.gov.il/Activity/Legislation/Laws/Pages/LawReshumot.aspx?t=LawReshumot&st=LawReshumotBook, archived at https://perma.cc/B5CA-AQCA, enables browsing all bills and laws that are or were in effect in the State of Israel.

[200] The English language site (http://knesset.gov.il/main/eng/home.asp, archived at https://perma.cc/4NSJ-UEAM) includes general information; a list of members, committees, factions; text of basic laws, laws of special interest, and selected documents; and information on elections.

[201] The Arabic site is available at http://knesset.gov.il/main/arb/home.asp, archived at https://perma.cc/HUZ3-C87A.

[202] The Russian site (http://knesset.gov.il/main/ru/home.asp, archived at https://perma.cc/8UDL-AJC6), contains limited information.

[203] The NLD, http://main.knesset.gov.il/Activity/Legislation/Laws/Pages/LawReshumot.aspx?t=LawReshumot&st=LawReshumotBook, archived at https://perma.cc/B5CA-AQCA, enables browsing all bills and laws that are or were in effect in the State of Israel by using a clickable drop-down box of bills arranged by a word from the title, type of publication, issue number, and date.

[204] NLD search options can be expanded in order to narrow searches by date, current bills, bill status, and type.  The NLD and each of the web pages linked from the Knesset home page also have a search box for searching the whole site.

[205] The Knesset Channel broadcasts live daily sessions of the Knesset plenum at http://main.knesset.gov.il/News/Broadcast/Pages/Channel99.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/KS9S-2ZRL.  Committees hearings are broadcast at http://main.knesset.gov.il/Activity/committees/Pages/AllCommitteesBroadcast.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/P4ZU-U4TW.

[206] A special interactive site for youth is available at http://main.knesset.gov.il/Pages/KnessetForKids.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/V8UB-TG8G.

[207] Accessibility for vision-impaired persons is available from every page.

[209] The parliamentary website, http://www.parlamento.it/home, archived at https://perma.cc/HX6E-VSDU, contains two icons that lead to the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies, respectively.  Users may click on the tabs on the main banner of the page to access general information about enacted legislation, joint parliamentary sessions, bicameral committees, international relations, and the Polo Bibliotecario, which refers to an initiative of both houses of Parliament to direct their respective libraries to undertake joint activities and services including but not limited to acquisitions, user access, and common cataloguing and search capabilities.

[210] The parliamentary website, http://www.parlamento.it/home, archived at https://perma.cc/HX6E-VSDU, allows for the viewing of the Anagrafe patrimoniale or Balance Sheets of current members of Congress, government officials, and certain political party leaders. 

[211] The parliamentary website includes icons that link to the following websites: (1) the Parliamentary Balance Office, http://www.upbilancio.it/, archived at https://perma.cc/KF93-MQSY; (2) the Parliamentary Assembly – Union for the Mediterranean, http://www.paufm.org/, archived at https://perma.cc/Q6PQ-ZASR; (3) Normattiva, the Italian official portal of legislation, http://www.normattiva.it/, archived at https://perma.cc/38ZE-Q2L9; (4) the Observatory of International Politics, http://www.parlamento.it/osservatoriointernazionale, archived at https://perma.cc/4C62-63UQ; and (5) the Educational Platform on the Political Constitution, http://piattaformacostituzione.camera.it/, archived at https://perma.cc/9C24-TTGM.

[213] Senato della Repubblica (Senate of the Republic), http://www.senato.it/home, archived at https://perma.cc/HE6E-KDKQ.

[214] The Senate website contains an English version of the Italian-language portal at http://www.senato.it/3801, archived at https://perma.cc/64M8-XTMS.

[215] The site allows for the browsing of legislation and documentation, http://www.senato.it/2867, archived at https://perma.cc/D9ZP-6D2Z.

[216] Search tools, including advanced search, are available, but only in the Italian language.

[218] A Senate YouTube channel is available at https://www.youtube.com/user/SenatoItaliano, archived at https://perma.cc/MW8N-JH3V (click “See the Screenshot View”).  A “live” YouTube channel is also available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_pvpV7frfO4, archived at https://perma.cc/UAC2-JWJW.

[219] Besides a mobile version a desktop version is also available.

[220] Only a Senate Virtual Tour is available at http://www.senato.it/vt/vtall/, archived at https://perma.cc/MK4Y-9HC7.

[221] The Senate Online TV Channel is available at WebTV Senate, http://webtv.senato.it/webtv_live, archived at https://perma.cc/KNR2-KY2D.

[223] Camera dei deputati (Chamber of Deputies), http://www.camera.it/leg17/1, archived at https://perma.cc/3J6H-L836.

[224] The Chamber of Deputies’ website includes an English version at http://en.camera.it/, archived at https://perma.cc/S4R3-DVNU.

[225] The site is also available in French at http://fr.camera.it/, archived at https://perma.cc/4RGM-7TB3.

[226] The site allows for browsing, http://www.camera.it/leg17/1, archived at https://perma.cc/72MB-XXAL.

[227] Search tools, including advanced search, are available, but only in the Italian language.

[228] Twitter is available at https://twitter.com/montecitorio, archived at https://perma.cc/6V6B-LUAM.

[229] A Chamber of Deputies YouTube channel is available at https://www.youtube.com/user/cameradeideputati, archived at https://perma.cc/69KV-K9Z2 (click “See the Screenshot View”).

[230] A mobile version can be accessed at http://mobile.camera.it, archived at https://perma.cc/PQ2G-J8NE.

[231] The Chamber of Deputies Online TV Channel is available at WebTV Chamber of Deputies, http://webtv.camera.it/home, archived at https://perma.cc/5FZV-ZHJE

[232] A Facebook page is available at https://www.facebook.com/Cameradeideputati, archived at https://perma.cc/4XU5-U2KX.

[234] On the House of Representatives website, bills can be browsed by session and submitter (Cabinet, representatives, or councillors), at http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/itdb_gian.nsf/html/gian/menu.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/H3DL-CEVN

[235] The websites have search boxes on each page to search all the content on the websites.  Meeting minutes can be searched through the National Diet Meeting Record System provided by National Diet Library, at http://kokkai.ndl.go.jp/, archived at https://perma.cc/3P9V-2W6Q.

[238] On the House of Councillors website, bills can be browsed by session and assigned committee, at http://www.sangiin.go.jp/japanese/joho1/kousei/gian/193/iinkai.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/R49M-LSLZ.

[239] The websites have search boxes on each page to search all the content on the websites.  Meeting minutes can be searched through the National Diet Meeting Record System provided by National Diet Library, at http://kokkai.ndl.go.jp/, archived at https://perma.cc/3P9V-2W6Q.

[240] House of Councillors: http://www.webtv.sangiin.go.jp/webtv/index.php, archived at https://perma.cc/R8QC-QAM8 (click “See the Screenshot View”).

[241] At present there are no Law Library of Congress research staff members versed in Latvian.  This report has been prepared by the author’s reliance on practiced legal research methods and on the basis of relevant legal resources, chiefly in English, currently available in the Law Library and online.

[243] The database of legislative documents and agendas is available only in the Latvian language.

[244] Bills can be browsed by status (reading number), type (e.g., EU-related), and lead committee.  Visitors can also browse other types of parliamentary documents (resolutions, interpellations, agendas, etc.), http://titania.saeima.lv/LIVS12/saeimalivs12.nsf/webAll?OpenView, archived at https://perma.cc/ZY7N-BWEM.

[245] Id.  Visitors can search documents by keywords in the title or the whole text, by number, or by date.

[246] Users can subscribe to RSS feeds available for each bill.  They also can subscribe to twenty-nine categories of news (e.g., labor, criminal law, taxes), http://titania.saeima.lv/LIVS12/saeimalivs12.nsf/webRssSelect?Readform, archived at https://perma.cc/6NWW-YFMQ.

[247] Live streaming and a video archive are available at http://www.saeima.lv/en/legislation/plenary-sitting/video-broadcast, archived at https://perma.cc/XC9L-FWBR.

[248] Not all pages are optimized.  The mobile version is only in the Latvian language.

[250] Archived at https://perma.cc/6B88-4W4J (click “See the Screenshot View”).

[251] The Lebanese Parliament website allows users to browse reports of some legislative sessions at https://www.lp.gov.lb/ViewSessionCategories.aspx?typeId=1, archived at https://perma.cc/P8WE-MGDB; government performance oversight sessions at https://www.lp.gov.lb/ViewSessionCategories.aspx?typeId=2, archived at https://perma.cc/NP6W-KMPX; summaries of parliamentary activities at https://www.lp.gov.lb/ViewContentRecords.aspx?id=17, archived at https://perma.cc/GT5Q-M5HE; summaries of committee debates accessible by clicking on the name of each committee as displayed on the home page at https://www.lp.gov.lb/, archived at https://perma.cc/Z6VK-2436 (click “See the Screenshot View”); summaries of joint committee debates at https://www.lp.gov.lb/ViewContentRecords.aspx?id=47, archived at https://perma.cc/9V7S-TEA9; and summaries of subcommittee debates at https://www.lp.gov.lb/ViewContentCategories.aspx?id=71, archived at https://perma.cc/E5JT-T5F3.

[252] The site has a search window on the upper-left side of the screen that allows users to search the entire website.

[253] A monthly calendar of events since October 2016 is accessible by users from most pages.

[255] Written materials on the website are published in English; legislative sessions (a limited number of which are available on video on the site) are held in the vernacular language.

[256] The legislature’s website as a whole is searchable; faceted searching is unavailable.

[257] Video of a limited number of legislative sessions is available.

[259] The Mexican Senate website may be navigated using the tabs at the top of the home page or by hovering over the short menus on the left side of the page, for parliamentary information (bills, votes, senators, agendas, a searchable law database, and a page for tracking constitutional reform legislation), or the right side of the page, for administrative information (transparency policies, budget, ethics codes, etc.).  Users can search the Mexican Senate’s Gaceta containing the daily agenda, bills under consideration, and other business, at http://www.senado.gob.mx/index.php?ver=cp&mn=3, archived at https://perma.cc/HT6R-95MX.

[260] The Mexican Senate website has a search box on the right side of the top banner that may be used to search the entire website.

[261] Users of the Mexican Senate website can sign up for email updates on legislative matters at http://notisenado.com/registro/, archived at https://perma.cc/D38V-Y8HJ.

[262] Live and on demand coverage of both houses of Mexico’s Congress is available on the website of Congress’ official television channel, at http://www.canaldelcongreso.gob.mx/, archived at https://perma.cc/N7UA-ES3U.  Users can subscribe to be notified of future and retransmitted broadcasts at http://www.canaldelcongreso.gob.mx/programacion#suscripcion, archived at https://perma.cc/DQ5D-QRJV.

[263] Archived at https://perma.cc/95V3-6SQM (click “See the Screenshot View”).

[264] The Mexican House of Representatives website may be navigated using the menus on either side of the page.  Information from the latest session is available at the top right corner by date, while the “Accesos Directos” menu allows users to directly browse laws at the federal and state level, updates to laws in force, and the official gazette, among others.  The link for “Leyes Federales y Estatales” provides a list of the latest laws published in the official federal gazette, sorted by amendment date, which can be narrowed into smaller collections such as amendment summaries, abrogated federal laws, regulations related to federal laws, and individual links to state congresses and their gazettes: http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/index.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/W9TA-7LUG.  The House of Representatives’ Gaceta may be accessed at http://gaceta.diputados.gob.mx/, archived at https://perma.cc/EQC7-4299.

[265] The Mexican House of Representatives website has a search bar at the top right corner of the home page.  An advanced search feature is available at http://201.147.98.10/search?access=p&entqr=0&output=xml_no_dtd&sort=date:D:L:d1&entsp=0&ie=latin1&lr=lang_es&client=diputados&ud
=1&site=default_
collection&oe=latin1&proxystylesheet=diputados&proxycustom=%3CADVANCED/%3E
, archived at https://perma.cc/2C8Z-WH2H.

[266] In addition to live and on-demand coverage on the congressional television channel’s website, a live stream of the House of Representatives’ sessions may be accessed by clicking “Sesion en Vivo” on http://www5.diputados.gob.mx/index.php/esl/Comunicacion, archived at https://perma.cc/SWR5-AZLA.

[267] A House of Representatives app for Windows phones is available at http://www.diputados.gob.mx/windows_phone.html, archived at https://perma.cc/RQN6-NKW4.

[268] The House of Representatives website links to a podcast streaming platform (Soundcloud) page where users may listen to short news flashes (Flash Informativo), brief summaries (Síntesis Informativa), and a full length podcast-style program called Desde el Congreso.  See https://soundcloud.com/CamaradeDiputados, archived at https://perma.cc/Y54R-9548.

[269] The House of Representatives website provides site navigation solutions for persons who are visually, physically, or hearing impaired.  Users may click on a tab on the far top right of the home page (“Acceso Portal”) to open Inklusion, which allows a user to modify the page depending on their needs.  Use of Inklusion requires Adobe Flash.

[270] At present there are no Law Library of Congress research staff members versed in Dutch.  This information has been prepared by the author’s reliance on practiced legal research methods and on the basis of relevant legal resources, chiefly in English, currently available in the Law Library and online.

[272] The English content is limited to news, background information on how Parliament works, member information, organization of the given chamber (with a chart), and services to the public (including the Rules of Procedure of the given chamber and factsheets).  Texts of laws in English are not provided.

[273] The members page of the Staten-Generaal website can be browsed by name, political faction, gender, date of birth, seniority, and First /Second Chamber. 

[274] Every page of the Staten-Generaal website has a search window. 

[275] An RSS feed is available on the News and Press Release web page of the Staten-Generaal website by clicking the RSS feed icon under the heading Volg via (Follow via) on the upper-right side of the page, at http://www.staten-generaal.nl/nieuws_en_persberichten, archived at https://perma.cc/2ECN-7NY5.  The user can follow Staten-Generaal via Twitter at http://www.staten-generaal.nl/, archived at  https://perma.cc/BBN4-2J3U (icon in upper-right corner of the page), or at http://www.twitter.com/staten_generaal, archived at https://perma.cc/2DQP-8M9X.   

[276] An RSS feed is available on the News and Press Releases web page of the Staten-Generaal website, http://www.staten-generaal.nl/nieuws_en_persberichten, archived at https://perma.cc/2ECN-7NY5

[277] The Staten-Generaal has a special web page dedicated to its two-hundredth anniversary, celebrated in 2015.  200 jaar Staten-Generaal [200 Years of the Staten-Generaal], Staten-Generaal, http://www.staten-generaal.nl/begrip/200_jaar_staten_generaal, archived at https://perma.cc/CUB8-SQRF.  The page has a related app that may be downloaded from the Apple store or Google Play, according to the web page. 

[278] The various web pages of the Staten-Generaal website have a “ReadSpeaker” tool, an audio feature whereby the text on the page is read aloud, word by word, with accompanying visual highlighting in contrasting colors.  See, e.g., http://www.staten-generaal.nl/begrip/over_de_staten_generaal, archived at https://perma.cc/6ZKS-SJW5.  The ReadSpeaker icon, a red symbol in the form of a loudspeaker, is at the top right corner of the page, beside the words Lees voor (“Read for”). 

[280] The English version of the House website includes links to general information about the House and its functions, rules, and history; members of Parliament; an organizational chart; and news items.

[281] Many of the main pages of the House of Representatives website have filter options. House documents can be browsed by amendments, decisions, government letters, chamber questions, motions, and other documents.  By clicking meer (more), documents can also be browsed by voting results, reports, and bills/legislative proposal.  The number of the documents is in parentheses beside each entry.  See, e.g., https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken, archived at https://perma.cc/C5F9-PQLL.  These categories in turn have filter options—e.g., bills can be browsed by committee, type (budget, initiative, or government), or status (pending or done).  The plenary meetings (Plenaire vergaderingen) web page can be browsed by a specific time period (today, this week, last week, next week, unscheduled) or by selection of a period by a date-range feature, https://www.tweedekamer.nl/debat_en_vergadering/plenaire_vergaderingen, archived at https://perma.cc/4NM9-EZSW.  On the MPs (Kamerleden) web page, at https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerleden_en_commissies, archived at https://perma.cc/MT2K-8D3S, the names of all the members can be viewed at once, or they can be selected alphabetically. 

[282] There is a search window on every page of the House of Representatives website.

[283] Most of the chamber documents web pages of the House of Representatives website offer an email alert system that the user can register for by clicking on the “!” icon in the upper-right corner of the page; the user can sign up for notifications in any category of the website.  Op de hoogte blijven via e-mailattenderingen [Stay Informed via e-Mail Notifications], Tweede Kamer, https://www.tweedekamer.nl/applicaties/mijn-profiel, archived at https://perma.cc/SJ84-NKGU

[284] The Dutch House of Representatives website has icons for links to Facebook, Twitter, Linked-In, and email in the upper-right corner of every web page for sharing information.  The alerts can be immediate, daily, or weekly.  On the Live Debate web page under the section on debates and meetings, the House of Representatives website allows users to watch and/or listen to live debates (Live Debatten) and missed debates (Debat Gemist).  According to this web page, “[a]ll plenary sessions and public committee meetings can be viewed directly online. Only private committee meetings will not be broadcast.”  Live Debatten, Tweede Kamer, https://www.tweedekamer.nl/debat_en_vergadering/livedebatten, archived at https://perma.cc/CDS3-GDSX.  The names of seven committee rooms are listed with links for visual/audio streaming, and there are also links to “incidental broadcasts.”  Id

[285] The user can view video streams of debates in the Dutch House of Representatives on desktop computers, tablets, and mobile devices with iOS version 7 and higher or Android 4.1 and higher.  Live Debatten, Tweede Kamer, https://www.tweedekamer.nl/debat_en_vergadering/livedebatten, archived at https://perma.cc/CDS3-GDSX.  There are two apps available for use on mobile devices. 

[286] The Dutch House of Representatives offers two apps: Debat Direct (Debate Direct) for watching the meetings of the lower house live, https://www.tweedekamer.nl/debat-direct, archived at https://perma.cc/3K7B-V38M, and Vergaderapp (Meetingapp), which gives access to the agenda, committee meetings, and associated items of the lower house, https://www.tweedekamer.nl/debat-en-vergadering/vergaderapp, archived at https://perma.cc/MKS2-QK8F.

[287] The Dutch House of Representatives has a web page for an Open Data Portal, https://opendata.tweedekamer.nl/, archived at https://perma.cc/KDE6-UXN6, which is aimed at “quick and transparent public data sharing with the outside world” of legislative information. 

[291] The English version of the Senate site includes general information about Senate elections, procedures, and history, at https://www.eerstekamer.nl/begrip/english_2, archived at https://perma.cc/TH6K-5VSG.

[292] The Senate website has browse features on, for example, the bills (wetvoorstellen) web page, at https://www.eerstekamer.nl/wetsvoorstellen_2, archived at https://perma.cc/7GZ2-UVC9, where the user can conduct a bills search by committee, session year, or phase, or do a search by the number or wording of the bill.  The user can conduct a similar type of search for written interpellations (schriftelijke vragen) of the Senate, https://www.eerstekamer.nl/schriftelijke_vragen_3, archived at https://perma.cc/6S55-CXZA, by selection of a session year or by a name or keyword search; for motions https://www.eerstekamer.nl/moties_3, archived at https://perma.cc/NWZ2-SKFQ; and for commitments https://www.eerstekamer.nl/toezeggingen_2, archived at https://perma.cc/6PHE-28NN.  The term “commitments” refers to commitments made by the government during the legislative proposal process.  The Senate database “keeps track of what commitments have been made and how they are met. With the help of the database, government officials can also be more easily reminded of their commitments.”  Toezeggingen, Eerste Kamer, https://www.eerstekamer.nl/toezeggingen_2, archived at https://perma.cc/22XY-68PE.

[293] Every page of the Senate website has a search window.  A search for former Members of the Dutch Senate can be conducted at https://www.eerstekamer.nl/oud_leden, archived at https://perma.cc/WN7B-Y8AP.

[294] The home page of the Dutch Senate, under the heading Volg de Eerste Kamer (Follow the Senate) on the upper-right side of the page, has various tracking options, indicated by the standard icons, for Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and RSS; it also has a playback icon to indicate livestreaming of plenary sessions.  In addition, after conducting a search on the Dutch Senate’s bills web page and clicking on a result to view, the user will see a Status of the Bill web page that tracks measures through four phases—House, Senate (written preparation), Plenary, and announcement in the official gazette (Staatsblad)—with four grey rectangles, each topped with a red broken line to show the progress in each phase.  The web page also provides Key Data (the date the legislative proposal was submitted, its title, a hyperlink to the written preparation by a relevant committee, a hyperlink to the sponsors, and entry-into-force information) and Documentation (including, for example, hyperlinks to the Council of State advisory report, Explanatory Notes, and the law proposal text itself).  An “i” in a rectangle is a hyperlink to information about what happens to the legislation in that given phase.  This tracking feature is not on the House of Representatives website.  On these web pages for the individual Senate items of legislation, moreover, there is an icon in the upper-right corner to subscribe to an RSS feed. 

[295] An RSS feed is available on the News and Press Releases web page of the Senate website, https://www.eerstekamer.nl/nieuws_en_persberichten, archived at https://perma.cc/GEU8-R8SA.  The Senate website allows users to download and watch videos of reports to plenary meetings, at https://www.eerstekamer.nl/verslagen_plenaire_vergaderingen, archived at https://perma.cc/RLM9-J8UP 

[296] The Dutch Senate website refers to the Staten-Generaal’s web page on the two-hundredth anniversary of the Staten-Generaal, celebrated in 2015, and also refers to the availability of a free app on this subject via the Apple store and Google Play, at https://www.eerstekamer.nl/nieuws/20150831/nieuwe_website_en_app_over_200, archived at https://perma.cc/2K3B-RMCJ.  Information about the new web page and app can be shared via Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, and email, by clicking on icons in the upper-right section of the web page.

[297] The agenda of the Dutch Senate is available in a full listing of prospective dates (starting with the most recent upcoming meeting) at https://www.eerstekamer.nl/planning_eerste_kamer, archived at https://perma.cc/4EDG-G6EW.  Earlier meetings can be accessed via the EK Archived Activities (Archief activiteiten EK) hyperlink on the left side of the page and then, for even earlier meetings, by clicking on eerder (earlier) at the foot of the listings.  The home page of the Senate, https://www.eerstekamer.nl/home, archived at https://perma.cc/9NJ7-VEHA, also has a drop-down window titled “Agenda.”

[298] The various web pages of the Senate website have a “ReadSpeaker” tool, an audio feature whereby the text on the page is read aloud, word by word, with accompanying visual highlighting in contrasting colors, at https://www.eerstekamer.nl/begrip/readspeaker, archived at https://perma.cc/AUU7-5MJT.  The ReadSpeaker icon, a red symbol in the form of a loudspeaker, is at the top right corner of the page, beside the words Lees voor (“Read for”). 

[299] The Dutch Senate has an interactive seating chart of members, at https://www.eerstekamer.nl/wie_zit_waar, archived at https://perma.cc/8ZUA-S6CX.  Moving the mouse over one of the “bench” positions gives a pop-up with a picture of the member and a brief description.  Clicking in the pop-up goes to a CV of the member. 

[300] The EuropaPoort website is dedicated to news and information about the European activities of the Dutch Senate and its committees, at https://www.eerstekamer.nl/eu/, archived at https://perma.cc/SC8N-2H36

[301] The Onderwijs (Education) page is at http://onderwijs.eerstekamer.nl/, archived at https://perma.cc/TMD3-YRP6

[302] Among the links available on the Senate website at https://www.eerstekamer.nl/begrip/weblinks_3, archived at https://perma.cc/9T9R-QTBG, is one to the “Third Chamber” (Derde Kamer), a website for youth on how Dutch democracy works, https://derdekamer.nl/ (in Dutch), archived at https://perma.cc/XEF6-WJVC.  According to the Third Chamber website, it was designed and made possible by the First and Second Chamber of the States-General in cooperation with ProDemos, an organization partially subsidized by the government that educates citizens about democracy and the rule of law. 

[304] Most menu options and some page titles on the New Zealand Parliament website can be converted to Māori by clicking the language option at the top of the page.

[305] Current and previous bills of the New Zealand Parliament can be browsed by title at https://www.parliament.nz/en/pb/bills-and-laws/bills-proposed-laws/all, archived at https://perma.cc/XR88-ETP7.  

[306] On the “Bills (proposed laws)” page, users can filter using facets on the left of the page, including date, type, and the committee that a bill has been referred to.  There is also a search box at the top of each page, as well as advanced and expert search options for the whole site, at https://www.parliament.nz/en/search, archived at https://perma.cc/P4Q4-SF9V.

[307] Users of the New Zealand Parliament website can set up customized email alerts at https://www.parliament.nz/en/Alerts/, archived at https://perma.cc/8WQP-6FDC.  RSS feeds are also available, with RSS icons on various pages allowing users to click to subscribe to a particular feeding.  See Do You Want to Find Out About New Parliamentary Information?, New Zealand Parliament (July 12, 2012), https://www.parliament.nz/en/get-involved/features-pre-2016/document/00NZPHomeNews201207121/do-you-want-to-find-out-about-new-parliamentary-information, archived at https://perma.cc/9B86-FQVA.  

[308] Parliament TV, which shows proceedings in the chamber of the New Zealand House of Representatives, can be viewed live and on demand at https://www.parliament.nz/en/watch-parliament/, archived at https://perma.cc/4F4N-XDQA.  Live streams from the chamber can also be listened to online or on the Radio New Zealand National, and sessions are also available to listen to on demand at https://www.parliament.nz/en/watch-parliament/audio, archived at https://perma.cc/7A7D-MWCG.

[309] The New Zealand Parliament’s Virtual House App is available for Apple and Android devices, with information available at https://www.parliament.nz/en/get-involved/virtual-house-app/, archived at https://perma.cc/G79L-Y8P8.  The app allows users to see when Parliament is sitting, search for members and view their biography, locate where a member sits in the chamber, use an interactive display of the seating plan, watch or listen to Parliament TV, and email members.

[310] A daily calendar is provided on the home page, and a full calendar is available at https://www.parliament.nz/en/calendar, archived at https://perma.cc/9B3Z-BLPR.  The calendar links to information about hearings, sitting sessions, tours, and other events, and allows users to save events to their private calendar.  Events can be filtered by type and committee and are also color-coded. 

[312] While the website is not officially provided in any language other than Spanish, there is an icon on the top right of every page to translate its contents into multiple languages using Google Translate, regardless of browser.

[313] The Nicaraguan National Assembly website allows users to browse all bills at http://legislacion.asamblea.gob.ni/SILEG/Iniciativas.nsf/NewBuscarIniciativas.xsp, archived at https://perma.cc/UZ53-22AF.  Users can browse the latest bills by clicking on the tab “Trabajo Legislativo” on the main home page and then on “Iniciativas de Ley,” after which they may select from the latest bills introduced for debate as well as the latest laws that have been passed, all sorted by date.  The “Trabajo Legislativo” tab also links to the parliamentary debates page, grouped by law and sorted by year, at http://www.asamblea.gob.ni/trabajo-legislativo/diario-de-debates/, archived at https://perma.cc/7CTX-VJ59.  Users may also browse all legislation, treaties, decrees, and regulations from 1808 to date, sorted by category, topic, or year, at http://www.asamblea.gob.ni/Informacion%20Legislativa/, archived at https://perma.cc/M8WA-HVRW.

[314] While there is no general search bar available on the main National Assembly page, the central parliamentary library archive may be searched by either a simple term search or an advanced search, at http://bpac.asamblea.gob.ni/, archived at https://perma.cc/58ME-XFF2.  

[315] Users of the National Assembly website can subscribe to RSS news feeds by clicking on the icon at the top right corner of any page on the website.

[316] A live stream of the National Assembly is available at http://www.asamblea.gob.ni/asamblea-en-linea/, archived at https://perma.cc/TB2Z-82PY

[318] Bills that have been introduced in the National Assembly are listed in reverse date order at http://nass.gov.ng/document/bills, archived at https://perma.cc/73Y9-CZ6G.  Statutes that have been enacted are also listed at http://nass.gov.ng/document/acts, archived at https://perma.cc/V4GR-SKAG. The website has a menu entitled “About NASS” with links to information about the role and composition of the Senate, at http://nass.gov.ng/page/about-the-senate, archived at https://perma.cc/7HVN-2AKN, and the House of Representatives, http://nass.gov.ng/page/about-the-house, archived at https://perma.cc/9NUR-PH5H.  In addition there is a “Find My Legislator” link: http://nass.gov.ng/constituency/find, archived at https://perma.cc/3TDY-XJ8G

[319] Acts, bills, and other legislative documents may be searched by keyword in a search window in the middle of the home page, archived at https://perma.cc/4E5S-2WCP/, or may be accessed via the quick links at the bottom of the home page. The bills and acts pages also provide a search box for these documents, and allows users to add some additional search criteria.   

[320] The website makes it possible to subscribe to RSS feeds at http://nass.gov.ng/feed (use Firefox browser).

[321] The site has a “Live Stream” button at http://nass.gov.ng/live, archived at https://perma.cc/Q88L-6WR3.

[324] Measures on both the Senate and House pages are searchable by chamber and type.

[325] It appears the legislature is experimenting with providing video on its website of some committee meetings, but at this time very few are available.

[328] Proposed legislation dating back to 1986 can be browsed and searched at https://www.stortinget.no/no/Saker-og-publikasjoner/Saker/, archived at https://perma.cc/G9YJ-WAVW. Historic proposals dating back to 1814 can also be browsed and searched at https://www.stortinget.no/no/Saker-og-publikasjoner/Stortingsforhandlinger/, archived at https://perma.cc/22TG-6VDS.

[329] Id.

[330] RSS feeds are available for a range of information, including new publications, decisions on legislation, answered questions, new issues, and announcements related to various themes: RSS, Stortinget, https://www.stortinget.no/no/Stottemeny/RSS/, archived at https://perma.cc/A4H6-5ZYD.

[331] Live broadcasts of proceedings and hearings in the parliament can be viewed on the website: Nett TV, Stortinget, https://www.stortinget.no/no/Hva-skjer-pa-Stortinget/Stortinget-akkurat-na/nett-tv/, archived at https://perma.cc/BJL2-CZTR (click “See the Screenshot View”). Previous webcasts are available at https://www.stortinget.no/no/Hva-skjer-pa-Stortinget/Videoarkiv/Videoarkiv/, archived at https://perma.cc/WVT7-PJWG.

[332] Stortinget, Flickr, https://www.flickr.com/photos/stortinget, archived at https://perma.cc/QC47-GL8K (click “See the Screenshot View”).

[334] The Panamanian National Assembly website allows users to browse for anteproyectos and proyectos de ley (bills), which can be sorted by date, number, legislator that introduced the bill, and description.  PDFs of the bills may also be downloaded at http://www.asamblea.gob.pa/anteproyectos-de-ley/, archived at https://perma.cc/Y6BM-CPGV, and at http://www.asamblea.gob.pa/proyectos-de-ley/, archived at https://perma.cc/5ZCV-3NKZ.  Additionally, users can track the debate and approval stages for bills and can sort and search by stage, date, bill number, and title in order to access a PDF of all documents related to the legislative proceedings, at http://www.asamblea.gob.pa/seguimiento-legislativo/, archived at https://perma.cc/B7RD-KQXW.

[335] The Panamanian National Assembly website has a search box for searching the whole site.

[336] Live coverage of Panama’s National Assembly is available at http://www.asamblea.gob.pa/transmision-en-vivo/, archived at https://perma.cc/3KWM-UHVG.

[338] Several parts of the Portuguese Parliament website are also available in English and French by clicking the language option attached to the corresponding flag icon at the top right of the page.

[339] The Portuguese Parliament website allows users to browse all bills by title or search for bills, at http://www.parlamento.pt/ActividadeParlamentar/Paginas/IniciativasLegislativas.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/XD37-VX7U

[340] Id.  In order to narrow search, search options can be expanded to include type of bill, date of debates, subject, bill status, and author.

[342] Bills can be browsed by status and type at http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/, archived at https://perma.cc/4CZK-YNBY.

[343] Bills are searchable by name, number, and registration period.  Search results can be sorted by name, number, registration date, latest event, and lead committee, http://www.duma.gov.ru/systems/law/, archived at https://perma.cc/B9LU-WK6M.  Advanced options make it possible to search by type of bill, its status, subject, category, initiator of the bill, and responsible committees.  It is also possible to search all events associated with the bill, only the latest event, or the expected events.  A separate system for searching transcripts is available at http://transcript.duma.gov.ru/, archived at https://perma.cc/GQK6-R59C.  Simple and advanced options allow for searching by individual MPs, issues discussed, bill number, session number, dates, and type of speech.  Parliament resolutions can be searched at http://duma.consultant.ru/, archived at https://perma.cc/2AXV-78A3, by type, number or date of the document, and date of adoption.  The table of interpellations is also searchable http://www.duma.gov.ru/representative/interpellations/, archived at https://perma.cc/TZ4X-Q2GJ.  The voting analysis system is searchable by date, bill number, keywords, factions, and MPs, http://vote.duma.gov.ru/, archived at https://perma.cc/S9ZH-BLE2.  A separate search of video materials is available, http://www.duma.gov.ru/analytics/tv/, archived at https://perma.cc/YC69-X8HD.

[344] Users can subscribe to email newsletters (categories to be chosen from include State Duma news, committee news, statements of the Chairman, changes to rules of procedure, plenary sessions, etc.).  An RSS feed is available at http://www.duma.gov.ru/news/rss/, archived at https://perma-archives.org/warc/MWH8-2UTN/http://www.duma.gov.ru/news/rss/.  The State Duma also has official accounts in social media (Vkontakte, Instagram, Odnoklassniki, Twitter, Facebook, Telegram), http://www.duma.gov.ru/about/social/, archived at https://perma.cc/VU2N-7MG9.  It also has a YouTube channel https://www.youtube.com/user/ParlamentRu, archived at https://perma.cc/YUG6-R2CZ.

[345] Live streaming and recorded videos of plenary sessions, declarations of the Chairman, and a TV program called Parliamentary Hour are available at http://www.duma.gov.ru/analytics/tv/, archived at https://perma.cc/C7NC-6EPB.

[346] Unofficial applications are available—e.g., https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=ru.merkulyevsasha.gosduma&hl=ru, archived at https://perma.cc/JS2W-QWFS.  A number of official applications for working with bills, news, phone numbers, sessions, etc., are available to authorized personnel only at https://mobile.parliament.gov.ru, archived at https://perma.cc/8V47-TRZ4

[347] API tools for searching bills are offered to website administrators, http://api.duma.gov.ru/, archived at https://perma.cc/9K3Y-4LVB

[348] A special version for visually impaired visitors is available, http://spec.duma.gov.ru/, archived at https://perma.cc/H7BA-2HCF.

[349] Detailed statistics and a visual pipeline of bills is available at http://www.duma.gov.ru/legislative/statistics/, archived at https://perma.cc/J56R-BE5B

[350] Users can open a personal account at the virtual reception, https://priemnaya.parliament.gov.ru/, archived at https://perma.cc/9LFP-7CGD, to send requests, make an appointment, or find an MP.

[352] All documents can be browsed by type in chronological order, http://www.council.gov.ru/activity/documents/?doc_type=, archived at https://perma.cc/F9EB-CXLJ.  Bills initiated by the Council (http://www.council.gov.ru/activity/legislation/, archived at https://perma.cc/X68Y-54SV) and bills rejected by the Council (http://www.council.gov.ru/activity/legislation/rejected/, archived at https://perma.cc/UE7J-5UW3) can be viewed in a table format.  Sessions can be browsed at http://www.council.gov.ru/activity/meetings/, archived at https://perma.cc/M7D7-CGGF, including agenda, transcripts, voting results, video recording, etc.

[353] Visitors can search for information using different categories (news, activities, photos, and video), http://www.council.gov.ru/services/search/, archived at https://perma.cc/L4RB-284R.  Search results can be shown by relevance or chronologically.

[354] The website offers email subscription for general news, committee news, main topics, and news from the Chairman of the Council and Senators in the regions.  Users can choose periodic emails (every day or every hour).  RSS feeds are also available, http://www.council.gov.ru/services/subscribe/, archived at https://perma.cc/QXD5-XELW.

[355] Live streaming and an online TV channel are available at http://www.council.gov.ru/events/streams/, archived at https://perma.cc/QM75-CXXD.

[357] Visitors can send a request to the Federation Council after registering by email or signing up for a social media account, http://council.gov.ru/users/login/, archived at https://perma.cc/E8TE-68VB.  They can also leave comments on bills at http://www.council.gov.ru/services/discussions/laws/, archived at https://perma.cc/QS6V-KBWP.

[359] The English language website of Majlis al-Shūrā (Consultative Council) is limited and outdated: https://www.shura.gov.sa/wps/wcm/connect/ShuraEn/internet/Home/, archived at https://perma.cc/WJ3E-BT7X.

[360] The Majlis al-Shūrā (Consultative Council) website allows users to browse agenda related to topics to be discussed by the Council: https://www.shura.gov.sa/wps/wcm/connect/shuraarabic/internet/Session+Agenda/Seventh+Term-1st+Year/27/, archived at https://perma.cc/2ATX-J8XP.

[361] A search tool box is available on both the Arabic and English versions of the website, at https://www.shura.gov.sa/wps/wcm/connect/ShuraArabic/internet/Home, archived at https://perma.cc/5P3J-2VR2.

[362] Users of the Majlis al-Shūrā (Consultative Council) website can subscribe to RSS news feeds to get the latest updates.

[363] The Majlis al-Shūrā (Consultative Council) media feature is available to the public. Recorded hearings, organized by date, can be watched at https://www.shura.gov.sa/wps/wcm/connect/ShuraArabic/internet/Audio+and+Video/Council+Sessions/Sixth+Course-Fourth+Year/, archived at https://perma.cc/8WD4-7B6T.

[365] The website of the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia is also available in English, at http://www.parlament.gov.rs/national-assembly.467.html, archived at https://perma.cc/Y5RV-NMT5.  It contains information on news, the Parliament’s activity, plenary sittings, and information on adopted laws and laws under consideration.  The link “Important Documents” contains English texts of the country’s Constitution, laws on the Parliament, and Parliamentary Rules of Procedure.  Only a few other laws are translated into English.

[366] The Serbian Parliament website allows the user to browse documents by keyword or by relevance, at http://www.parlament.gov.rs/narodna-skupstina-.872.html, archived at https://perma.cc/DGH4-RNDV.  Laws and other documents, including bills debated by the Parliament, can also be searched by date and keyword, at http://www.parlament.gov.rs/akti/zakoni-u-proceduri/zakoni-u-proceduri.1037.html, archived at https://perma.cc/VY4U-PHNW.

[367] The National Assembly website has a search box on each page for a key word search of the entire site, at http://www.parlament.gov.rs/narodna-skupstina-.871.html, archived at https://perma.cc/BTV4-FPDX.  The search engine allows browsing through all acts of the legislature based on their type.

[368] The National Assembly’s website does not allow for tracking legislation, but major news reports and updates are provided through the Twitter account at https://twitter.com/O_Parlament, archived at https://perma.cc/J5F8-HUQM.

[369] Recorded webcasts of past plenary sessions are available online.  They can be watched through computers and mobile devices, at http://www.parlament.gov.rs/narodna-skupstina-.871.html, archived at https://perma.cc/BTV4-FPDX.  The Serbian Parliament also has its own channel on YouTube, at https://www.youtube.com/user/ParlamentSrbija, archived at https://perma.cc/3A3Y-VJKW.

[370] The National Assembly website provides information on Serbian cooperation with the European Union and European Union accession efforts, including major legislative documents related to implementation of Serbia-EU agreements, at http://www.parlament.gov.rs/activities/european-integration.606.html, archived at https://perma.cc/SCT7-6REL.        

[372] The legislation on the South African Parliament’s website, which goes back ten years, can be browsed a number of ways at https://www.parliament.gov.za/legislation?sorts[date]=-1, archived at https://perma.cc/Q3S5-ZZXX.  Users can navigate between bills, section 76 bills, mandates, and Acts of Parliament by making a selection on the right side of the page.  Each subsection has a dropdown menu or search features to narrow results, except for section 76 legislation (bills affecting provinces before the National Council of Provinces), which are listed chronologically and are easy to view.  All other bills are assigned one of seven different colors to indicate their status in the legislative process.  

[373] The South African Parliament website has a universal search box on the top banner for all items in the site.  In addition, certain specific publications (Acts of Parliament, Parliamentary papers, and Hansard) include their own search boxes. 

[374] Live and recorded sessions of the South African Parliament are available through Parliament TV, including a YouTube channel at https://www.youtube.com/user/ParliamentofRSA, archived at https://perma.cc/3Y2G-QT7C, and Parliament Radio at https://www.parliament.gov.za/whatson#parlradio, archived at https://perma.cc/PU84-2Z2E.  

[375] The South African Parliament reportedly launched Apple and Android applications in 2013.  See Dianne Hawker, Parliament Gets Tech Savvy with an App, eNews Channel Africa (Oct. 12, 2013), http://www.enca.com/south-africa-technology/parliament-gets-tech-savvy-app-0, archived at https://perma.cc/N3J4-372M.

[376] Copies of the programs of both houses of Parliament, as well as the committee meeting schedule and the Parliament TV schedule, are available on the Parliament website, at https://www.parliament.gov.za/whatson, archived at https://perma.cc/RZY9-SCGV.

[377] At present there are no Law Library of Congress research staff members versed in Korean.  This information has been prepared by the author’s reliance on practiced legal research methods and on the basis of relevant legal resources, chiefly in English, currently available in the Law Library and online.

[379] Bills can be browsed by “recent passage,” “latest acceptance,” and “plenary session items,” at http://likms.assembly.go.kr/bill/main.do, archived at https://perma.cc/W9E3-5SZS

[380] The websites have search boxes on each page of the site to search all the content on the websites.  In addition, there is search system for bills and members information.

[381] Webcast is available at http://assembly.webcast.go.kr/, archived at https://perma.cc/NE5P-N85D.

[384] Only titles and subtitles are available in English after clicking the “English” link in the upper-right corner of the home page.  However, many of the linked pages and related search/browse features are available in English.

[385] The Congress of Deputies website allows users to browse all bills by title or sponsor’s name at http://www.congreso.es/portal/page/portal/Congreso/Congreso, archived at https://perma.cc/UAW4-G85X, and http://www.congreso.es/portal/page/portal/Congreso/Congreso/Mapa%20Web, archived at https://perma.cc/S752-37AB.

[386] Bills, parliamentary debates, and other information is available at http://www.congreso.es/portal/page/portal/Congreso/Congreso/Publicaciones, archived at https://perma.cc/5ZVK-N6BD.

[387] Although there are no tracking or alert functions on the website itself, users may follow legislative information and news through the Congress of Deputies’ Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube pages by clicking on the relevant icons in the upper-right corner of the home page, at http://www.congreso.es/portal/page/portal/Congreso/Congreso, archived at https://perma.cc/7ECN-V8EW.

[388] Live coverage of congressional hearings and debates are available on the website of Congress’s channel at http://www.congreso.es/portal/page/portal/Congreso/Congreso/CongresoTV/ConDir, archived at https://perma.cc/L2FM-92TJ.

[389] A free app downloadable is available from iTunes (Congreso 2.0) to access to parliamentary activity including voting records, at https://itunes.apple.com/es/app/congreso-2.0/id657298168?mt=8&ls=1, archived at https://perma.cc/7WC9-PBYA.

[391] Versions of the website in one of the various languages may be accessed by clicking the desired language in the upper-right corner of the home page.  However, content is not fully translated and degree of translation varies by language.

[392] Parliamentary activity may be browsed under the “Actividad Parlamentaria” tab by clicking “Actualidad,” at http://www.senado.es/web/actividadparlamentaria/actualidad/agenda/index.html, archived at https://perma.cc/HCF9-WGM9.  Users can use the menu on the left side of the page to access the daily agenda for the Senate, news, and bills currently under consideration (including the stage in the legislative process in either chamber), as well as those that have already been approved. 

[393] A general search bar is available in the upper-right corner of each page.  Additionally, a search bar to find senators by first or last name or position can be found in the lower-left corner of the home page.

[395] A children’s educational portal is available at http://www.senado.es/pequenosenado/es, archived at https://perma.cc/VJA7-4R8N.

[397] List of available languages, Other Languages, Sveriges Riksdag, http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/sprak/other-languages/, archived at https://perma.cc/RE3C-NEH7.

[398] Different types of documents, including government bills and individual proposals, can be browsed and at http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/dokument-lagar/, archived at https://perma.cc/3D6R-LBZJ.

[399] A search box for the whole website is provided at the top of each page. The documents page above enables searching using multiple facets, including year, legislator, Cabinet member, party, parliamentary session, and date.

[400] Users can subscribe to RSS feeds and email alerts regarding decisions and documents: Följ och prenumerera, Sveriges Riksdag, http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/folj-och-prenumerera/, archived at https://perma.cc/YEC2-DHJN.

[401] Live and archived videos of parliamentary proceedings can be viewed on the website: Webb-tv, Sveriges Riksdag, http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/webb-tv/, archived at https://perma.cc/ZBE7-TYEC.

[402] Users can subscribe to the parliamentary calendar in order to add events to their own calendar: Prenumerera på riksdagens kalenderhändelser, Sveriges Riksdag, http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/folj-och-prenumerera/prenumerera-pa-kalenderhandelser/, archived at https://perma.cc/KDT8-JUVP.

[403] Data on the parliament’s website can be downloaded and used freely by developers, journalists, researchers, etc. to develop their own services and statistics.  The open data includes an API, data sets, and reports. There is a separate website for open data information: Riksdagens öppna data, Sveriges Riksdag, http://data.riksdagen.se/, archived at https://perma.cc/B22U-EFBE.

[405] A separate English page of the Legislative Yuan website provides limited information: http://www.ly.gov.tw/en/innerIndex.action, archived at https://perma.cc/YQQ5-E2FA

[406] The Legislative Yuan website allows browsing laws by subjects and responsible government authorities: http://lis.ly.gov.tw/lglawc/lglawkm?.3a2829080000000C000000^00000E10020080000000010000271003eea, archived at https://perma.cc/AXU3-EG3N.

[407] The Legislative Yuan website allows searching laws by keywords found in the title or full text of the law, and by date of publication or passage by the Legislative Yuan: http://lis.ly.gov.tw/lglawc/lglawkm?.91f417920001000000000001E000^000000020A0000000009002003ef2(click on blue Chinese link on the left), archived at https://perma.cc/4Z2H-PUVH.  

[408] Users can subscribe to RSS news feeds to receive updates on a variety of topics at http://law.moj.gov.tw/RSS/RSS.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/H2K2-STFZ.

[409] The Legislative Yuan website provides recorded videos of meetings and forums at http://www.ly.gov.tw/innerIndex.action?v=media, archived at https://perma.cc/LBQ8-B3LD; live streaming of meetings available at http://ivod.ly.gov.tw/, archived at https://perma.cc/VN94-RBP4.  The Legislative Yuan also operates a YouTube Channel, “Legislative Yuan Congress Open Channel”: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFrJAt5Z9lhu6TdXWBU4Rvg, archived at https://perma.cc/9WBC-7MN5.

[410] The Legislative Yuan website adopts a version suitable for mobile devices: http://www.ly.gov.tw/pda/innerIndex.action, archived at https://perma.cc/5T2F-XVWJ.

[411] Recorded videos and live streaming of meetings are available on the app Legislative Yuan Proceedings Broadcast, at https://itunes.apple.com/tw/app/立法院議事轉播/id793008881?l=zh&mt=8, archived at https://perma.cc/9GQF-3WLN.

[412] A separate children’s version of the website is available for educational purposes: http://kids.ly.gov.tw/, archived at https://perma.cc/7P7B-7SN8.

[414] The availability of each category of the documents is limited.  For instance, the Acts available on the website only cover those enacted in the current and previous legislative year, and only bills considered in the last three years are available. 

[415] While the Tanzania Parliamentary website provides a language option for English or Swahili on the top right side of the page, some items (including the Debates, Parliamentary Reports, and Order Papers) are available only in Kiswahili. 

[416] Items on the website are organized in a user-friendly manner.  For instance, the bills available on the website include a table tracing their legislative progression.  The site also makes available a separate search box for such items. 

[417] The website has a universal search box; however, it does not work well.  Each category of document available on the website (such as Acts and Bill) also comes with a separate search box. 

[418] Users can subscribe to get monthly updates on certain items available on the page.

[419] Citing cost concerns, the Tanzanian government recently ended live coverage of parliamentary debates on public radio and television.  Rosina John & Louis Kolumbia, 11 Petition Court over Ban on Live Bunge Coverage, The Citizen (June 28, 2016), http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/1840340-3270748-knrep3z/index.html, archived at https://perma.cc/8D47-4Q9N.  However, it appears that limited coverage, more specifically access to morning question-and-answer sessions, continues to be made available.  Athuman Mtulya, Laws That Challenged Press Freedom, The Citizen (Dec. 29, 2016), http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Laws-that-challenged-press-freedom/1840340-3500934-rqour2z/index.html, archived at https://perma.cc/7BM9-CDEP.

[421] An option to change the website’s language to French appears to be inoperative.

[422] Draft bills before the Parliament are listed by and can be browsed by their reference number at http://www.arp.tn/site/projet/AR/index.jsp?c_t=17&prof=5, archived at https://perma.cc/QC7H-K3VT, and draft laws before committees are listed at http://www.arp.tn/site/projet/AR/index.jsp?c_t=39&prof=3, archived at https://perma.cc/DJV4-6UJJ.  There are also links for bills that have been withdrawn or challenged.

[423] The Tunisian website allows users to search for law projects pending before Parliament at http://www.arp.tn/site/projet/AR/index.jsp?c_t=17&prof=5, archived at https://perma.cc/W73E-HTLA, and before committees at http://www.arp.tn/site/projet/AR/index.jsp?c_t=39&prof=3, archived at https://perma.cc/DJV4-6UJJ; it also allows users to search for committee reports at http://www.arp.tn/site/projet/AR/index.jsp?c_t=40&prof=3, archived at https://perma.cc/5VUX-CQJJ; for debates of the general sessions at http://www.arp.tn/site/debat/AR/index2.jsp?c_t=84, archived at https://perma.cc/Z3AZ-24LC; and for projects of law withdrawn by the government at http://www.arp.tn/site/projet/AR/index.jsp?c_t=38&prof=4, archived at https://perma.cc/8LVS-388X.  The website also provides basic and advanced search functions for current laws and agreements at http://www.arp.tn/site/loi/AR/index.jsp, archived at https://perma.cc/5Y9X-QQ6G.   

[424] A YouTube link is provided on each page of the website, which takes users to the channel for the People’s Assembly, https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCPuzHxQuP5Roi7wvQ97NHpg, archived at https://perma.cc/7VHF-PRSJ?type=image (click “See the Screenshot View”).  The link displays a livestream video, if available, and contains videos of committee proceedings and speeches or debates in the Assembly.

[425] A calendar for the last two month is accessible by clicking on a pdf icon displayed on the opening page.  The calendar for April/May of 2017 was accessed at http://www.arp.tn/site/servlet/Fichier?code_obj=97595&code_exp=1&langue=1, archived at https://perma.cc/J3R7-B8JJ.

[426] At present there are no Law Library of Congress research staff members versed in Turkish.  This information has been prepared by the author’s reliance on practiced legal research methods and on the basis of relevant legal resources, chiefly in English, currently available in the Law Library and online.

[428] Below the heading Aylara Göre Kabul Edilen Kanunlar (“Adopted Laws According to Month”), the user can browse laws adopted in the current legislative session of the Grand National Assembly of the Republic of Turkey (TBMM), listed by month in reverse chronological order, at https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/develop/owa/kanunlar_sd.sorgu_baslangic, archived at https://perma.cc/3EVT-PYEW.  Laws adopted in prior legislative sessions (Geçmiş Dönem Kabul Edilen Kanunlar) can be browsed by year, at https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/develop/owa/kanunlar_gd.sorgu_baslangic, archived at https://perma.cc/85CU-N9GU.  The executed search leads to a search results page; successive clicks on the law number (highlighted in maroon) leads to the text of the law.  The texts of TBMM general meeting minutes (Genel Kurul Tutanakları), listed by session, can be browsed at https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/tutanak/tutanaklar.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/2T4D-HUTT; summaries of the minutes can be browsed at https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/tutanak/donem26/tutanak1.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/8ZLL-9A62, by syntheses (birleşim), summary (özet), audio summary (sesli özet), videos with sign language (İşaret Dili), and open voting results (açık oylama sonuçları).   

[429] On every web page of the Grand National Assembly website, in the upper-right corner, there is a Search (Arama) button.  Bills (kanun tasarı) and proposals (teklifleri) may be searched for by session and legislative year, law group (i.e., bills or proposals), number, starting date, end date, summary, and content, at https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/develop/owa/tasari_teklif_sd.sorgu_baslangic, archived at  https://perma.cc/2JJ8-W97P.  Laws (kanun) can be searched for by law number, acceptance (start/end) date, publication date in Resmi Gazete (the official gazette, enter start/end date), and law title, at https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/develop/owa/kanunlar_sd.sorgu_baslangic, archived at https://perma.cc/3EVT-PYEW.  According to a note on the web page, however, while laws are published after being adopted by the Grand National Assembly, the published texts can be replaced by other laws.  To access the latest version of an applicable law one should consult the law database on the website of the Prime Ministry, at http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr, archived at https://perma.cc/JM8U-9EWB.  A similar set of search options is available for decisions (kararlar), https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/develop/owa/tbmm_kararlari_sd.sorgu_baslangic, archived at https://perma.cc/R9M9-4RZ7; decrees (Kanun Hükmünde Kararnameler, KHK), https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/develop/owa/khk_sd.sorgu_baslangic, archived at https://perma.cc/C35B-63YW; and committee reports (komisyon raporları), https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/develop/owa/sirasayi_sd.sorgu_baslangic, archived at https://perma.cc/A3HG-J4YC.  The general meeting minutes may be searched at https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/develop/owa/tutanak_sd.sorgu_baslangic, archived at https://perma.cc/UWX7-28RP; committee minutes are searchable at https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/develop/owa/komisyon_tutanaklari.kom_liste, archived at https://perma.cc/LQ54-KE25.  Alternatively, the user can search law texts and decisions through the TBMM Law and Decision Information System (TBMM Kanun ve Karar Bilgi Sistemi), at https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/kanunlarvekararlar.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/9ZMA-6FNM.

[430] Icons for Facebook, Twitter, RSS feeds, and email alerts appear on the right side of every page of the Grand National Assembly website.  The TBMM RSS feeds web page, https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/rss.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/Q87F-R4KD, has twelve RSS feed icons, for Parliament News, the Speaker’s daily schedule, the Speaker’s activities, the Speaker’s Press Releases, Bills and Proposals, oral motions, written motions, laws, main committee reports, parliamentary calendar, General Assembly Index, and parliamentary research proposals.  The bottom of the web page has links for using RSS feeds on different devices and operating systems.

[431] A live broadcast of TBMM activities is available on TBMM TV, at http://www.tbmmtv.gov.tr/, archived at https://perma.cc/T8NF-M7VK

[432] The bottom of the TBMM RSS feeds web page, https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/rss.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/Q87F-R4KD, has links for using RSS feeds on different devices and operating systems, including i-Phones. 

[433] If the user clicks on the Mobile Applications (Mobil Uygulamalar) among the facets on the right side of most pages, four hyperlinked options for obtaining a mobile application free download will appear:   iTunes App Store, Google Play, Windows Store, and Windows Phone.

[434] The TBMM calendar can be accessed at https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/develop/owa/takvim.ekran, archived at https://perma.cc/QDQ2-D7T5.  Daily, weekly, or monthly calendar views may be selected on the top right of the web page; calendars of other months/years may be viewed by using the calendar selection feature on the top left.  The home page of the TBMM also has a continuous scroll of parliamentary events.

[435] The Children’s Portal (TBMM Çocuk Portalı) is at https://cocuk.tbmm.gov.tr/anasayfap3.html, archived at https://perma.cc/6JG6-Q655.

[436] Summaries of the minutes of the TBMM can be browsed by sign-language (İşaret Dili) videos (without sound) at https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/tutanak/donem26/tutanak1.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/8ZLL-9A62.  Sign language is also inserted in some videos that have sound on the Children’s Portal web pages, at https://cocuk.tbmm.gov.tr/anasayfap3.html, archived at https://perma.cc/6JG6-Q655.

[438] The Russian version of the Ukrainian Verkhovna Rada (Parliament) website contains information on announcements, bills, and laws, at http://iportal.rada.gov.ua/ru, archived at https://perma.cc/BTR4-DPS4.  Legal acts defining the Verkhovna Rada’s activity are officially translated into Russian, but other legislation is not.  Clicking on “Bills and Laws of Ukraine” redirects the user to the Ukrainian language version of the website.

[439] The English version of the website, at http://iportal.rada.gov.ua/en#, archived at https://perma.cc/V6C5-AACB, contains legislative news, information on the administrative and territorial division of Ukraine, and the laws of Ukraine.  The “Laws of Ukraine” page has 1,843 abstracts of Ukrainian laws in English.  Among them are twenty-two abstracts of laws that were accepted before August 24, 1991, when Ukraine became an independent state.  This page has not been updated since October 14, 2014.

[440] The Ukrainian Parliament website allows the user to browse and locate information on the structure of the Verkhovna Rada, its offices, individual members, interparliamentary relations, and legislative documents related to specific government projects and programs by clicking the tabs on the top of the page.  A special section found directly on the home page is dedicated to the current session and allows users to access the legislative calendar and bills under consideration.  Bills accessible through the website can be searched by date, title, or keyword, at http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb2/webproc2, archived at https://perma.cc/9SSG-5GSM.  The website is connected with the national legislative information database where users can also search for Ukrainian legislation by title, keyword, publisher, type of document, date, or the document’s identifying Parliament or Ministry of Justice numbers, at http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/find/a, archived at https://perma.cc/CUV4-QKKW.

[441] The Ukrainian Parliament website has a search box on each page for searching the entire site, at http://www.rada.gov.ua/, archived at https://perma.cc/PT8U-DNXT.  The law search engine of the Parliament website makes it possible to find laws by key word or in an advanced search with more parameters, at http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws, archived at https://perma.cc/J7RB-G94C.

[442] Users of the Verkhovna Rada website can subscribe to RSS news feed to get the latest news reports and press releases regarding parliamentary activities, by clicking “RSS” at the top right corner of any page on the website.

[443] The user can watch online sessions of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine via the Parliament website, at http://iportal.rada.gov.ua/video/rada-tv/64430.html, archived at https://perma.cc/R5Z7-75GR.  Select taped briefings, committee hearings, and individual statements of the Verkhovna Rada members are available as well.  Also, the Verkhovna Rada has its own channel on YouTube, at https://www.youtube.com/user/RadaTVchannel, archived at https://perma.cc/55UA-ZEBT.

[444] The official Parliament website has a link to an Open Data portal at http://opendata.rada.gov.ua/, archived at https://perma.cc/9F52-28H6 (click “See the Screenshot View”), providing access to public information of the Verkhovna Rada.  Comprehensive information on legislation, legislative activities of the political factions, caucuses, declarations, and required documents of individual members is available for free use and dissemination, even for commercial purposes. 

[446] The UK Parliament’s website, http://parliament.uk, archived at https://perma.cc/8RTU-VVJ9, allows users to browse bills, the work of the various committees, publications, and the records of both houses of Parliament.

[447] The search function pulls up all content available at http://parliament.uk.  An additional search tool allows users to filter content by section, such as “Parliamentary Business” and “MPs, Lords & Offices.”  Hansard, the official record of parliamentary debates, can be searched separately with a more in-depth search tool at https://hansard.parliament.uk/, archived at https://perma.cc/HNC8-UTZP.  A new beta search of parliamentary material to allow users to conduct a more directed search is available at http://search-material.parliament.uk/, archived at https://perma.cc/7LCP-6K6D.     

[448] Users may sign up to receive alerts from parliament at https://subscriptions.parliament.uk/accounts/UKPARLIAMENT/subscriber/new?, archived at https://perma.cc/Q8YK-WG6G, or sign up for the RSS feed at http://www.parliament.uk/site-information/rss-feeds/, archived at https://perma.cc/D2TX-X3UC

[449] Each house of Parliament, plus the committees, can be watched live online.  The House of Commons can be watched at http://www.parliamentlive.tv/Commons, archived at https://perma.cc/G9KA-QKBD, and the House of Lords can be watched at http://www.parliamentlive.tv/Lords, archived at https://perma.cc/QFA6-SYCY.  The work of the committees can be watched at http://www.parliamentlive.tv/Committees, archived at https://perma.cc/9VHD-RNPS.  Online footage of both houses has been archived back to December 3, 2007, and may be searched and then viewed at http://www.parliamentlive.tv/Search?Area, archived at https://perma.cc/6BG3-8WXA.

[450] There are a number of different apps provided by Parliament.uk.  My Constituency–UK Parliament provides statistical information on election results, unemployment, youth unemployment, child poverty, wages, house prices, and foreign-born UK residents for each parliamentary constituency at https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/my-constituency-uk-parliament/id641577373?mt=8, archived at https://perma.cc/NDL2-DNRM.  The Commons Order Papers app provides the latest version of the Commons Order Papers at https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/commons-order-papers/id691958985?mt=8, archived at https://perma.cc/5N9K-VV8H.  The Commons Votes app shows how members of Parliament have voted approximately twenty minutes after the result is announced in the Chamber at https://www.parliament.uk/business/news/2016/november/mobile-app-for-vote-results-launched/, archived at https://perma.cc/GM4S-GLFV.  The Parliament Education Service of the UK Parliament has also provided the ParliQuiz app that tests users’ knowledge on parliamentary process, procedures, and politics at https://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/parliquiz/id406504514?mt=8, archived at https://perma.cc/H8HY-NUNS.  The HousePapers App provides papers from both houses of Parliament on a monthly basis at https://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/housepapers/id982210605?mt=8, archived at https://perma.cc/97US-4XBB.  The Lords Business Papers App provides an online version of the business papers of the House of Lords at https://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/lords-business-papers/id953487643?mt=8, archived at https://perma.cc/X6AK-AYLL.     

[451] A separate platform for parliamentary open data has been created, at http://www.data.parliament.uk/, archived at https://perma.cc/7JTU-WEM7. Data is available in a variety of formats and can be accessed in different ways, including an interactive API explorer.

[453] There are a variety of ways to browse data in Congress.gov, at https://www.congress.gov/browse, archived at https://perma.cc/5A8C-TCL2.

[454] Congress.gov has a variety of ways to search the data.  Two prominent methods are the advanced search options, at https://www.congress.gov/advanced-search/legislation, archived at https://perma.cc/C5S8-7RJW; and quick search options, at https://www.congress.gov/quick-search/legislation, archived at https://perma.cc/W2D9-DGWG

[455] Congress.gov users can subscribe by email to receive updates on new activity on a specific bill or a new summary, or text for each bill in the current congress.  All RSS and email alerts are listed at https://www.congress.gov/rss, archived at https://perma.cc/A4XC-A2XD.

[456] Congress.gov provides links to videos published on the House and Senate websites.

[457] Congress.gov uses a responsive design that adapts for mobile devices.  See Andrew Weber, Add Congress.gov to Your Home Screen, In Custodia Legis (Aug. 20, 2013), http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2013/08/add-congress-gov-to-your-home-screen/, archived at https://perma.cc/YH8K-HSQQ

[458] There is an app specifically for the Congressional Record, https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/the-congressional-record/id492077075, archived at https://perma.cc/GF5W-AP3K.  However, there is no app for the legislation or other information available on Congress.gov. 

[459] Congress.gov Bill Status data is available from GPO’s FDsys bulk data repository.  Bulk data may be imported into spreadsheets and databases.  Information about Congress.gov XML Bulk Data is provided at https://www.congress.gov/about/data, archived at https://perma.cc/6NTP-AFQX

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Last Updated: 10/02/2017