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Summary

Ukraine is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking, and human trafficking remains an acute problem in the country.  The problem is addressed in numerous laws and implementing regulations.  The Ministry of Social Policy is the government agency that coordinates the activities of national and regional (local) government bodies working to combat human trafficking.  The Ministry of Social Policy reviews all human trafficking cases, decides whether to grant an individual the status of a human trafficking victim, and runs rehabilitation facilities for the victims.  Human trafficking is a crime prosecuted under the Criminal Code, and the National Police together with the State Border Guard Service are the two major law enforcement agencies involved in investigating and prosecuting this crime.  Periodic professional training for public employees, educators, social workers, investigators, prosecutors, judges, and lawyers who work with victims of human trafficking is required by law and is conducted by government institutions through the existing system of continuing professional education.  National and international nongovernmental organizations assist government institutions in training law enforcement personnel.  A number of textbooks, guidelines, and case studies have been published and distributed among those who are working to fight human trafficking.

I.  Introduction

Human trafficking is a significant issue for Ukraine.  According to a recent US Department of State report, it is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking.[1]  Since 1991, when Ukraine became an independent state, over 160,000 of its citizens became victims of human trafficking,[2] making Ukraine one of the largest “suppliers” of slave labor in Europe.[3]

The International Organization for Migration (IOM) Mission in Ukraine has reported that in 2010 there were 1,085 identified victims of human trafficking, 814 in 2011, 945 in 2012, 929 in 2013, and 903 in 2014.[4]  Citizens of Ukraine are usually trafficked to the Russian Federation (46%), Poland (13%), Turkey (11%), and other European Union countries (14%).[5]  From 2003 to June 2015, victims of human trafficking within Ukraine came from Moldova (65%), Central Asian countries (20%), the Russian Federation (5%), Vietnam (5%), and other countries (5%).[6]

According to IOM statistics, human trafficking for sexual exploitation has decreased from 34% in 2010 to 6% in 2014.[7]  However, human trafficking for labor exploitation saw a significant increase from 56% in 2010 to 91% by 2014.[8]  In 2010 and 2011, the majority of the identified victims were women (64% in 2010 and 58% in 2011), but in 2012–2014 the number of male victims prevailed (56% in 2012, 52% in 2012, and 58% in 2014).[9]

Regarding other forms of exploitation, the Group of Experts on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA) reported that ten Ukrainians in 2010 and four in 2012 were trafficked for the purpose of organ removal.[10]  Experts also pointed to cases of internal trafficking within Ukraine, with 114 identified victims in 2010, 79 in 2011, and 139 in 2012.[11]

Because of the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, over 1.3 million people have been displaced since March 1, 2014.[12]  According to experts, these people are especially vulnerable to exploitation.[13]  There have been reports of kidnappings from conflict-affected areas for the purpose of sex and labor trafficking, as well as employing minors as soldiers and informants or using them as human shields.[14]

Ukraine declares its adherence to international standards for combating human trafficking.  In addition to the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings,[15] Ukraine ratified the United Nations (UN) Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (2004)[16] and its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children,[17] the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1991)[18] and the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (2003),[19] the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1981)[20] and its Optional Protocol (2003),[21] and the following conventions elaborated under the International Labor Organization (ILO), relevant to combating human trafficking: the Convention Concerning Forced or Compulsory Labor (No. 29),[22] the Convention Concerning the Abolition of Forced Labor (No. 105),[23] and the Convention Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (No. 182).[24]

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II.  Legislation on Human Trafficking

A.  Legal Framework

Over the past decade, Ukraine has taken a number of significant steps to develop a legal and institutional framework for combating human trafficking.  This framework has evolved over the years in light of the country’s international commitments, and now includes laws on the following topics:

  • Combating Trafficking in Human Beings[25]
  • Immigration[26]
  • Legal Status of Foreigners and Stateless Persons[27]
  • Protection of Individuals Involved in Criminal Proceedings[28]
  • Operative-Investigative Activity[29]
  • Social Services[30]
  • Social Work with Families, Children and Youth[31]
  • Employment of the Population[32]
  • Securing Equal Rights and Opportunities for Women and Men[33]
  • Protection of Childhood[34]
  • Bodies and Services for Children’s Affairs and Special Institutions for Children[35]
  • Nationwide Program “National Action Plan to Implement the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child” for the Period Until 2016[36]

Procedural issues are resolved by a set of government regulations, resolutions, and orders issued by the Cabinet of Ministers and individual executive agencies responsible for law enforcement and implementation of social policies.  These documents establish guidelines on the provision of services to victims of human trafficking,[37] the standards for services offered to such persons[38] including social and psychological rehabilitation,[39] especially for children,[40] and the benefits they are entitled to receive in Ukraine;[41] define government institutions tasked with fighting against trafficking in human beings and regulate their activities and legal status;[42] provide for coordination among government agencies in the field of fighting human trafficking[43] and approve procedures for their interaction;[44] and stipulate procedures for identifying a person as a trafficking victim.[45]  Since 2012, a national registry of human-trafficking-related crimes has been maintained by the Ministry of Internal Affairs (police).[46]

In October 2015, the Cabinet of Ministers approved the State Social Program for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings for the Period Until 2020.[47]  The Program is aimed at preventing human trafficking, improving the efficiency of identifying individuals who commit such crimes or contribute to their occurrence, and protecting the rights of victims of trafficking (especially children) and providing assistance to them.[48]

B.  Definition of “Human Trafficking” and “Victim of Human Trafficking”

The definition of “human trafficking” is provided in article 1 of the Law on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings as the

[s]ettlement of an illegal agreement, the object of which is a human being, as well as recruitment, transportation, harboring, transfer or receipt of a human being for the purpose of his/her exploitation, including sexual [exploitation], by means of deception, fraud, blackmail, abuse of a person’s position of vulnerability or by use of force or threat of the use of force, with abuse of power or economic or other dependence of the victim on another person.[49]

Human Trafficking is a separate offense under the Criminal Code of Ukraine.[50]  Article 149 of the Code prohibits all forms of trafficking in human beings and prescribes penalties in the form of imprisonment for a period of three to eight years.[51]  However, depending on the circumstances, the term of imprisonment may be increased.  Thus, trafficking in children, trafficking committed by two or more persons or by a group of persons with a prior conspiracy, and trafficking committed by an official through abuse of his/her authority are all punishable for a term of five to twelve years’ imprisonment.[52]  Trafficking committed in combination with violence endangering the life or health of the victim or his/her close relatives, or in combination with threats of such violence; trafficking committed by an organized group; and trafficking causing grave consequences are punishable by imprisonment for a term of eight to fifteen years.[53]  When any of these aggravating circumstances are present, the court may also order the forfeiture of property as a supplementary sanction.[54]

Ukrainian legislation defines “victim of human trafficking” as “[a]ny natural person who has been subjected to trafficking in human beings and who has been declared a victim thereof.”[55]  To obtain the status of a victim of human trafficking, the applicant needs to have a mandatory interview with the local state administration in the territory where the trafficking victim was identified and complete a special questionnaire.  After these steps, the Ministry of Social Policy considers the case and decides whether to grant the status of human trafficking victim.[56]  The person who receives such status has a right to receive payment of a one-time benefit in the amount of a subsistence minimum amount, which is today UAH1,330 (approximately US$55).[57]  The status of victim of human trafficking is granted for two years.  It can be renewed once for no more than one year.[58]

Persons recognized as victims of human trafficking are entitled to receive

  • information about their rights and responsibilities in their native language;
  • medical, psychological, social, and legal assistance;
  • access to housing in the centers of temporary accommodation for up to three months, which can be extended;
  • compensation for moral and material damages from the perpetrator;
  • payment of a one-time benefit in the amount of a subsistence minimum payment; and
  • vocational training and job placement assistance.[59]

In addition to these rights, foreigners and stateless persons who receive the status of a human trafficking victim in Ukraine also receive the right to

  • free translation service;
  • temporary stay in Ukraine for up to three months, which can be extended if necessary, in particular in connection with their participation as victims or witnesses in criminal proceedings; and
  • permanent residence in the territory of Ukraine in the manner prescribed by law.[60]

Assistance to those affected by human trafficking does not depend on their request for law enforcement involvement, their participation in criminal proceedings, or their ability to provide identification documents.[61]

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III.   Roles and Responsibilities of Government Agencies in Fighting Human Trafficking

According to Ukrainian legislation, the following government entities and officials are responsible for combating trafficking in human beings:

  • President of Ukraine
  • Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine
  • National executive agencies
  • Local state administrations
  • Diplomatic institutions of Ukraine abroad
  • Institutions providing assistance to victims of trafficking[62]

Interaction between all of these agencies is governed by the Law on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings[63] and the Regulation No. 783 on Approval of the Procedure for Interaction of Agents for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings.[64]  The main principles of these interactions are based on the mutual exchange of information, on the basis of confidentiality, concerning the crimes of trafficking in human beings, the premises and causes of such trafficking, methods used by the traffickers, and assistance required for victims of trafficking; the exchange of best practices in combating trafficking in human beings; the joint development of programs and plans for combating trafficking in human beings; and the joint implementation of measures aimed at combating trafficking in human beings.[65]

The Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine performs the role of national coordinator of actions aimed at fighting human trafficking.[66]  The Ministry’s Department for Family, Gender Policy, and CombatingHuman Trafficking[67] is responsible for coordinating anti-trafficking activities on a daily basis.[68]  The Ministry of Social Policy, as mentioned in Part I, is also responsible for the formal recognition of victims of human trafficking, including granting the status of a victim.

As of July 7, 2015, ninety-four people, including eighty-eight Ukrainian nationals and six foreigners (citizens of Pakistan, Moldova, and the Russian Federation) possessed the status of human trafficking victims.[69]

The National Police of Ukraine is the main law enforcement agency involved in discovering crimes of human trafficking, identifying victims of trafficking and traffickers, and prosecuting the latter.  For this purpose, the police conduct investigations and searches; perform administrative, procedural, informational, and other activities; and carry out research.[70]

Since 2012, the Ministry of Internal Affairs has maintained the Unified State Registry of Crimes in Trafficking in Human Beings.[71]  This Registry consists of a database that includes the personal data of the victims of human trafficking and their perpetrators in Ukraine.[72]  Statistical information contained in the Registry is publicly available on the official website of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.[73]

In May 2000 the Ministry of Internal Affairs created departments to combat crimes related to the sale of people abroad for sexual and labor exploitation, pornography, prostitution, and panhandling.[74]  Several departmental reorganizations have occurred during the past fourteen years.  In 2014, according to Order No. 1074 of the Ministry of the Internal Affairs, the Department for Combating Crimes Related to Human Trafficking was created.[75]  This Department is the structural unit of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and belongs to the Criminal Police.[76]

According to statistic of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, from January to June 2015, eighty criminal offenses under article 149 (human trafficking) of the Criminal Code of Ukraine were registered.  Eighty-six victims of trafficking in human beings (fifty-six women, twenty-six men, and four minors) were found.[77]

Another law enforcement agency involved in the investigation of facts surrounding human trafficking is the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine.  This Service monitors transportation means used by commercial shipping agents, controls passports and other documents that grant entry into and exit from the country, and prepares documents granting the right of stay in or return to Ukraine.  The State Border Guard Service repatriates foreigners and stateless persons who became victims of trafficking in human beings and forcibly deports from Ukraine foreigners and stateless persons guilty of violations of the laws, including laws on trafficking in human beings.[78]

During the first six months of 2015, the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine suppressed the activity of twenty-three “channels of illegal migration” and prosecuted illegal activities of sixty-eight people.  Six Ukrainian nationals and two citizens of Poland were arrested for organizing five channels of human trafficking in four regions of the country.[79]

Local state administrations have a coordinating role in implementing anti-trafficking activities.  According to the Law on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, victims of human trafficking should submit an application to the local state administration, which is responsible for providing assistance and protection and referring the application to the Ministry of Social Policy.  In addition, local state administrations are tasked with collecting statistical information concerning victims of human trafficking and transmitting this information to the Ministry of Social Policy.[80]

The Ukrainian Government plans to spend UAH 1,844,000 (approximately US$75,000) from the state budget to fund this program.  Expenditures from local budgets will be UAH 219,226 (approximately US$9,000) per year.[81]

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IV.  Government-Supported Training Programs for Law Enforcement Personnel

The State Social Program for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings requires periodic professional training for public employees, investigators, prosecutors, judges, and lawyers who work with victims of human trafficking.[82]

GRETA has reported that since 2009, the Ministry of Social Policy, with the support of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) office in Ukraine, has carried out 600 seminars, 234 training sessions, and 170 special courses (lectures and practice sessions) on combating human trafficking in different parts of the country.[83]

The Institute for Continuing Education of Civil Servants organizes trainings four times a year to improve the professional level of specialists working in centers of social services for families, children, and youth.  These programs are devoted to human trafficking and assistance for its victims.  In 2013, according to GRETA, 3,568 government employees who provide assistance, rehabilitation, and social reintegration services to victims of human trafficking received training.  Topics included representation of the interests of victims, assistance in obtaining legal aid, maintenance of the standards for providing social services, and securing the confidentiality of personal data.[84]  In 2014 some 10,000 employees of state agencies, local government bodies, state enterprises, and institutions and organizations that work in the field of combating trafficking in human beings attended classes at regional centers for professional retraining and advanced training.[85]

In 2014, the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine—in cooperation with the IOM; the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine; and the Ministry of Regional Development, Construction and Housing and Communal Services of Ukraine—organized the regional informational campaign “Your Safe Way to the Dream.”  The goal of this initiative was to increase public awareness of the risks of falling into a situation of trafficking in human beings and to prevent the various forms of trafficking in human beings.  This campaign was aimed at young people, women and men aged sixteen to thirty-five, unemployed persons, and potential migrants who are searching for a better life or work abroad and often become the victims of trafficking in human beings.[86]

In April 2012 the Ministry of Internal Affairs conducted training on human trafficking for twelve participants at the National Academy of Internal Affairs and in 2013 for twenty-six participants in the National Academy’s Institute for Postgraduate Education and thirty participants in the Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs.  In addition, sixty employees of the territorial police units participated in a series of workshops entitled “Capacity Building of Law Enforcement Agencies in Identifying and Investigating Human Trafficking Cases” in Odessa and Ivano-Frankivsk in 2013.[87]

With the support of the IOM Mission in Ukraine a number of handbooks and guidelines on human trafficking have been published.  Among them are practical materials for the Border Guard Service, law enforcement personnel, and judges;[88] recommendations on the security of participants in criminal proceedings for human trafficking;[89] a textbook for judges on the proceedings in criminal cases of human trafficking;[90] and a guide for employees of the State Migration Service of Ukraine on identifying, documenting, and legally detaining foreigners and stateless persons who are victims of trafficking.[91]

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V.  Training Conducted by Nongovernmental Organizations

Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) are also involved in implementing measures aimed at combating trafficking in human beings in Ukraine. [92]

The All-Ukrainian Coalition of NGOs for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings consists of twenty-eight NGOs from different parts of the country.  They perform awareness-raising activities for the general public and target groups such as school children, students, people in economically depressed areas, migrant workers, etc.  They also provide training on human trafficking to different groups of professionals.[93]

One of the most active NGOs in the anti-trafficking field in Ukraine is the International Women’s Rights Center La Strada Ukraine.  The Ministry of Justice of Ukraine officially registered this organization in 1998.[94]  La Strada Ukraine conducts research, carries out preventive activities, provides assistance to victims, prepares reports on implementing the national anti-trafficking program, and issues recommendations for improving anti-trafficking policy.  This NGO operates a toll-free telephone hotline for victims and potential victims of trafficking.[95]  La Strada Ukraine also provides training to law enforcement officers, social workers, labor inspectors, and other specialists working in the anti-trafficking area.  In cooperation with partners from Georgia and Armenia, La Strada Ukraine has conducted a training for law enforcement officers and social workers that involved a distance-learning course on the prevention of human trafficking and illegal migration and a training course for social workers in the anti-trafficking and irregular migration areas.  This training focused on social work with adult and child victims of human trafficking, including behavior models and the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorders among such victims, as well as management techniques for dealing with such cases.[96]  During the period 2010–2012, La Strada Ukraine, in cooperation with the All-Ukrainian Network Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, conducted ten training sessions for social workers and police officers specializing in children’s issues.  They were trained how to interview child victims of trafficking and sexual offenses and provide victims with assistance.  Overall, La Strada Ukraine has provided training through its national trainer’s network in thirteen provinces of Ukraine to more than 90,000 educational and social professionals and more than 220,000 school children.[97]

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Prepared by Peter Roudik
Director of Legal Research and
Olena Yatsunska
Foreign Law Consultant
February 2016


[1] US Department of State, Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report (July 2015), http://www.state.gov/documents/ organization/245365.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/LD65-Z93N.

[2] Combating Human Trafficking, International Organization for Migration (IOM) Mission in Ukraine, http://www.iom.org.ua/en/combating-human-trafficking (last visited Jan. 15, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/R3EW-KJ52.

[3] Id.

[4] IOM Mission in Ukraine, Statistics on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings in Ukraine (June 2015), http://www.iom.org.ua/sites/default/files/iom_vot_statistics_eng_dec2015.doc (last visited Jan. 15, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/7KDB-HAUS.

[5] Id.

[6] Id.

[7] Id.

[8] Id.

[9] Id.

[10] GRETA, Report Concerning the Implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings by Ukraine 20 (2014), http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/trafficking/ Docs/Reports/GRETA_2014_20_FGR_UKR_w_cmnts_en.pdf, , archived at https://perma.cc/32J3-L9CQ.

[11] Id.

[12] Press Release, President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin Submitted an Address to the Federation Council (Mar. 1, 2014), http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/20353, archived at http://perma.cc/6Y3V-MSJS.

[13]TIP Report, supra note 1.

[14] Id.

[15] Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings, May 16, 2005, CETS  No. 197, https://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/trafficking/Docs/Convntn/CETS197_en.asp, archived at https://perma.cc/4JBP-ZPKG.

[16] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto 5 (New York, 2004), https://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/ UNTOC/Publications/TOC%20Convention/TOCebook-e.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/GR53-L49M.

[17] Id. at 41.

[18] United Nation Convention on the Rights of the Child, Nov. 20, 1989, 1577 U.N.T.S. 3, http://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/crc.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/3TZC-K73C.

[19] Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, May 25, 2000, TIAS 13095, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/OPSCCRC.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/LA9E-YFUG.

[20] Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Dec. 18, 1979,1249 U.N.T.S. 13, http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econvention.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/PY4V-7BFD.

[21] Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Oct. 6, 1999, 2131 U.N.T.S. 83, http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N99/774/73/PDF/N9977473.pdf? OpenElement, archived at https://perma.cc/VKT8-LXUT.

[22] ILO Convention Concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour, June 28, 1930, https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/ en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_INSTRUMENT_ID:312174, archived at https://perma.cc/96VU-CLWX.

[23] ILO Convention Concerning the Abolition of Forced Labour, June 25, 1957, http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/ en/f?p=1000:12100:0::NO::P12100_ILO_CODE:C105, archived at https://perma.cc/HP6V-RUVL?type=image.

[24] ILO Convention Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, June 17, 1999, http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO:12100:P12100 _ILO_CODE:C182, archived at https://perma.cc/LMD8-8W44.

[25] Law No. 3739-VI of September 20, 2011, on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, with the Latest Amendments of Nov. 10, 2015, http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/3739-17 (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/25R2-3ESV.

[26] Law No. 2491-III of June 7, 2001, on Immigration, with the Latest Amendments of Oct. 6, 2015, http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2491-14 (in Ukrainian), archived athttps://perma.cc/797V-6LXE.

[27] Law No. 3773-VI of September 22, 2011, on Legal Status of Foreigners and Stateless Persons, with the Latest Amendments of Nov. 10, 2015, http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/3773-17 (in Ukrainian), archived athttps://perma.cc/NQD9-82DX; https://perma.cc/GKR9-W6PC.

[28] Law No. 3782-XII of December 23, 1993, on Protection of Individuals Involved in Criminal Proceedings, with the Latest Amendments of July 2, 2015, http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/3782-12 (in Ukrainian), archived athttps://perma.cc/YD2S-NDAH.

[29] Law No. 2135-XII of February 18, 1992, on Operative-Investigative Activity, with the Latest Amendments of July 2, 2015, http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2135-12/page (in Ukrainian), archived athttps://perma.cc/F6KV-D5QS; https://perma.cc/N4DE-TPTK.

[30] Law No. 966-IV of June 19, 2003, on Social Services, with the Latest Amendments of Sept. 18, 2012, http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/966-15 (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/N58H-Y5NW.

[31] Law No. 2558-III of June 21, 2001, on Social Work with Families, Children and Youth, with the Latest Amendments of Nov. 6, 2012, http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2558-14 (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/Z5Z9-QHLC.

[32] Law No. 5067-VI of July 5, 2012, on Employment of the Population, with the Latest Amendments of June 17, 2015, http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/5067-17 (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/UV87-ZJMT; https://perma.cc/KB6C-FV9Y; https://perma.cc/6QVH-7M94; https://perma.cc/5JCR-SZ3K.

[33] Law No. 2866-IV of September 8, 2005, on Securing Equal Rights and Opportunities for Women and Men, with the Latest Amendments of May 13, 2014, http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2866-15 (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/3XKZ-DC36.

[34] Law No 2402-III of April 26, 2001, on the Protection of Childhood, with the Latest Amendments of Dec. 24, 2015, http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2402-14/page (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/5WJZ-ZG3K; https://perma.cc/3LWY-9CEX.

[35] Law No 20/95-ВР of January 24, 1995, on Bodies and Services for Children’s Affairs and Special Institutions for Children, with the Latest Amendments of Oct. 14, 2014, http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/20/95-%D0%B2%D1%80 (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/G6S8-HPPB; https://perma.cc/QS75-GFVZ.

[36] Law No 1065-VI of March 5, 2009, on the Nationwide Program ‘National Action Plan to Implement the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child’ for the Period Until 2016, http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1065-17 (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/GJN8-658Z.

[37] Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine Order No. 432 of August 19, 2013, on Approval of the Guidelines for the Provision of Social Services to Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings, http://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/ control/uk/publish/article?art_id=153435&cat_id=150191 (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/Y2L5-XFVW.

[38] Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine Order No. 458 of July 30, 2013, on Approval of the Standards for the Provision of Social Services to Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings, http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/ show/z1327-13 (in Ukrainian), archived athttps://perma.cc/8NNF-NEYT.

[39] Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Regulation No. 608 of May 12, 2004, on Approval of a Model Regulation of a Centre for Social-Psychological Assistance, http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/608-2004-%D0%BF (in Ukrainian), archived athttps://perma.cc/T8WW-ZBBV .

[40] Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Regulation No. 87 of January 28, 2004, on Approval of a Model Regulation of a Centre for Social-Psychological Rehabilitation of Children, http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/87-2004-%D0%BF (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/U22Y-ZGHJ.

[41] Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Regulation No. 660 of July 25, 2012, on Approval of the Procedure for Payment of a One-Time Benefit to Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings, http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/660-2012-%D0%BF (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/792H-BYEH.

[42] Ministry of the Internal Affairs Order No. 1074 of October 14, 2014, on Approval of Department for Combating Crimes Related to Human Trafficking, http://document.ua/pro-zatverdzhennja-polozhennja-pro-departament-borotbi-zi-zl-doc237905.html (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/2Q29-9LT8.

[43] Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Regulation No. 29 of January 18, 2012, on the National Coordinator on Combating Human Trafficking, http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/29-2012-%D0%BF (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/4KQK-GH7J.

[44] Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Regulation No. 783 of August 22, 2012, on Approval of the Procedure for Interaction of Agents for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/783-2012-%D0%BF (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/9ESA-2NCD.

[45] Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Regulation No. 417 of May 23, 2012, on Approval of the Procedure for the Declaration of the Status of a Victim of Trafficking in Human Beings, http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/417-2012-%D0%BF (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/N7P3-LWVG.

[46] Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Regulation No. 303 of April 18, 2012, on Approval of the Establishment and Operations of the Unified State Registry of Crimes in Trafficking in Human Beings, http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/ laws/show/303-2012-%D0%BF/paran9#n9 (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/BJ96-8U5Z.

[47] Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Resolution No. 1053-p of October 7, 2015, on Approval of the State Social Program for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings for the Period Until 2020, http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/ laws/show/1053-2015-%D1%80 (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/5XLA-33VV.

[48] Id.

[49] Law No. 3739-VI of September 20, 2011, on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings art. 1, supra note 25 (translation by authors).

[50] Criminal Code of Ukraine, Law No. 2341-III of April 5, 2001, with the Latest Amendments of Nov. 26, 2015, art. 149, http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2341-14/page (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/T55L-DZAF.

[51] Id.

[52] Id. art. 149.2.

[53] Id. art. 149.3.

[54] Id. arts. 149.2., 149.3.

[55] Law No. 3739-VI of September 20, 2011, on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings art. 1, supra note 25.

[56] Id. art. 15; Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Regulation No. 417 of May 23, 2012, on Approval of the Procedure for the Declaration of the Status of a Victim of Trafficking in Human Beings, supra note 45.

[57] Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Regulation No. 660 of July 25, 2012, on Approval of the Procedure for Payment of a One-Time Benefit to Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings, supra note 41.

[58] Law No. 3739-VI of September 20, 2011, on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings art. 15.5, supra note 25.

[59] Id. art. 16.1.

[60] Id. art. 16.2.

[61] Id. art. 16.6.

[62] Id. art. 5.

[63] Id. art. 16.1.

[64] Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Regulation No. 783 of August 22, 2012, on Approval of the Procedure for Interaction of Agents for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, supra note 44.

[65] Law No. 3739-VI of September 20, 2011, on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings art. 13.4, supra note 25.

[66] Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Regulation No. 29 of January 18, 2012, on the National Coordinator on Combating Human Trafficking, supra note 43.

[67] Structure of the Central Office of the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, http://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/control/uk/publish/article?art_id=160863&cat_id=160862 (in Ukrainian; last visited Jan. 17, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/CCL6-XU4T.

[68] Combating Trafficking in Human Beings: Reports and Statistics, Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, http://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/control/uk/publish/category?cat_id=160722 (in Ukrainian; last visited Jan. 17, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/S4A5-ZTNW.

[69] Status of Implementation of the State Policy for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine (July 30, 2015), http://www.mlsp.gov.ua/labour/control/uk/publish/article;jsessionid=63641F 9EA0BF2550CC9911A536CB0DE6.app1?art_id=180048&cat_id=160722 (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/RQA2-89AH.

[70] Law No. 3739-VI of September 20, 2011 on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings art. 11, supra note 25.

[71] Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Regulation No. 303 of April 18, 2012 on Approval of the Establishment and Operations of the Unified State Registry of Crimes in Trafficking in Human Beings, supra note 46.

[72] Id. art. 2,3,4.

[73] Id. art. 8.

[74] Department Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, National Police of Ukraine, http://www.npu.gov.ua/ uk/publish/article/956734 (in Ukrainian; last visited Jan. 18, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/8PGW-3WSP.

[75] Ministry of the Internal Affairs Order No. 1074 of October 14, 2014, on Approval of Department for Combating Crimes Related to Human Trafficking, supra note 42.

[76] Id.

[77] Status of Implementation of the State Policy for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, supra note 69.

[78] Law No. 3739-VI of September 20, 2011, on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings art. 7.1.10, supra note 25.

[79] Operational Divisions Border Agency Suspended the Activity of 28 Channels of Illegal Migration and Human Trafficking, State Border Guard Service of Ukraine (May 28, 2015), http://dpsu.gov.ua/ua/about/ news/news_7268.htm (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/35KY-HT5X.

[80] Law No. 3739-VI of September 20, 2011, on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings art. 8, supra note 25.

[81] Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Resolution No. 1053-p of October 7, 2015, supra note 47.

[82] Id.

[83] GRETA, supra note 10, at 20.

[84] Id.

[85] Status of Implementation of the State Policy for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, supra note 69.

[86] European Commission, Fifth Progress Report on Ukraine’s Implementation of the Action Plan on Visa Liberalization, COM (2015) 200 final (May, 8, 2015), http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri= CELEX%3A52015SC0104, archived at https://perma.cc/XC5J-H4WW.

[87] GRETA, supra note 10, at 20.

[88] M. Vasileva et al., Ukraine as a Country of Destination of Human Trafficking: Materials for Practical Use for Border Guard Service, Law Enforcement Officers and Judges (2012), http://iom.org. ua/sites/default/files/krayina_pryzn4_layout_1.pdf (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/J4S7-2773.

[89] V. Kasko & A. Orlean, The Security of Participants in Criminal Proceedings for Human Trafficking (2012), http://www.iom.org.ua/sites/default/files/121017_mom_ensuring_safety_brochure_a5.pdf (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/GML5-BJVP.

[90] A. Orlean et al., A Manual for Judges on the Proceedings in Criminal Cases of Human Trafficking for the Purpose of Labor Exploitation (2014), http://www.iom.org.ua/sites/default/files/posibnik_ dlya_suddiv.pdf (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/9PGE-5ER7.

[91] S. Gubsky et al., Guide for Employees of State Migration Service of Ukraine on Features Identifying, Documenting and Providing Legal Stay of Foreigners and Stateless Persons – Victims of Trafficking (2013), http://www.iom.org.ua/sites/default/files/posibnik_dlya_dms_mom.pdf (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/2RF6-G64R.

[92] Law No. 3739-VI of September 20, 2011 on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings art. 5.2, supra note 25.

[93] European Commission, Sixth Progress Report on Ukraine’s Implementation of the Action Plan on Visa Liberalization, COM (2015) 905 final (Dec, 18, 2015), http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/? uri=CELEX%3A52015SC0705, archived at https://perma.cc/J795-DE9J.

[94] La Strada Ukraine, http://www.la-strada.org.ua/, in Ukrainian, Russian and English; last visited Jan. 20, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/22E7-JF8Z.

[95] Id.

[96] GRETA, supra note 10, at 20.

[97] Id.

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Last Updated: 03/18/2016