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These charts report on 149 jurisdictions that have laws punishing at least one of the three crimes, genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes. It indicates, where information was available, whether those laws cover only nationals, foreign persons when the offense is committed within the territory, or foreign persons when the offenses are committed outside of the country’s borders. In cases for which it is known that the laws have actually been applied, that information is included. Note also that in some cases “yes” or “no” is indicated in the columns as the general rule, but limited exceptions are made, as indicated in the endnotes.

Full report (PDF, 683KB)

Albania

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: CRIMINAL CODE (version of June 11, 2015) arts. 6–8, available at http://rai- see.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Criminal-Code-11-06-2015-EN.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/4M7P-E4CW.

Used : Yes. Albania issued death sentences to a number of senior officials in the regime of former dictator Enver Hoxha, including former Supreme Court Justice Cela, former Deputy Interior Minister Ramizi, and Chief of the Secret Police Mino in 1994 for their involvement in prosecuting and sending people into internal exile for political reasons.  Sokol Gjoka, Albanian Ex-Officials Get Death Sentence, UPI (May 24, 1996), http://www.upi.com/Archives/1996/05/24/Albanian-ex-officials-get-death-sentence/9281832910400/, archived at https://perma.cc/ET5R-JQWD.

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Algeria

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

N

N

Sources: Military Justice Code of 1971, arts. 286–287, http://www.joradp.dz/TRV/AJustM.pdf (in Arabic), archived at https://perma.cc/9MPW-DGXG.

 

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Antigua and Barbuda

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

Y

N

N

N

Sources: Antigua and Barbuda Constitution Order 1981, 1981, No. 1106, http://www.laws.gov.ag/acts/chapters/cap-23.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/6FL2-UUAJ; Genocide Act 1975, cap. 191, http://laws.gov.ag/acts/chapters/cap-191.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/VS4Y-DQUG; Suppression of Torture Act 1993, No. 15 of 1993, § 3, http://laws.gov.ag/acts/1993/a1993-15.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/2VYW-5ABB.

 

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Argentina

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: National Constitution, Dec. 15, 1994, art. 118, http://servicios.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/0-4999/804/norma.htm (in Spanish), archived at https://perma.cc/ZNH8-X4FH; Law 26200 on Ratification of the Statute of Rome, Dec. 13, 2006, arts. 2–6, Boletin Oficial, Jan. 9, 2007, available at http://www.infoleg.gov.ar /infolegInternet/anexos/120000-124999/123921/ norma.htm (in Spanish), archived at https://perma.cc/TC5C-QN9M; Penal Code, Law 11179 Revised Text 1984, art. 144 ter, http://servicios.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/15000-19999/16546/texact.htm (in Spanish), archived at https://perma.cc/8PNW-V476.

Used : Yes. The Federal Criminal court ordered the arrest of Spanish nationals who perpetrated crimes against humanity during the Franco era in 1936 during the Spanish Civil war.  Juzgado Criminal y Correccinal Federal 1 Causa Nro. 4.591/2.010, Oct. 30, 2014, Galvan Abascal Celso; Muñecas Aguilar; Giralte Gónzález, José Ignacio. . . y otros s/ imposición de torturas, http://www.cij.gov.ar/nota-14347-Lesa-humanidad--la-jueza-Servini-de-Cubr-a-orden--la-detenci-n-de-20-imputados-por-cr-menes-cometidos-durante-el-franquismo.html, archived at https://perma.cc/PSX7-7LCV.

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Armenia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N [1]

Sources: Criminal Code (2003), arts. 14–15, http://www.parliament.am/legislation.php?sel=show&ID=1349&lang=eng, archived at https://perma.cc/DM9G-HQBU.

 

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Aruba

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: LANDSVERORDENING van 26 oktober 2012 houdende regels met betrekking tot de strafbaarstelling van ernstige schendingen van de mensenrechten (Landsverordening internationale misdrijven) [National Ordinance of October 26, 2012, Laying Down Rules Relating to the Criminalization of Serious Violations of Human Rights (National Ordinance on International Crimes)], 2012 Afkondigingsblad van Aruba [AB] No. 40, http://www.overheid.aw/document.php?m=7&fileid=13226&f=9cc56775f8230599653ea172f58067fb&attachment=0&c=18589, archived at https://perma.cc/2VY7-DV3K.

 

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Australia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: International Criminal Court Act 2002 (Cth), s 3(2), https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2016C00574, archived at https://perma.cc/35E8-HVFU; Criminal Code Act 1995 (Cth), ss 15.4 & 268.117 (div 268 sets out the relevant offenses), https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2016C00753, archived at http://perma.cc/Z2JD-SQZP (vol. 1) & https://perma.cc/7WV6-2Z75 (vol. 2); see also War Crimes Act 1945 (Cth), as amended by the War Crimes Amendment Act 1988 (Cth), https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2010C00110, archived at https://perma.cc/5QGU-PKNS (currently applies only to war crimes committed in Europe between 1939 and 1945 where person charged is currently an Australian citizen or resident); Geneva Conventions Act 1957 (Cth), https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2016C00559, archived at https://perma.cc/JR95-2KSV

Used : Yes. The Australian military prosecuted 952 Japanese military personnel for war crimes following World War II.  The more than three hundred military trials were conducted in several locations over a number of years under the War Crimes Act 1945 (Cth).  See Georgina Fitzpatrick, War Crimes Trials, ‘Victor’s Justice’ and Australian Military Justice in the Aftermath of the Second World War, in Kevin Geller & Gerry Simpson, The Hidden Histories of War Crimes Trials 327–346 (2013), available at http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199671144.001.0001/acprof-9780199671144-chapter-16, archived at https://perma.cc/NUR3-NGQ5.  In the early 1990s, Australia prosecuted three men who were living in Australia, Ivan Polyukhovich, Mikolay Berezowsky, and Heinrich Wagner, under the War Crimes Act 1945 (Cth) (as amended) for alleged offenses committed in Europe during World War II.  None of the men were convicted, with none of the cases being heard to completion.  See Michael Kirby, Nuremberg Forty Years Later: War Crimes – An Australian Update (Paper presented at McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 1992), http://www.michaelkirby.com.au/images/stories/speeches/1990s/vol27/964-McGill_Uni,_Canada_-_War_Crimes_-_An_Aus_Update.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/C74A-EGFM; Irene Nemes, Punishing Nazi War Criminals in Australia: Issues of Law and Morality, 4(2) Current Issues in Crim. Justice 141 (Nov. 1992), http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/CICrimJust/1992/35.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/J7D6-335W.  Media reports have indicated that investigations related to alleged war crimes committed by Australian forces in Afghanistan are currently being conducted, and this was confirmed by the Defence Department.  See Judge Probes Alleged ADF War Crimes in Afghanistan, SBS (Oct. 13, 2016), http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2016/10/13/judge-probes-alleged-adf-war-crimes-afghanistan, archived at https://perma.cc/ZR77-DRL4; Andrew Greene, War Crime Allegations Uncovered During Inquiry into SAS, Commandos Yet to be Referred to AFP, ABC News (Oct. 14, 2016), http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-10-15/australian-defence-force-war-crime-allegations-not-with-afp/7934952, archived at https://perma.cc/KJD8-M2JH.    

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Austria

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Bundesgesetz vom 23. Jänner 1974 über die mit gerichtlicher Strafe bedrohten Handlungen (Strafgesetzbuch - StGB) [Criminal Code], Bundesgesetzblatt [BGBl.] [Federal Law Gazette] No. 60/1974, §§ 62, 64, ¶ 1, nos. 4c, 6, §§ 321–321k, https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung/Bundesnormen/10002296/StGB%2c%20Fassung%20vom%2019.10.2016.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/VVE5-ZZW7.

Used : Yes. In 1994, the Higher Regional Court of Salzburg acquitted Dusko Cvjetkovic, a commander of a Bosnian-Serb militia group, who was charged with genocide and genocide through aiding and abetting for his alleged role in ethnic cleansing in Kucice in 1992.  Landesgericht Salzburg [Higher Regional Court of Salzburg], Docket No. 26 Vr 1335/94.

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Azerbaijan

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources:Criminal Code (Dec. 30, 1999), arts. 11 & 12, available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/4417f82d4.html, archived at https://perma.cc/2GXM-SBCA.

 

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Bahamas

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

 

 

 

Y

Y

N

Sources: Genocide Act, cap. 85, http://laws.bahamas.gov.bs/cms/images/LEGISLATION/PRINCIPAL/1969/1969-0029/GenocideAct_1.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/Y89U-ZET3; Geneva Conventions (Colonial Territories) Order in Council 1959, Ch. 95, http://laws.bahamas.gov.bs/cms/images/LEGISLATION/SUBORDINATE/1959/1959-1301/GenevaConventionsActColonialTerritoriesOrderinCouncil 1959_1.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/D97X-57CL, which incorporates the Geneva Conventions Act 1957, 5 & 6 Eliz. 2, c. 52, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Eliz2/5-6/52/enacted, archived at https://perma.cc/N94A-LUS6, into the law of the Bahamas.

 

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Bahrain

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

N

N

Sources: Military Penal Code arts. 101 & 102, http://www.moj.gov.bh/Print_p2294.html?printid=944 (in Arabic), archived at https://perma.cc/U443-75QY.

 

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Bangladesh

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Sources: International Crimes (Tribunals) Act, No 19 of 1973, http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/print_sections_all.php?id=435, archived at https://perma.cc/8ZPT-79V5.

Used : Yes. The ICT, which was “set up to investigate and bring to trial suspects accused of participation in the atrocities committed by the Pakistani Army and its local collaborators during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971,” has indicted about a dozen persons, including nine leaders of the Jamaat-e-Islami (JI).  Sudha Ramachandran, Flawed Justice in Bangladesh, Diplomat (Oct. 31, 2013), http://thediplomat.com/2013/10/flawed-justice-in-bangladesh, archived at https://perma.cc/WY2U-3TGP.  Three leaders of the JI have been given the death penalty.  Shameema Rahman, Bangladesh: Execution of Two More War Crimes Convicts, Global Legal Monitor (Nov. 25, 2015), http://www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/bangladesh-execution-of-two-more-war-crimes-convicts, archived at https://perma.cc/PG7K-V3CU; Shameema Rahman, Bangladesh: First Execution of War Criminal Convicted by International Crimes Tribunal, Global Legal Monitor (Jan. 9, 2014), http://www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/bangladesh-first-execution-of-war-criminal-convicted-by-international-crimes-tribunal, archived at https://perma.cc/KYH9-A3DY

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Barbados

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act 1980, § 3, II Laws of Barbados Cap. 17A (2002); Genocide Act 1980, § 4, VI Laws of Barbados Cap. 133A (2002).

 

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Belarus

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code arts. 5 & 6, http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=30414984#pos=180;-123 (in Russian; last visited Oct. 26, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/XKY2-QN5U.

 

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Belgium

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y [2]

Y

Y

Y[3]

Y

Y

Y[4]

Sources: Code Pénal [Penal Code] (Aug. 11, 2016), arts. 136 bis–136 octies, http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/cgi_loi/loi_a1.pl?sql=dt=%27code%20penal%27&language=fr&rech=1&tri=dd%20as%20rank&numero=1&cn=1867060801
&caller=image_a1&fromtab=loi&la=f
, archived at https://perma.cc/AFU4-4DYK; Code d’Instruction Criminelle [Code of Criminal Investigation], Titre Préliminaire [Preliminary Title], art. 6, http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/cgi_loi/change_lg.pl?language=fr&la=F&cn=1878041701&table_name=loi, archived at https://perma.cc/YX2B-XC6W.

Used: Yes. Before 2003, when legislation largely limited international jurisdiction to cases with a nexus to Belgium, many complaints were brought before Belgian courts, including against Augusto Pinochet, Fidel Castro, Saddam Hussein, Ariel Sharon, and several U.S. officials including former President George H.W. Bush, Gen. Colin Powell, and Gen. Tommy Franks.  U.S. Reaction to Belgian Universal Jurisdiction Law, 97 Am. J. Int’l L. 984–87 (Oct. 2003), https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/3133702.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/T7LM-F8WE.

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Belize

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources:Genocide Act, Cap. 110, § 2, http://www.belizelaw.org/web/lawadmin/PDF%20files/cap110.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/J2PD-5KVD.

 

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Bolivia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

N

N

Sources: Penal Code, Decree Law 10426, Aug. 23, 1972, arts. 1.7, 138 & 295, http://silep.vicepresidencia.gob.bo/SILEP/masterley/118465 (in Spanish), archived at https://perma.cc/7LWM-6GSD; Law No. 2398 of May 24, 2002, on Ratification of the Statute of Rome, http://www.silep.gob.bo/silep/masterley/115982 (in Spanish), archived at https://perma.cc/PR5G-PWC4.

 

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Bosnia & Herzegovina

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code (2003, amended 2016), arts. 8–9, available at http://www.legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes/country/40, archived at https://perma.cc/94JR-JBQN.

Used : Yes. Veselin Vlahovic was sentenced to forty-five years in prison in 2013 for a campaign of murder, rape, and robbery against Bosnians and Croats in Sarajevo in 1992. Sarajevo’s ‘Monster of Grbavica’ Jailed for 45 Years, BalkanInsight (Mar. 29, 2013), http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/veselin-vlahovic-sentenced-to-maximum-penalty, archived at https://perma.cc/L2JT-QH4E. Overall, 605 indictments for war crimes committed during the 1992–95 war have been issued as of May 2016. Bosnia War Criminals Sentenced to over 2000 Years to Date, AboutCroatia (May 9, 2016), https://aboutcroatia.net/news/balkan/bosnia-war-criminals-sentenced-over-2000-years-date-20673, archived at https://perma.cc/A6FL-42EW.

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Botswana

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act §§ 3, 6, Laws of Botswana, Cap. 39:03 (updated through 2014).[5]

Used : No. Scope and Application of the Principle of Universal Jurisdiction − Information and Observations of the Republic of Botswana, Permanent mission of the Republic of Botswana to the United NATIONS (UN/BOT/83 (80) P3) (May 31, 2011), available at http://www.un.org/en/ga/sixth/66/ScopeAppUniJuri_StatesComments/Bostwana.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/M78V-JNLK.

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Brazil

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

Sources: Lei No. 2.889, de 1 de Outubro de 1956 (Oct. 1, 1956) [defining and punishing nationals for genocide], http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/L2889.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/CCL4-E2HA; Decreto No. 4,388 (Sept. 25, 2002), http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/decreto/2002/D4388.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/3Q7P-B3SD.[6]

 

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Bulgaria

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code (Apr. 2, 1968, as last amended May 28, 2010), arts. 3–8, https://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/bgr/1968/criminal_code_html/Bulgaria_Criminal_Code.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/RMK5-V5HK.

 

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Burkina Faso

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Code Pénal [Penal Code] (Nov. 13, 2016), arts. 4, 313–317, https://www.unodc.org/tldb/pdf/Burkina_Faso_Penal_Code_Fr.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/4PZ2-JYDD; Loi no. 052-2009/AN du 16 juin 2009 portant détermination des compétences et de la procédure de mise en œuvre du statut de Rome relatif à la Cour pénale internationale par les juridictions burkinabè [Law No. 052-2009/AN of 16 June 2009 to Determine the Competence and the Procedures for the Application of the Rome Statute Regarding the International Criminal Court by Burkinabè Jurisdictions], available at http://www.iccnow.org/documents/Decret_n2009-894-PRES_promulguant_la_loi_n052-2009-AN.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/MAV9-HQDQ.

 

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Burundi

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Loi No. 1/05 du 22 avril 2009 portant révision du Code pénal [Law No. 1/05 of 22 April 2009 Revising the Penal Code], arts. 10 & 195–203, http://www.assemblee.bi/IMG/pdf/code%20penal.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/U53F-59HV.

 

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Cambodia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y[7]

Y

Y

Y[8]

Y

Y

Y[9]

Sources: Criminal Code (2009), arts. 20, 183, 188, 193 & 194, available at https://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/khm/criminal_code_of_the_kingdom_of_cambodia_html/Cambodia_Criminal-Code-of-the-Kingdom-of-Cambodia-30-Nov-2009-Eng.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/53NJ-F85B.

Used : Yes. Carried out under a special statute for the trial of Khmer Rouge leaders, the Law on the Establishment of the Extraordinary Chambers, with Inclusion of Amendments as Promulgated on 27 October 2004 (NS/RKM/1004/006), https://www.eccc.gov.kh/sites/default/files/legal-documents/KR_Law_as_amended_27_Oct_2004_Eng.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/3PTT-SAZF.  This Law states that it is applying Cambodian penal law, international humanitarian law and custom, and international conventions recognized by Cambodia.

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Canada

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y [10]

Y

Y

Y [11]

Y

Y

Y [12]

Sources: Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act (S.C. 2000, c. 24), http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/c-45.9/FullText.html, archived at https://perma.cc/NVU7-7LXK.

Used : Yes. Désiré Munyaneza, born in Rwanda, was indicted for genocide/crimes against humanity/war crimes on Oct. 19, 2005, and was convicted for his crimes in R. c. Munyaneza, 2009 QCCS 2201 (CanLII), http://www.canlii.org/en/qc/qccs/doc/2009/2009qccs2201/2009qccs2201.html, archived at https://perma.cc/26ZH-53R2.  In 2009, Jacques Mungwarere was charged with genocide.  Murray Brewster, RCMP Charge Alleged Rwandan War Criminal After 6-Year Probe, Globe and Mail (Nov. 7, 2009), http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/rcmp-charge-alleged-rwandan-war-criminal-after-6-year-probe/article1355433, archived athttps://perma.cc/UNR5-23YT.

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Cayman Islands

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Genocide Law (2015 Revision), http://www.gov.ky/portal/pls/ portal/docs/1/12018123.PDF, archived at https://perma.cc/YQ3Z-35NT; Geneva Conventions Acts 1957 and 1995 (5 & 6 Eliz. 2 C.52 and C. 27); Geneva Conventions (Amendments) Act 1995, C. 27, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ ukpga/1995/27/pdfs/ukpga_19950027_en.pdf, archived at  https://perma.cc/ K67E-G4XD; Geneva Conventions (Amendment) Act (Overseas Territories Order 2002 – UKSI 2002/1076), http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2002/1076/ pdfs/uksi_20021076_en.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/TSS5-7TFM.

 

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Central African Republic

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Sources: Code Pénal [Penal Code] (Jan. 6, 2010), arts. 152–162, available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/88116/100661/F1881819351/CAF-88116.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/A9TR-6C28; Code de procédure pénale [Code of Criminal Procedure], art. 336, http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/88120/100660/F498635820/CAF-88120.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/KW29-YCH5.

 

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Chile

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Ley No. 20357, Diario Oficial [D.O.], July 18, 2009, http://bcn.cl/1w20h, archived at https://perma.cc/4CMK-CNBP; Decree 104 on Ratification of the Statute of Rome, D.O., Aug. 1, 2009, Código Orgánico de Tribunales art. 6.8, http://bcn.cl/1uxun (in Spanish), archived at https://perma.cc/ZY4H-WVHM.

 

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China, People's Republic of[13]

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

N

N

N

N[14]

 

N

N

Sources: The Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China [中华人民共和国刑法] (promulgated Mar. 14, 1997, effective Oct. 1, 1997, as amended) arts. 9 (universal jurisdiction), 446 (servicemen injuring civilians or plundering property in wartime) & 448 (maltreatment of war prisoners), available at Westlaw (by subscription) (bilingual Chinese/English text).

 

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Colombia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Ley No. 599 de 2000, por la cual se expide el Código Penal, as amended, arts. 16, 101–102, 135–164, & 178, http://www.alcaldiabogota.gov.co/sisjur/normas/Norma1.jsp?i=6388, archived at https://perma.cc/Q9DJ-QRKY.

 

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Comoros

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Loi No. 11-022/AU du 13 décembre 2011 portant mise en œuvre du Statut de Rome [Law No. 11-022/AU of 13 December 2011 for the Implementation of the Rome Statute] arts. 15, 17–22, http://www.iccnow.org/documents/0025_001.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/F7VU-K24C.

 

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Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Sources: Loi No. 024/2002 du 18 novembre 2002 portant Code pénal militaire [Law No. 024/2002 of 18 November 2002 Establishing the Military Penal Code] arts. 40, 161–175, http://www.leganet.cd/Legislation/Droit%20Judiciaire/ Loi.024.2002.18.11.2002.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/PSC4-P6HQ; Loi No. 023/2002 du 18 novembre 2002 portant Code judiciaire militaire [Law No. 023/2002 of 18 November 2002 Establishing the Military Judiciary Code] arts. 79 & 80, http://www.leganet.cd/Legislation/Droit%20Judiciaire/Loi.023. 2002.18.11.2002.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/H4F6-PPLF.

 

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Congo, Republic of the

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Sources: Loi 8/98 du 31 octobre 1998 portant définition et répression du génocide, des crimes de guerre et des crimes contre l’humanité [Law 9/98 of 31 October 1998 to Define and Suppress Genocide, War Crimes, and Crimes Against Humanity], http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/shared/shared_hrlcicju/Congo-Brazzaville/Loi_No_8-98_portant_definitions_et_repression_des_crimes_.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/5FCX-QCGL.

 

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Cook Islands

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols Act 2002, s 5(1) & (3), available at http://www.paclii.org/ck/legis/num_act/gcaapa2002427, archived at https://perma.cc/F97U-UUSX.

 

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Costa Rica

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Código Penal, Ley No. 4573, arts. 4, 7, 382, 385 & 386, La Gaceta, Nov. 15, 1970, http://www.pgrweb.go.cr/scij/Busqueda/Normativa/Normas/ nrm_texto_completo.aspx?param1=NRTC&nValor1=1&nValor2=5027&nValor3=98548&strTipM=TC, archived at https://perma.cc/BP5X-8WA8.

 

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Côte d’Ivoire

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Sources: Code Pénal [Penal Code] (July 6, 1995) arts. 14–16 & 137–140, available at http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/fr/ci/ci005fr.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/L397-TG5Z; Code de procédure pénale [Code of Criminal Procedure] arts. 658, 659 & 662, https://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/civ/1960/loi-no-60-366-du-14-novembre-1960-portant-code-de-procedure-penale_html/Cote_dIvoire_Loi_No_60-366_du_14_Novembre_1960_portant_code_de_procedure_penale.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/EZ6N-EY2U.

Used : Yes. Simone Gbagbo, wife of former Ivorian President Laurent Gbagbo, is currently being tried for crimes against humanity by the Court of Appeals of Abidjan.  Vincent Duhem, Côte d’Ivoire : le procès de Simone Gbagbo reprend avec un témoignage confus [Côte d’Ivoire: The Trial of Simone Gbagbo Resumes with a Confusing Testimony], Jeune Afrique (Oct. 10, 2016), http://www.jeuneafrique.com/364283/societe/cote-divoire-proces-de-simone-gbagbo-reprend-temoignage-confus, archived at https://perma.cc/24QF-RRB3.

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Croatia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code (Oct. 21, 1997, as amended to July 15, 2003) arts. 13 & 14, http://www.vsrh.hr/custompages/static/hrv/files/legislation__criminal-code.pdf (unofficial translation), archived at https://perma.cc/Y9VP-K75Q

Used : Yes. Tomislav Mercep was sentenced to five-and-a-half years in prison in 2016 for his participation in torturing and killing several dozen Serb civilians in late 1991.  Croatian Police Official Mercep Jailed for War Crimes, BalkanInsight (May 12, 2016), http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/tomislav-mercep-croatia-police-trial-verdict-05-12-2016, archived at https://perma.cc/3JQE-FBU4.

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Cuba

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Ley No. 62, Codigo Penal [Law No. 62, Penal Code], as amended, Apr. 30, 1988, arts. 5, 116 & 120, in Comentarios a las Leyes penales cubanas (Arnel Medina Cuenca ed., 2014), http://www.lex.uh.cu/sites/default/files/3.Comentarios%20a%20las%20leyes%20penales%20cubanas.PDF, archived at https://perma.cc/S72X-9EZP.

 

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Czech Republic

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code §§ 4–9, http://www.ejtn.eu/PageFiles/6533/Criminal%20Code%20of%20the%20Czech%20Republic.pdf (last visited Oct. 26, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/MX8L-EMY7.

 

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Denmark

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Lov om straf for folkedrab, LOV nr 132 af 29/04/1955, https://www.retsinformation.dk/forms/R0710.aspx?id=59306, archived at https://perma.cc/ZM42-9AMR; Datasammenskrivning af lov om straf for krigsforbrydelser ( lov nr. 395 af 12. juli 1946 om straf for krigsforbrydelser med de ændringer, der følger af lov nr. 423 af 7. oktober 1947) [Consolidated Act on Laws Against War Crimes], https://www.retsinformation.dk/forms/R0710.aspx?id=59077, archived at https://perma.cc/7H3L-FKSC  (read together with amendment to prohibit death penalty).

Used : Yes. Rwanda Genocide Case, Supreme Court of Denmark, Apr. 26, 2012, http://domstol.fe1.tangora.com/media/-300016/files/2-2012.pdf, archived at  https://perma.cc/B5U3-QU2H.

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Djibouti

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y [15]

Y

Y

Y [16]

N

N

N

Sources: Code Pénal [Penal Code] arts. 10, 15, 16 & 48–484, available at https://www.unodc.org/tldb/pdf/Djibouti_Penal_Code_Fr.pdf (last visited Oct. 27, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/D3QV-JTMR.

 

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Dominica

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Genocide Act Chap. 10:04, as amended, http://www.dominica.gov.dm/laws/chapters/chap10-04.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/EJ7N-UVG6; Geneva Conventions Act 1957 (U.K.), http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Eliz2/5-6/52/enacted, archived at https://perma.cc/W47B-ZKR3 (extended to Dominica by Colonial Territories Order (1959 No. 1301), http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1959/1301/pdfs/uksi_19591301_en.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/LH9B-XMBY, as amended by (1962 No. 1084)); Geneva Conventions (Supplementary Provs.) Act 1960 (Cap. 8) (F.A.).

 

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Dominican Republic

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Código procesal Penal de la República Dominicana [Dominican Republic Criminal Procedure Code], as amended, arts. 49 & 56, July 19, 2002, http://www.poderjudicial.gob.do/documentos/PDF/codigos/Codigo_Procesal_Penal.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/5G8H-44JB.[17]

 

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Ecuador

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Political Constitution arts. 79–80, Registro Oficial [R.O.], Oct. 20, 2008, http://www.asambleanacional.gob.ec/sites/default/files/private/asambleanacional/filesasambleanacionalnameuid-20/transparencia-2015/literal-a/a2/Const-Enmienda-2015.pdf (in Spanish), archived at https://perma.cc/7VVR-BDDZ; Código Orgánico Integral Penal arts. 15, 16, 79–90, 398 & 400.4, R.O., Feb. 10, 2014, http://www.asambleanacional.gob.ec/es/system/files/document.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/5M5W-8F4J.

 

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El Salvador

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Código Penal, Decreto No. 1030, arts. 8, 10, 361, 362 & 363, Diario Oficial, June 10, 1997, http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/eparlamento/indice-legislativo/buscador-de-documentos-legislativos/codigo-penal (click on “Descargar”), archived at https://perma.cc/UAY3-9NLQ.

 

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Eritrea

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Sources: Transitional Penal Code arts. 282–2814 (consisting of Penal Code of the Empire of Ethiopia, Proclamation No. 158, Negarit Gazeta [N.G.] Extraordinary (Brhanenna Selam Printing Press 1957), available at http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/49216a0a2.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/D4EB-HGQ5; and Transitional Criminal Code of Eritrea, Proclamation No. 4, 1991, 1 Gazette of Eritrean Laws (Sept. 15, 1991).

Used : Yes. Ethiopia has prosecuted over five thousand individuals who were part of the Derg Regime, the government that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 through 1991; of these, over one thousand are said to have been convicted.  Frode Elgesem & Girmachew Alemu Aneme, The Rights of the Accused: A Human Rights of Appraisal, The Ethiopian Red Terror Trials: Transitional Justice Challenged 33, 37 (Kjetil Tronvoll et al. eds., 2009); Les Neuhaus, Exiled Ethiopian Dictator Found Guilty of Genocide, Washington Post (Dec. 12, 2006), http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/12/AR2006121200447.html, archived at https://perma.cc/RQW5-XH6M.

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Estonia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Sources: Criminal Code (June 6, 2001) §§ 6–9, https://www.riigiteataja.ee/en/eli/522 012015002/consolide, archived at https://perma.cc/6KVT-AGRR.

Used : Yes. Karl-Leonhard Paulov was convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to eight years in prison in 2000 for killing three members of the Estonian resistance movement in 1940.  Former Stalinist Agent, 76, Starts Prison Sentence in Estonia, Seattle Times (Dec. 21, 2000), http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20001221&slug=TT5B2NNBL, archived at https://perma.cc/3V25-RHT7.

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Ethiopia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Sources: Criminal Code of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Proclamation No. 414, 2004 (May 9, 2005), available at http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/en/et/et011en.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/D4EB-HGQ5.

Used : Yes. Ethiopia has prosecuted over 5000 individuals who were part of the Derg Regime, the government that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 through 1991; of these, over 1000 are said to have been convicted.  Frode Elgesem & Girmachew Alemu Aneme, The Rights of the Accused: A Human Rights of Appraisal, The Ethiopian Red Terror Trials: Transitional Justice Challenged 33, 37 (Kjetil Tronvoll et al., eds., 2009); Les Neuhaus, Exiled Ethiopian Dictator Found Guilty of Genocide, Washington Post (Dec. 12, 2006), http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/12/AR2006121200447.html, archived at https://perma.cc/A4RX-FTRD.

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Fiji

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Crimes Decree 2009, pt 12 div 2 & 3, s 99, http://www.fiji.gov.fj/getattachment/604e31fc-c7b1-41a0-9686-71377917b6eb/Decree-No-44---Crimes-Decree-2009-(pdf).aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/2PXN-XRT2; Geneva Conventions Promulgation 2007, art. 3, Republic of Fiji Islands Government Gazette Extraordinary, vol. 7, no. 100, 29 December 2007, pp. 2077–83, amended by Geneva Conventions (Amendment) Promulgation 2009, http://www.paclii.org/fj/promu/promu_dec/gcp2009416, archived at https://perma.cc/L2HG-NMAB.

 

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Finland

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Strafflag  [Criminal Code] (Finlands Författnignssamling (FFS) 19.12.1889/39): 11 kap [11 chapter], http://www.finlex.fi/sv/laki/ajantasa/1889/ 18890039001?search%5Btype%5D=pika&search%5Bpika%5D=212%2F2008, , archived at https://perma.cc/RZR3-KHGF.

Used : Yes. Rwanda Genocide Case, Helsinki Appeals Court, Mar. 31, 2012 (on file with author). 

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France

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y [18]

Y

Y

Y [19]

Y

Y

Y [20]

Sources: Code Pénal [Penal Code] (Oct. 9, 2016) arts. 113-6 to 113-8-1, 211-1 to 213-5, & 461-1 to 462-11, https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCode.do?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006070719&dateTexte=20161026, archived at https://perma.cc/Y52A-3MS6.

Used : Yes. For example, on July 6, 2016, a criminal court in Paris convicted two former Rwandan officials on counts of crimes against humanity and genocide for acts committed during the 1995 Rwandan genocide.  Nicolas Boring & Ricardo Wicker, France/Rwanda: Genocide Convictions, Global Legal Monitor (July 29, 2016), http://www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/francerwanda-genocide-convictions, archived at https://perma.cc/MXK6-H32G.

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The Gambia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

 

 

 

 

 

 

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act, 5 Laws of the Gambia, Cap. 24:01 (rev. ed. 2009).

 

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Georgia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N[21]

Sources: Criminal Code (Aug. 13, 1999) arts. 4–5, https://matsne.gov.ge/en/ document/view/16426, archived at https://perma.cc/GPZ9-ASQU.

 

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Germany

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Völkerstrafgesetzbuch (VStGB) [International Criminal Code], June 26, 2002, Bundesgesetzblatt [BGBl.] [Federal Law Gazette] I at 2254, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/vstgb/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/KF3B-HFJT.

Used : Yes. The Federal Public Prosecutor is in charge of prosecuting cases brought under the German International Criminal Code.  Courts Constitution Act, § 120, ¶ 1 No. 8 GVG, in conjunction with § 142a, § 1.  In most cases, like the case against former US Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, he has refused to prosecute and the motions to compel prosecution were denied by the Federal Court of Justice.  The first case that was tried under the International Criminal Code was a case against the leaders of the Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda (FDLR) from Rwanda.  On September 28, 2015, the Higher Regional Court of Stuttgart sentenced the leaders of the FDLR to thirteen and eight years respectively for aiding and abetting crimes against humanity and for membership in a foreign terrorist group after the four-year trial concluded.  Oberlandesgericht (OLG) Stuttgart [Higher Regional Court of Stuttgart], Docket No. 3 StE 6/10.  A second trial concluded on December 29, 2015, at the Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt in which the court sentenced Onesphore Rwabukombe to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole under genocide charges for his part in the massacre against Rwanda’s Tutsi minority.  Oberlandesgericht [OLG] Frankfurt [Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt], Docket No. Az. 4-‑3 StE 4/10 -‑ 4 -‑ 1/15, http://www.lareda.hessenrecht.hessen.de/lexsoft/default/hessenrecht_lareda.html#docid:7543056, archived at http://perma.cc/Q7QT-L75D.

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Ghana

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

 

 

 

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Offences Act 29 of 1960, § 49A, 3 Laws of Ghana (rev. ed. 2004), available at http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/en/gh/gh010en.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/8P2T-CSE3; Courts Act 459 of 1993, 3 Laws of Ghana (rev. ed. 2004), available at http://laws.ghanalegal.com/ acts/id/116/courts-act, archived at https://perma.cc/T9CA-XGT8; Geneva Conventions Act 780 of 2009, § 1 (Jan. 6, 2009), available at https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/ihl-nat/a24d1cf3344e99934125673e00508142/ fb478c1f36d0fd25c125763b0043de8d/$FILE/61861370.PDF/GCA-Ghana.PDF, archived at https://perma.cc/Z4BX-W4LD.

 

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Gibraltar

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y[22]

Y

Y

Y[23]

Y

Y

N[24]

Sources: International Criminal Court Act 2007, Act. No 2007-28, §§ 59–60, http://www.gibraltarlaws.gov.gi/articles/2007-28o.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/BCV2-4543; Geneva Conventions Act (Colonial Territories) Order in Council 1959, SI 1959/1301, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ uksi/1959/1301/pdfs/uksi_19591301_en.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/N94A-LUS6.

 

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Greece

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y[25]

Y

Y

Y [26]

Y

Y

Y [27]

Sources: Law No. 3948/2011, on Compliance with the Provisions of the Statute of the International Criminal Court art. 2, Gazette of the Hellenic Republic A:75, Apr. 5, 2011, http://www.et.gr/index.php/2013-01-28-14-06-23/search-laws (in Greek), archived at https://perma.cc/23XN-YCCV.

 

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Grenada

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Genocide Act (CAP. 122); Geneva Conventions Act 1957 (U.K.), http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Eliz2/5-6/52/enacted, archived at https://perma.cc/W47B-ZKR3 (extended to Grenada by Colonial Territories Order (1959, No. 1301), http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1959/1301/ pdfs/uksi_19591301_en.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/LH9B-XMBY, as amended by West Indies (Dissolution and Interim Commissioner) Order in Council 1962, S.I. 1084 of 1962; Geneva Conventions (Supplementary Provs.) Act 1960 (Cap.8) (F.A.).

 

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Guatemala

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

 

Y

Y

 

Y

Y

 

Sources: Código Penal, Decreto No. 17-73, arts. 4, 376 & 378, Diario de Centro América, Aug. 30, 1973, available at https://www.oas.org/dsp/documents/ trata/Guatemala/Legislacion%20Nacional/Codigo%20Penal%20Guatemalteco%20DECRETO%20DEL%20CONGRESO%2017-73.doc, archived at https://perma.cc/MZ76-VKQ2.

Used : Yes. On Feb. 25, 2016, two former military officers, Cols. Esteelmer Francisco Reyes Girón and Heriberto Valdez Asig, were found guilty of crimes against humanity against eleven Maya Q’eqchi’ women and were sentenced to 120 and 240 years in prison respectively.  Naomi Roht-Arriaza, Guilty Verdict in Guatemala Trial on Sexual Slavery and Sexual Violence as Crimes Against Humanity, IntLawGrrls (Mar. 2, 2016), https://ilg2.org/2016/03/02/guilty-verdict-in-guatemala-trial-on-sexual-slavery-and-sexual-violence-as-crimes-against-humanity, archived at https://perma.cc/3M89-RLY6.  On May 10, 2013, a Guatemalan trial court found former head of state General José Efraín Ríos Montt guilty of genocide and crimes against humanity against the Maya Ixil population; he was sentenced to eighty years in prison.  The codefendant in the same case, former chief of intelligence retired General José Mauricio Rodríguez Sánchez, was acquitted of both charges.  Jo-Marie Burt, Ríos Montt Convicted of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity: The Sentence and Its Aftermath, International Justice Monitor (May 13, 2013), https://www.ijmonitor.org/2013/05/rios-montt-convicted-of-genocide-and-crimes-against-humanity-the-sentence-and-its-aftermath, archived at https://perma.cc/C482-53DS.  On May 20, 2013, the Guatemalan Constitutional Court vacated the verdict on procedural grounds and ordered a retrial.  Mike McDonald, Guatemala’s Top Court Annuls Ríos Montt Genocide Conviction, Reuters, May 21, 2013, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-guatemala-riosmontt-idUSBRE94K04I20130521, archived at https://perma.cc/BD9Z-LE3L.  In June 2016, the retrial against Ríos Montt and Rodríguez Sánchez was definitively suspended by the First Court of Appeals, which upheld an “Amparo appeal” filed by the plaintiffs claiming that the trial was being conducted under illegal proceedings.  Jo-Marie Burt, Appeals Court Upholds Suspension of  Ríos Montt Genocide Trial, International Justice Monitor (June 3, 2016), https://www.ijmonitor.org/2016/06/appeals-court-upholds-suspension-of-rios-montt-genocide-trial, archived at https://perma.cc/B85F-LYYH.

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Guernsey

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

 

 

 

 

 

 

Y

Y

N

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act (Guernsey) Order 1966, SI 1966/948, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1966/948/made, archived at https://perma.cc/GMT4-YV4X.

 

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Guyana

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: United Kingdom’s Geneva Conventions Act (Colonial Territories) Order in Council, 1959 (Geneva Conventions Order), available at http://laws.bahamas.gov.bs/cms/images/LEGISLATION/SUBORDINATE/1959/1959-1301/GenevaConventionsActColonialTerritoriesOrderin Council1959_1.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/EE24-WXXU.

 

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Honduras

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources: Código Penal, Decreto No. 144-83, arts. 3, 5(5), 319, La Gaceta, Mar. 12, 1984, http://www.poderjudicial.gob.hn/CEDIJ/Leyes/Documents/CodigoPenal-ReformaIncluida.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/8Z2Y-KJLF.

 

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Hong Kong

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources: Offences Against the Person Ordinance, Cap. 212, § 9A (1997), http://www.legislation.gov.hk/blis_pdf.nsf/4f0db701c6c25d4a4825755c00352e35/43CA4DC0171D9224482575EE004D5CE1/$FILE/CAP_212_e_b5.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/8REK-H72N.

 

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Hungary

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code (2012), § 3, available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c358dd22.html, archived at https://perma.cc/J2J2-GD4P.

Used : Yes. Bela Biszku was sentenced to five years and six months in prison in 2014 for ordering security forces to open fire on civilians, killing 49 people in 1956.  The court verdict was later voided by a higher court.  Hungary 1956 Revolt: Bela Biszku Jailed for War Crimes, BBC (May 13, 2014), http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-27398373, archived at https://perma.cc/WT76-6XBB.

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India

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act, No. 6 of 1960, available at http://indiacode.nic.in, archived at https://perma.cc/GQT7-JDTF.

 

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Indonesia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Sources: Law No. 26/2000 on Human Rights Court arts. 8 & 9, unofficial translation available at http://humanrightsinasean.info/system/files/ documents/Law_No_26_Year_2000_on_Human_Rights_Court.pdf?download=1, archived at https://perma.cc/W7HM-HSLW.

Used : Yes. In 2001, two ad hoc human rights courts were established under the 2000 Law, one to hear the cases related to alleged abuses by Indonesian military and police personnel and by East Timorese militia in East Timor and the other for the 1984 Tanjung Priok massacre in Jakarta that involved Indonesian soldiers.  The courts started sitting in early 2002.  The court on East Timor convicted six of the eighteen defendants, who were all charged with failing to prevent crimes against humanity, but all of the convictions were overturned on appeal.  Twelve soldiers were convicted for the 1984 massacre, but these convictions were also overturned on appeal.  See Indonesia’s Court for East Timor a “Whitewash, Human Rights Watch (Dec. 20, 2002),https://www.hrw.org/news/2002/12/20/indonesias-court-east-timor-whitewash, archived at https://perma.cc/2M96-G4AD; Indonesia: Acquittals Show Continuing Military Impunity, Human Rights Watch (July 12, 2005), https://www.hrw.org/news/2005/07/12/indonesia-acquittals-show-continuing-military-impunity, archived at https://perma.cc/YES4-DFMC; Mark Cammack, The Indonesian Human Rights Court for East Timor: Liability for Crimes Against Humanity, in Trials for International Crimes in Asia (Kirsten Eve Sellars ed., 2015), available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2569492 (abstract only), archived at https://perma.cc/22AW-AZZQ; Indonesia and East Timor: Against Impunity, For Justice, APSNet Policy Forum, Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainability (Apr. 24, 2008), http://nautilus.org/apsnet/indonesia-and-east-timor-against-impunity-for-justice, archived at https://perma.cc/N63B-RUC9.

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Iran

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N[28]

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

 

 

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Iraq

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

N

N

Y

N

N

Y

N

N

Sources: Law of the Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal No. 10 of 2005, arts 11–13, available at http://gjpi.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/iraqstatuteengtrans.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/BRC3-7ZJD.

Used : Yes. Saddam Hussein was tried for crimes against humanity in 2005.  See Issam Saliba, Saddam Hussein Trial, Law.gov (July 2007), http://www.loc.gov/law/help/hussein.

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Ireland, Republic of

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: International Criminal Court Act 2006, No. 30 of 2006, § 12, www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/2006/act/30/enacted/en/print, archived at https://perma.cc/PVS5-32UU; Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, No. 11 of 1962, § 3, http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1962/act/11/enacted/en/print.html, archived at https://perma.cc/HVF6-SQR3.

 

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Israel

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y[29]

N

Y

Y [30]

N

Y

Sources: Law for Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 5710-1950, Sefer Hahukim [SH] [Book of Laws] (official gazette) 5710 No. 42 p. 137; Adjudication of Nazis and Their Assistants Law, 5710-1950, SH 5710 No. 57 p. 281.

Used : Yes. CrimA 336/61 Adolf Hitler v. Attorney General, 16 Piske Din [PD] (Supreme Court decisions) 2032 (1962); CrimA 347/88 Ivan (John) Demjanjuk v. Israel, 47(4) PD p. 221 (1993).

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Italy

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court [Rome Statute], art. 6 & 7, ratified by Law No. 232/1999 of July 12, 1999, Gazetta Ufficiale [G.U.] No. 167 (July 19, 1999), https://www.icc-cpi.int/nr/ rdonlyres/ea9aeff7-5752-4f84-be94-0a655eb30e16/0/ rome_statute_english.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/TJ95-6P49; Law No. 237, Dec. 20, 2012, Provisions for the Implementation of the Statute Creating the International Criminal Court [Law No. 237], G.U. No. 6, Aug. 1, 2013, http://www.normattiva.it/atto/carica DettaglioAtto?atto.dataPubblicazioneGazzetta=2013-01-08&atto.codice Redazionale=13G00007&currentPage=1 (enter law number in search box), archived at https://perma.cc/Q2BB-R2L6; Law No. 962, Oct. 9, 1967, on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, G.U. No. 272, Oct. 30, 1967, http://www.normattiva.it/atto/caricaDettaglio Atto?atto.dataPubblicazione Gazzetta=1967-10-30&atto.codiceRedazionale=067U0962&currentPage=1 (enter law number in search box), archived athttps://perma.cc/C9S4-2LXL; Criminal Code, art. 414, ALTALEX, http://www.altalex.com/documents/ news/2014/04/18/dei-delitti-contro-l-ordine-pubblico, archived athttps://perma.cc/3VHZ-RQNZ; Royal Decree No. 303 of February 20, 1941, Military Criminal Code of Peace and War, arts. 17,18, 239, 249, 255 & 260, G.U. No. 107, May 6, 1941, http://www.normattiva.it/uri-res/N2Ls?urn:nir:stato:relazione. e.regio.decreto:1941-02-20;303, archived at https://perma.cc/7ZGJ-EY8M.

 

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Jamaica

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Offences Against the Person Act, 1864, as amended, § 33, http://moj.gov.jm/sites/default/files/laws/Offences%20Against%20the%20Person%20Act_0.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/2WFS-G57S; Jamaica (Constitution) Order in Council 1962, ¶ 4(1), http://moj.gov.jm/sites/default/ files/laws/Ja%20%28Constitution%29%20Order%20in%20Council%201962_1.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/J4UA-R5BU (existing laws to continue in force after independence, which included the United Kingdom’s Geneva Conventions Act (Colonial Territories) Order in Council, 1959, available at http://laws.bahamas.gov.bs/cms/images/LEGISLATION/SUBORDINATE/1959/1959-1301/GenevaConventionsActColonialTerritoriesOrderin Council1959_1.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/EE24-WXXU).

 

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Japan

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y [31]

Y

Y[32]

Y [33]

Y

Y[34]

Y

Y

Y[35]

Sources: Criminal Code, Act No. 45 of 1907, amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, http://www.japaneselawtranslation.go.jp/law/detail_main?re=02&ia=03&vm=02&id=1960, archived at https://perma.cc/P4FH-GV77; Act on Punishment of Acts of Significant Violation of International Humanitarian Law, Act No. 115, 2004, http://law.e-gov.go.jp/htmldata/H16/H16HO115.html, archived at https://perma.cc/AP4C-A9AX (in Japanese).[36]

 

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Jersey

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y[37]

Y

Y

Y [38]

Y

Y

Y

Sources: International Criminal Court (Jersey) Law 2014, rev. ed. Jan. 1, 2016, arts. 45 & 53, https://www.jerseylaw.je/laws/revised/PDFs/17.520.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/KH9P-V5ZG.

 

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Jordan

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Jordanian Law No. 12 of 2002, art. 2 (incorporating the Rome Statute into the Jordanian domestic legal system), Official Gazette, No. 4539, 2002; Rome Statute art. 6-8, https://www.icc-cpi.int/nr/rdonlyres/ea9aeff7-5752-4f84-be94-0a655eb30e16/0/rome_statute_english.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/7G3T-EYHM; Jordanian Penal Code No. 16 of 1960, arts. 7 & 10 (giving domestic courts jurisdiction over crimes committed in Jordan or by nationals), http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/ar/jo/jo064ar.pdf (in Arabic), archived at https://perma.cc/FQ7Q-N7ZG.

 

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Kazakhstan

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code arts. 7–8, http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_ id=31575252#pos=1;-217 (in Russian; last visited Oct. 26, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/3FAB-R23N.

 

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Kenya

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources:International Crimes Act 16 of 2008, §§ 6 & 8 (Jan. 1, 2009), available at http://www.kenyalaw.org/lex//actview.xql?actid=CAP.%2060, archived at https://perma.cc/CPN6-H75M; Geneva Conventions Act 51 of 1968 (Nov. 22, 1968), available at http://www.kenyalaw.org/ lex/actview.xql?actid= CAP.%20198, archived at https://perma.cc/WP4Q-7BNC.

 

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Kiribati

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Penal Code s 62 (genocide), http://www.paclii.org/ki/legis/consol_act/pc66, archived at https://perma.cc/3HAC-TJHF; Geneva Conventions Act 1993, s 3(1), http://www.paclii.org/ki/legis/num_act/gca1993208, archived at https://perma.cc/29MU-3GRP, amended by Geneva Conventions (Amendment) Act 2010, http://www.paclii.org/ki/legis/num_act/gca2010288, archived at https://perma.cc/UL5H-K5KW.

 

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Korea, Republic of

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y[39]

Y

Y

Y [40]

Y

Y

Y [41]

Sources: Act on Punishment, etc. of Crimes Under Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, Act No. 8719, Dec. 21, 2007, amended by Act No. 10577, Apr. 12, 2011, http://elaw.klri.re.kr/eng_service/lawView.do?hseq=24229 &lang=ENG, archived at https://perma.cc/6NM3-JSTY.

 

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Kosovo

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code (Apr. 20, 2012) arts. 114–117, available at http://www.kuvendikosoves.org/common/docs/ligjet/Criminal%20Code.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/GK7R-CS72.

 

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Kuwait

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

Sources: Royal Decree of Law 136, 1992, art. 41(14), available at http://www.gcc-legal.org/LawAsPDF.aspx?opt&country=1&LawID=3653 (in Arabic), archived at https://perma.cc/4RCC-X4T2.

 

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Kyrgyzstan

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Sources: Criminal Code (Sept. 18, 1997), arts. 5–6, available at http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/en/kg/kg013en.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/3C6C-7RSL.

Used : Yes. Ex-president Kurmanbek Bakiev was sentenced to life imprisonment in 2014 for the massacre of protesters in April 2010; his sentence was later changed to thirty years of imprisonment.  Kyrgyz Supreme Court Abolishes Life Imprisonment of Kurmanbek Bakiyev and Sentences Him to 30 Years in Prison, Kabar.Kg (July 29, 2016), http://www.kabar.kg/eng/law-and-order/full/16568, archived at https://perma.cc/L9XZ-MSLQ.

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Latvia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N[42]

Sources: Criminal Law (May 18, 200, as last amended Mar. 14, 2003) arts. 2–4, available at http://www.legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes, archived at https://perma.cc/R6A2-PC4P

Used : Yes. Nikolai Larionov, a former KGB officer, was sentenced to five years in prison in 2003 on charges of crimes against humanity and genocide committed during the deportation of Latvians in 1940s.  Soviet KGB Officers on Trial in Latvia, Sputniknews.com (June 9, 2004), https://sputniknews.com/onlinenews/2004060939762460, archived at https://perma.cc/X27H-QTVS.

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Lesotho

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Penal Code, Act 6 of 2010, § 92 (Mar. 2, 2012), available at https://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/lso/1967/penal-code_html/Penal_Code_2010.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/8YSG-48N5.

 

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Libya

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

N

N

Sources: Military Penal Code, Law No. 37 of 1974, art. 55, http://aladel.gov.ly/ home/?p=1173 (in Arabic), archived at https://perma.cc/X55Y-FFYY.

 

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Liechtenstein[43]

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources: Strafgesetzbuch (StGB) [Criminal Code], June 24, 1987, Liechtensteinisches Landesgesetzblatt Nummer [Liechtenstein LGBl.-Nr.] [Liechtenstein Official Law Gazette No.] 1988.037, as amended, §§ 62, 64, ¶ 1, no. 6, 65, § 321, https://www.gesetze.li/lilexprod/ifshowpdf.jsp?lgblid=1988037000&version=17&signed=n&tablesel=0, archived at http://perma.cc/8A66-NGQA.

 

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Lithuania

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code (Sept. 26, 2000, as last amended Feb. 11, 2010) arts. 4–7, available at http://www.legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes, archived at https://perma.cc/J4RY-8JFD

Used : Yes. Konstantin Mikhailov, a former Soviet police officer, was sentenced to life imprisonment in 2011 for ordering the murder of seven Lithuanian officials in 1991.  Lithuanian Appeals Court Upholds Life Sentence in 1991 Medininkai Checkpoint Massacre, Delfi (June 6, 2016) (available by subscription).

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Luxembourg

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Code Pénal [Penal Code] (July 10, 2016) arts. 3, 4 & 136bis–136quater, http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/textescoordonnes/codes/code_penal/codepenal.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/GS6V-SFEH; Code d’instruction criminelle [Code of Criminal Investigation] art. 7-1, http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/textescoordonnes/codes/code_instruction_criminelle/cic.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/SZS9-E65U.

 

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Macau

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Penal Code [刑法典] (46/1995) § 5 (jurisdiction), http://bo.io.gov.mo/bo/i/95/46/codpencn/codpen0001.asp (in Chinese), archived at https://perma.cc/KRE8-XETA; Penal Code pt. III (crimes endangering peace and against humanity), h123#ttp://bo.io.gov.mo/bo/i/95/46/codpencn/codpen0201.asp (in Chinese), archived at https://perma.cc/ME6H-RDQ8.

 

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Macedonia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code (Nov. 1, 1996, as last amended Sept. 2009) arts. 116–120, available at http://www.legislationline.org/documents/action/popup/id/16066/preview, archived at https://perma.cc/S54H-A2KX.

 

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Malawi

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

 

 

 

 

 

 

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act 18 of 1967, § 4, III Laws of Malawi, Cap. 12:03 (rev. ed. 2010).

 

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Malaysia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act 1962 (Act 512, rev. 1993), s 3, http://www.agc.gov.my/agcportal/uploads/files/Publications/LOM/EN/Act%20512.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/L5CK-B24N

 

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Mali

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Sources: Code Pénal [Penal Code] (Aug. 20, 2001), arts. 29–32, http://www.droit-afrique.com/upload/doc/mali/Mali-Code-2001-penal.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/RG46-PRLT.

 

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Malta

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Sources: International Criminal Court Act, Cap. 453, 54B-D, http://www.justiceservices.gov.mt/DownloadDocument.aspx?app=lom&itemid=8919&l=1, archived at https://perma.cc/6JBZ-X2K7; Criminal Code, Cap. 9, §§ 5 & 54G, http://www.justiceservices.gov.mt/DownloadDocument.aspx? app=lom&itemid=8574&l=1, archived at https://perma.cc/G6CT-GNEY.

 

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Mauritius

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: International Criminal Courts Act 27 of 2011, § 4 (Jan. 15, 2012), available at http://attorneygeneral.govmu.org/English/Documents/A-Z%20Acts/I/Page%201/INTERNATIONAL%20CRIMINAL%20COURT%20ACT.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/DX4A-28U3; Geneva Conventions Act 59 of 1970, § 3 (Dec. 24, 1970), available at http://attorneygeneral.govmu. org/English/Documents/A-Z%20Acts/G/Page%201/GENEVA%20CON VENTIONS%20ACT.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/R8YH-DRW9.

 

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Mexico

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Código Penal Federal [Federal Penal Code], as amended, arts. 2, 3, 4, 149, 149-bis, Diario Oficial de la Federación [Federal Official Gazette], Aug. 14, 1931, http://www.diputados.gob.mx/Leyes Biblio/pdf/9_180716.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/AV9Q-GPPT.

Used : Yes. In 2002, former Mexican President Luis Echeverría was accused of committing acts of genocide against a group of students who were killed in 1968.  The charges were dismissed in court.  Open Society Justice Initiative, Undeniable Atrocities: Confronting Crimes against Humanity in Mexico 26 (June 2016), https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/undenialble-atrocities-2nd-edition-20160808.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/5776-Y888.

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Moldova

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code (Apr. 18, 2002) art. 11, http://lex.justice.md/ru/331268 (in Russian), archived at https://perma.cc/S93D-AR79.

 

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Mongolia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

N

N

Sources: Criminal Code (Revised) (in force Sept. 1, 2002), art. 302 & arts. 13-15, available at http://www.refworld.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/rwmain/opendocpdf.pdf?reldoc=y&docid=52b840bd4, archived at https://perma.cc/382T-W6E3.[45]  

 

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Montenegro

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code (2003, corrected in 2004) arts. 134–137, available at http://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/mne/2003/criminal_code_html/Montenegro_Criminal_Code.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/4KSD-B8LD.

Used : Yes. Six former soldiers, Govedarica, Gligic, Tarle, Lucic, Menzalin, and Gojnic, received prison sentences ranging from one and a half years to four years in 2010 for torture, inhumane treatment of and infliction of bodily harm on 169 POWs and civilians during the 1990s.  Montenegro Sentences Six for War Crimes, Balkan Insight (May 17, 2010), http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/montenegro-sentences-six-for-war-crimes/1458/5, archived at https://perma.cc/JE5D-AXF5.

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Namibia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

 

 

 

 

 

 

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act 15 of 2003, § 2, Government Gazette of the Republic of Namibia (Dec. 18, 2003), available at http://www.saflii.org/na/legis/num_act/gca2003208.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/95JK-283Q.

Used : Yes

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Nauru

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Crimes Act 2016, div 14.3, http://ronlaw.gov.nr/nauru_lpms/files/acts/f68fdcd4363b5f0b4630ac4c9c9f1202.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/R66J-CW95.

 

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Nepal

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y [46]

N

N

Y [47]

N

N

Y [48]

N

N

Sources: Enforced Disappearances Enquiry, Truth and Reconciliation Commission Act, 2071 (2014), http://trc.gov.np/base/file/actsrulesguidelines.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/PJB9-M7UW; Muluki Ain [General Code], 2020 [1963], http://www.lawcommission.gov.np/en/documents/2015/08/muluki-ain-general-code-2020.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/PVN7-QMNH.

 

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Netherlands

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y [49]

Y [50]

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources:Wet van 19 juni 2003, houdende regels met betrekking tot ernstige schendingen van het internationaal humanitair recht (Wet internationale misdrijven) [Act of 19 June 2003 Containing Rules Concerning Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law (International Crimes Act)] (in force Oct. 1, 2003), §§ 2–7,  http://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0015252/2006-01-01, archived at https://perma.cc/968A-KKX6.[51]

 

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New Zealand

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: International Crimes and International Criminal Court Act 2000, ss 8–11, http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2000/0026/latest/DLM63091.html, archived at https://perma.cc/A45L-2Z6M; Geneva Conventions Act 1958, s 3(1) & (3), http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1958/0019/latest/whole.html, archived at https://perma.cc/4Q3H-FERY.

 

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Nicaragua

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Código Penal, Ley No. 641, arts. 13, 16, & 484–522, La Gaceta, May 5–9, 2008, http://www.poderjudicial.gob.ni/pjupload/spenal/pdf/2007_ley01.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/7MEJ-7XPL.

 

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Niger

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Code Pénal [Penal Code] (June 13, 2003) arts. 208.1–208.8, available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/47fb8e642.html, archived at https://perma.cc/54CQ-XNXS.

 

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Nigeria

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

 

 

 

 

 

 

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act No. 54 of 1960, § 3 (Sept. 30, 1960), available at http://www.placng.org/lawsofnigeria/view2.php?sn=152, archived at https://perma.cc/JZ72-BYD2.  

 

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Niue

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

 

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act 1958, s 3(1) & (3), http://www.paclii.org/ nu/legis/consol_act/gca1958208, archived at https://perma.cc/7LDV-DZRG

 

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Norway

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Lov om straff (straffeloven) [Criminal Code]. LOV-2005-05-20-28, as amended up toLOV-2016-06-17-53;  Kapittel 16. Folkemord, forbrytelse mot menneskeheten og krigsforbrytelse, https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/2005-05-20-28/KAPITTEL_2-1?q=folkemord#KAPITTEL_2-1, archived at https://perma.cc/BU9B-D3DB.

Used : Yes. Norwegian Supreme Court , Apr. 13, 2011, http://www.domstol.no/no/Enkelt-domstol/-Norges-Hoyesterett/Avgjorelser/Avgjorelser-2011/Avdeling/Straffesaker/Domfellelse-for-ugjerninger-begatt-under-den-vapnede-konflikten-i-Bosnia-Hercegovina-i-1992/ , archived at https://perma.cc/KJ4E-ZBHK; Oslo District Court, Case No. TOSLO-2012-106377 (on file with author). 

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Oman

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

N

N

Y

N

N

Y

N

N

Sources: Royal Decree No. 110 of 2011, on the Military Judiciary Code arts. 88–92, http://www.omanlegal.org/law/omanlegal/110-2011.pdf (in Arabic), archived at https://perma.cc/NR8T-CQHB.

 

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Panamá

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Código Penal de la República de Panamá [Panama Penal Code] (May 18, 2007) arts. 19–22, 440, 441, & 443–456, available at http://biblioteca.cejamericas.org/bitstream/handle/2015/5480/CODIGO%20PENAL%20-%20AJUSTADO_panama.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y, archived at https://perma.cc/EDS4-8J86.

 

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Papua New Guinea

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code Act 1974, ss 12 & 313A (genocide), http://www.paclii.org/pg/legis/consol_act/cca1974115, archived at https://perma.cc/UES7-CB6Y; Geneva Conventions Act 1975, ss 2 & 7 (war crimes), http://www.paclii.org/pg/legis/consol_act/gca1975208, archived at https://perma.cc/LT5Z-Q323; Offences (Overseas) Act 1984, http://www.paclii.org/pg/legis/consol_act/oa1984182, archived at https://perma.cc/DP2R-VJSJ.

 

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Paraguay

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Código Penal, de Paraguay, Ley No. 1160/97, arts. 8.1.6, 8.1.7 & 319–320, available at http://www.oas.org/dil/esp/Codigo_Penal_Paraguay.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/8KDG-JTNV; Law 1663 Approving the Statute of Rome, Apr. 17, 2001, http://www.pj.gov.py/images/contenido/secretariadegenero/marcolegal/LEY-1663-2001.pdf (in Spanish), archived at https://perma.cc/F34A-FUHL.

 

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Peru

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Law No. 27517, Ratification of the Statute of Rome, El Peruano [E.P.], Sept. 16, 2001, http://www4.congreso.gob.pe/comisiones/2001/justicia/ley27517.htm (in Spanish), archived at https://perma.cc/7SMB-YZSY; Criminal Code arts. 2.5, 319–322, 325–333, http://spij.minjus.gob. pe/CLP/contenidos.dll?f=templates&fn=default-codpenal.htm&vid=Ciclope:CLPdemo (in Spanish), archived at https://perma.cc/L8NB-PG3P.

 

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Philippines

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Republic Act No. 9851, Philippine Act on Crimes Against International Humanitarian Law, Genocide, and Other Crimes Against Humanity §§ 4, 5, 6 & 17, Dec. 11, 2009, http://www.gov.ph/2009/12/11/republic-act-no-9851, archived at https://perma.cc/7B4F-WH9X.

 

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Poland

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Penal Code (June 6, 1997) arts. 5 & 109–114, available at https://www.imolin.org/doc/amlid/Poland_Penal_Code1.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/GLM6-PCYU.

 

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Romania

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code arts. 10–13, available at http://www.vertic.org/ media/National%20Legislation/Romania/RO_Criminal_Code.pdf (last visited Oct. 26, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/8L7L-LEW5.

Used : Yes. Alexandru Visinescu, a former prison commander, was sentenced to twenty years in prison in 2015 for the deaths of twelve political prisoners between 1956 and 1963. Communist-Era Romanian Prison Commander Jailed for 20 Years, The Guardian (July 24, 2015), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/24/romania-alexandru-visinescu-jailed-ramnicu-sarat, archived at https://perma.cc/XD4X-FAH4.  Another ex-prison commander, Ion Ficior, was sentenced to twenty years in prison in 2016.  Romanian Labour Camp Chief Ficior Jailed for Periprava Crimes, BBC (Mar. 30, 2016), http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-35926275, archived at https://perma.cc/UT67-GV7K.

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Russia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Sources: Criminal Code (June 5, 1996) arts. 11 & 12, http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102041891, archived at https://perma.cc/4CQC-MWCM.

 

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Rwanda

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Code Pénal [Penal Code] (May 2, 2012) arts. 16 & 114–134, available at https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/93714/109657/F1967095662/RWA-93714.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/8YM9-WTE2.

Used : Yes. Special courts called Gacaca Community Courts were set up to judge perpetrators of the 1994 Rwandan genocide on a “Truth and Reconciliation” model.  About Gacaca Community Courts, Gacaca Community Justice (2016), http://gacaca.rw/about, archived at https://perma.cc/NQ26-7NCP.  Rwandan criminal courts have also started prosecuting high-level perpetrators of the genocide, such as Jean Uwinkindi, who was sentenced to life in prison by Rwanda’s High Court in 2015.  Rwanda Genocide: Jean Uwinkindi Sentenced to Life in Prison, BBC (Dec. 30, 2015), http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-35202424, archived at https://perma.cc/SKH4-XDRY.

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Saint Kitts and Nevis

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Saint Christopher and Nevis Constitution Order 1983, Statutory Instruments 1983, No. 881 (June 22, in force June 23, 1983) sched. 2 (Transitional Provisions), s. 2, available at http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Kitts/kitts83.html, archived at https://perma.cc/E2A2-FWPW (existing laws as of Sept. 19, 1983, continued in force, including Geneva Conventions Act (Colonial Territories) Order in Council, 1959, http://laws.bahamas.gov.bs/cms/images/ LEGISLATION/SUBORDINATE/1959/1959-1301/GenevaConventionsActColonialTerritoriesOrderinCouncil1959_1.pdf (last visited Oct. 6, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/EE24-WXXU).

 

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Saint Lucia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code § 358, Laws of Saint Lucia ch. 3.01 (revised Dec. 31 2005), available at http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/en/lc/lc013en.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/U43Q-P6VD; Lucia Constitution Order 1978, sched. 2 (Transitional Provisions), s. 2 (Dec. 20, 1978, in force from Feb. 22, 1979), http://www.govt.lc/media.govt.lc/www/resources/legislation/ConstitutionOfSaintLucia.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/6W7Q-4824 (continuing in force existing laws, including the United Kingdom’s Geneva Conventions Act (Colonial Territories) Order in Council, 1959, http://laws.bahamas.gov.bs/cms/images/LEGISLATION/SUBORDINATE/1959/1959-1301/GenevaConventionsActColonialTerritoriesOrder inCouncil1959_1.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/EE24-WXXU).

 

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Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

 

 

 

 

 

 

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions (Supplementary Provisions) Act 1983, Cap. 138 (1990 rev. ed.); Geneva Conventions Act (Colonial Territories) Order in Council 1959, SI 1959/1301, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/ 1959/1301/pdfs/uksi_19591301_en.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/N94A-LUS6.

 

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Samoa

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: International Criminal Court Act 2007, ss 5–7 & 13(d), http://www.paclii.org/ws/legis/consol_act/icca2007303, archived at https://perma.cc/XXV9-8FVZ

 

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Senegal

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Code Pénal [Penal Code] (2007) arts. 431-1 through 431-6, bibliographic record at https://lccn.loc.gov/2007543011; Loi No. 2007-05 du 12 février 2007 modifiant le Code de la Procédure pénale relative à la mise en œuvre du Traité de Rome instituant la Cour pénale internationale [Law No. 2007-05 of 12 February 2007 Amending the Code of Criminal Procedure Regarding the Implementation of the Treaty of Rome Establishing the International Criminal Court] art. 2, http://www.geneva-academy.ch/RULAC/pdf_state/Law-modifying-the-Code-of-Penal-Procedure-relating-to-implementation-of-the-Rome-Treaty-creating-the-International-Criminal-Court.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/XN43-GVA3.

Used : Yes. In May 2016, a Senegalese court convicted Hissene Habre, Chad’s former ruler, of crimes against humanity. Hissene Habre: Chad’s Ex-Ruler Convicted of Crimes Against Humanity, BBC (May 30, 2016), http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-36411466, archived at https://perma.cc/Y8CL-CNHU.

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Serbia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code (2005) arts. 6–9, available at http://www.osce.org/serbia/ 18244?download=true, archived at http://perma.cc/N9DB-LFP4.

Used : Yes. Veljko Maric was sentenced to twelve years in prison by a Belgrade court in 2012 after being found guilty of war crimes for killing a civilian in the Croatian village of Rastovac in October 1991.  Croatian War Criminal Temporarily Freed for Treatment, Balkan Insight (Apr. 18, 2016), http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/croatian-war-criminal-temporary-released-for-health-reasons-04-18-2016, archived at https://perma.cc/YZ98-TJYU.

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Sierra Leone

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

 

 

 

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act 14 of 2012, § 2, 143(74) Supplement to the Sierra Leone Gazette (Dec. 20, 2012), available at http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2012-14.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/5CNE-NGUV; Special Court Agreement, 2002 (Ratification) Act 9 of 2002, sched., art. 2, 133(2) Supplement to the Sierra Leone Gazette (Apr. 25, 2002), available at http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2002-9.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/S56F-5RGQ.

Used : Yes. The Special Court for Sierra Leone convicted nine individuals of war crimes and crimes against humanity.  Chacha Murungu, Prosecution and Punishment of International Crimes by the Special Court for Sierra Leone, Prosecuting International Crimes in Africa 97, 99 (Chaha Murungu & Japhet Biegon eds., 2011); Ex-Liberian Leader Gets 50 Years for War Crimes, New York Times (May 30, 2012), http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/31/world/africa/charles-taylor-sentenced-to-50-years-for-war-crimes.html, archived at https://perma.cc/V27A-WVZJ.

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Singapore

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y [53]

 

 

 

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Penal Code (Cap. 224, rev. ed. 2008) §§ 2–4 & ch. VIB (genocide), http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/aol/download/0/0/pdf/binaryFile/pdfFile.pdf?CompId:21a9d09f-717b-47a5-a93a-5a44aa8ca1a9, archived at https://perma.cc/HD27-XB4S; Geneva Conventions Act (Cap. 117, rev. ed. 1985) § 3, http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/aol/download/0/0/pdf/binaryFile/pdfFile.pdf?CompId:1a65960f-eb11-468a-a72a-a30ba3aaef20, archived at https://perma.cc/U3GT-2YK3 (subsequent amendments to both statutes did not affect these provisions).

 

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Slovakia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code (May 20, 2005) §§ 3–7, available at http://www.legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes, archived at https://perma.cc/A9CM-DMNJ.

 

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Slovenia

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Criminal Code (Nov. 1, 2008) arts. 10–13, http://www.policija.si/eng/images/ stories/Legislation/pdf/CriminalCode2009.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/R8VP-T3V5.

Used : Yes. Berisav Popov was sentenced in absentia to five years in prison in 2013 for killing a civilian and destroying property in 1991.  Yugoslav Colonel Convicted of War Crimes in Slovenia, Balkan Insight (Aug. 27, 2013), http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/jna-colonel-sentenced-for-war-crimes-in-slovenia, archived at https://perma.cc/QV7M-JV7Z.

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Solomon Islands

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Penal Code, ss 5 & 52 (genocide), http://www.paclii.org/sb/legis/consol_act/pc66, archived at https://perma.cc/U2JZ-9MX4; Geneva Conventions Act 1957 (UK) (war crimes) http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1957/52/pdfs/ukpga_19570052_en.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/YG9T-3ZYL (appears to be applicable by virtue of the Geneva Conventions (Colonial Territories) Order 1959 (UK), http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1959/1301/pdfs/uksi_19591301_en.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/J44U-F63X; Constitution of Solomon Islands, sch 3, http://www.paclii.org/sb/legis/consol_act/c1978167, archived at http://www.paclii.org/sb/legis/consol_act/c1978167.rtf).

 

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South Africa[54]

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Implementation of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Act 27 of 2002, § 4, Government Gazette of the Republic of South Africa (July 18, 2002), available at http://www.saflii.org/za/legis/num_act/ iotrsoticca2002699.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/W4HX-Z5XM; Implementation of the Geneva Conventions Act 8 of 2012, § 5 (July 12, 2012), available at http://www.saflii.org/za/legis/consol_act/iotgca2012409, archived at https://perma.cc/F3ET-9H7P.

 

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South Sudan

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

 

 

 

 

 

 

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act 2012 (text unavailable), discussed in National Implementation of IHL: South Sudan, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl-nat.nsf/implementing Laws.xsp?documentId=352A5730B42BBDCCC1257C40005897C8&action=openDocument&xp_countrySelected=SS&xp_topicSelected=GVAL-992BU6&from=state (last visited Nov. 3, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/ZH2N-V7W4.

 

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Spain

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Organic Law on the Judicial Power art. 23.4.a, Boletín Oficial del Estado [B.O.E.], July 2, 1985, revised Oct. 28, 2015, https://www.boe.es/buscar/ pdf/1985/BOE-A-1985-12666-consolidado.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/H3P7-2NZP; Penal Code arts. 607–616 bis, B.O.E., Nov. 24, 1995, revised Apr. 24, 2015, https://www.boe.es/buscar/act.php?id=BOE-A-1995-25444&tn=1&p=20150428&vd=#a607, archived at https://perma.cc/33EF-TPSF.

Used : Yes. The Constitutional Court has affirmed the competence of Spanish courts to prosecute crimes of genocide, terrorism, and torture perpetrated in Guatemala, Argentina, and Chile.  Sentencia del Tribunal Constitucional (STC 237/2005), Sept. 26, 2005, B.O.E., Oct. 28, 2005 (Guatemala), https://www.boe.es/diario_boe/txt.php?id=BOE-T-2005-17753, archived at https://perma.cc/LCG6-U6SQ; Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo (STS 1362/2004), Nov. 15,2004 (Argentina), available at http://www.derechoshumanos.net/jurisprudencia/2004-11-15-STS-(Argentina)-(Competencia)-Sentencia-competencia.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/4EXF-9AP8; Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo (STS 319/2004), Mar. 8, 2004 (Chile), available at http://www.derechoshumanos.net/jurisprudencia/2004-03-08-STS-(Chile-CasoBrady)-(Competencia)-Sentencia-competencia.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/FQ94-HVDN.

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Sri Lanka

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act, No. 4 of 2006, § 2, available at http://www.commonlii.org/lk/legis/num_act/gca4o2006254/s2.html, archived at https://perma.cc/C3F3-6JCS.

 

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Sudan

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Penal Code of 1991, arts. 186–192, http://moj.gov.sd/content/lawsv4/5/1.htm#_ftnref8 (in Arabic), archived at https://perma.cc/XZ2R-GAS7.

 

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Suriname

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Wet van 9 juli 2008, houdende goedkeuring van de toetreding van de Republiek Suriname tot het op 17 juli 1998 totstandgekomen “Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court” [Act of July 9, 2008, Approving the Accession of the Republic of Suriname to the July 17, 1998, Created “Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court”], 2008 Staatsblad van de Republiek Suriname, No. 91, http://www.dna.sr/media/45123/SB_2008__No_91_goedk._ toetreding_Sur_tot_Rome_Statute_of_the_Int._Criminal_Court.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/V3FS-BSTH; Constitution of the Republic of Suriname (1987) art. 7(4), http://www.parliament.am/library/sahmana drutyunner/surinam.pdf (also refers to combating genocide), archived at https://perma.cc/V3R4-3X58.

 

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Sweden

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Lag om straff för folkmord, brott mot mänskligheten och krigsförbrytelser [Act on Punishment for Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes] (Svensk författningssamling [SFS] 2014:406, as amended up to SFS 2016:515), http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/dokument-lagar/dokument/svensk-forfattningssamling/lag-2014406-om-straff-for-folkmord-brott-mot_sfs-2014-406, archived at https://perma.cc/D7LJ-VJKZ.

Used : Yes. Stockholm District Court, B 18271-11, June 20, 2013 (on file with author), Press Release, Fällande dom i Rwandamålet (June 20, 2013), http://www.stockholmstingsratt.se/Om-Sveriges-Domstolar/Sveriges-Domstolars-pressrum/Nyhetsarkiv/2013/Fallande-dom-i-Rwandamalet/, archived at https://perma.cc/QXZ6-ABSB; Stockholm District Court Case No. B 12882-14 , May 16, 2016, (on file with author), Press Release, Svensk dömd för folkmord i Rwanda (May 16, 2016), http://www.stockholmstingsratt.se/Om-tingsratten/Nyheter-och-pressmeddelanden/Svensk-domd-for-folkmord-i-Rwanda/, archived at https://perma.cc/THW8-PFS8.

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Switzerland[55]

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Schweizerisches Strafgesetzbuch [StGB] [Swiss Criminal Code], Dec. 21, 1937, Systematische Rechtssammlung [SR] [Systematic Collection of Laws] 311.0, arts. 3, 6, 7 & titles twelvebis, twelveter, twelvequater, https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/193700 83/201610010000/311.0.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/4S49-RBWJ, unofficial English translation available at https://www.admin.ch/opc/en/classified-compilation/19370083/201610010000/311.0.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/5BGW-V5AV; Militärstrafgesetz (MStG) [Military Criminal Code], June 13, 1927, SR 321.0, arts. 10 & 108–114b, https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/19270018/201610010000/321.0.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/Q7BW-X7AZ.

Used : Yes. In 2001, the Swiss Military Court of Appeal upheld a fourteen-year sentence for a former Rwandan mayor, Fulgence Niyonteze, who was sent to prison in Geneva for his part in the 1994 Rwandan genocide.  He was convicted on charges of murder, incitement to murder, and war crimes.  Militärkassationsgericht [Military Court of Appeals], Apr. 27, 2001, Entscheidungen des Militãrkassationsgerichtes aus den Jahren 1997–2005, Band 12 [Decisions of the Military Court of Appeals from 1997–2005, Vol. 12], No. 21, p. 92, https://eu.alma.exlibrisgroup.com/view/delivery/41BIG_INST/12329504630001791, archived at http://perma.cc/8SEL-3Q2M.

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Taiwan

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y [56]

N

N

N

N

N

N

Sources: 殘害人群治罪條例 [Regulations on the Crime of Genocide] (May 22, 1953), http://law.moj.gov.tw/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?PCode=C0000009, archived at https://perma.cc/979S-ZEGX; Criminal Code of the Republic of China arts. 4–8.

 

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Tajikistan

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N[57]

Sources:Criminal Code arts. 14 & 15, available at http://www.legislationline.org/ download/action/download/id/1707/file/207b8150765af2c85ad6f5bb8a44.htm/preview (unofficial translation; last visited Oct. 26, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/7W6X-TR3Q.

 

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Togo

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y [58]

Y

Y

Y [59]

Y

Y

Y[60]

Sources: Nouveau Code Pénal [New Penal Code] (Nov. 24, 2015) arts. 6–10, 143–151, Journal Officiel de la République Togolaise [Official Gazette of the Togolese Republic], Special Edition (Nov. 24, 2015).

 

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Tokelau

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act 1958 (NZ), s 3(1) & (3) (applies in Tokelau by virtue of s 10), http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1958/0019/latest/whole.html, archived at https://perma.cc/4Q3H-FERY.

 

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Tonga

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

Sources: Genocide Act (Cap. 19), http://crownlaw.gov.to/cms/images/LEGISLATION/ PRINCIPAL/1969/1969-0008/GenocideAct_1.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/4E3W-MD4Y, amended by Genocide (Amendment) Act 1995, http://crownlaw.gov.to/cms/images/LEGISLATION/AMENDING/1995/1995-0009/GenocideAmendmentAct1995.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/B65J-6JX4.

 

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Trinidad and Tobago

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: International Criminal Court Act 2006, 2006 Trin. and Tob. Laws, No. 4, § 10, available at http://www. nottingham .ac.uk/shared/ shared_ hrlcicju/ Trinidad _and_Tobago / Trinidad___Tobago_The_International _ Crimi nal_Court_Act_2006.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/WH8R-MMEA.

 

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Turkey

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

N

N

Sources: Criminal Code, Law No. 5237 (adopted Sept. 26, 2004, in force June 1, 2005) arts. 76 (genocide), 77 (crimes against humanity) & 13(1)(a) (application of the offenses in a foreign country, whether or not committed by a Turkish citizen or noncitizen), available at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINFRANDLAW/Resources/040926TurkeyCriminalCode.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/ZCY9-EHYY;[61] Türk Ceza Kanunu [Turkish Criminal Code], Law No. 5237 (Sept. 26, 2004, in force June 1, 2005, last amended Apr. 18, 2013), http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/MevzuatMetin/1.5.5237.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/AZ2K-HR3L.[62]  

 

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Turkmenistan

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N[63]

Sources: Criminal Code (2010) arts. 7 & 8, http://www.minjust.gov.tm/ru/mmerkezi/doc_view_2lang.php?doc_id=8091 (in Turkmen and Russian), archived at https://perma.cc/PYE3-P8SA.

 

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Tuvalu

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Penal Code art. 62 (genocide) (Cap. 10.20, 2008 rev. ed.), http://www.paclii.org/tv/legis/consol_act_2008/pc66, archived at https://perma.cc/4GLL-5T9Z; Geneva Conventions Act 1957 (UK) (war crimes), http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1957/52/pdfs/ukpga_19570052_en.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/YG9T-3ZYL (appears to be applicable by virtue of the Geneva Conventions (Colonial Territories) Order 1959 (UK), http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1959/1301/pdfs/uksi_19591301_en.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/J44U-F63X, & Constitution of Tuvalu, http://www.paclii.org/tv/legis/consol_act_2008/cot277, archived at https://perma.cc/FM9M-2KYY).

 

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Uganda

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: International Criminal Court Act 11 of 2010, § 18, 103(39) Acts Supplement to the Uganda Gazette (June 25, 2010), available at http://www.ulii.org/ug/legislation/act/2010/11/International%20Criminal%20Court%20Act,%202010.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/X95S-JHT6; Geneva Conventions Act of 1964, § 2 (Oct. 16, 1964), available at http://www.ulii.org/ug/legislation/consolidated-act/363, archived at https://perma.cc/GUP8-S8XR.

 

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United Kingdom

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: International Criminal Court Act 2001, c. 17 §§ 51, 58, 67–68, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2001/17, archived at https://perma.cc/6QR9-NPFJ; International Criminal Court (Scotland) Act 2001, ASP 13 §§ 1–2 & 6, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2001/13, archived at https://perma.cc/JJ23-XE9M.

 

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United States

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y [64]

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y [65]

Sources: Genocide Convention Implementation Act of 1987, as amended, 18 U.S.C. § 1091 (2012), http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title18-section1091&num=0&edition=prelim, archived at https://perma.cc/X7NP-4D8Z; War Crimes Act of 1996, 18 U.S.C. § 2441 (2012), http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title18-section2441&num=0&edition=prelim, archived at https://perma.cc/EP4E-M9GL.

 

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Ukraine

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N[66]

Sources: Criminal Code (2001) arts. 6–8, http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2341-14 (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/PK7E-RVPX.

 

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Uruguay

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Law No. 17510, on Ratification of the Statute of Rome, Diario Oficial [D.O.], Aug. 7, 2002, available at http://www.impo.com.uy/bases/leyes/17510-2002 (in Spanish), archived at https://perma.cc/UC2A-LNB5; Law No. 18026 on Cooperation with International Criminal Court in the Fight Against Genocide, Crimes Against Humanity and Crimes of War arts. 1–5, D.O., Oct. 4, 2006, https://legislativo.parlamento.gub.uy/temporales/leytemp5961395.htm (in Spanish), archived at https://perma.cc/78DX-ZZ9R.

 

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Uzbekistan

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

N[67]

Sources: Criminal Code (Sept. 22, 1994) arts. 11 & 12, available at http://www.legislationline.org/download/action/download/id/1712/file/a45cbf3cc66c17f04420786aa164.htm/preview, archived at https://perma.cc/V9BK-CDA4.

 

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Vanuatu

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act 1982, s 4, http://www.paclii.org/vu/legis/ consol_act/gca208, archived at https://perma.cc/U2PU-MXNB

 

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Venezuela

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

 

Y

Y

 

Y

Y

 

Sources: Political Constitution, Gaceta Oficial [G.O.], Dec. 30, 1999, arts. 29, 45 & 271, http://www.cne.gov.ve/web/normativa_electoral/constitucion/indice.php, archived at https://perma.cc/Q5PG-3EDD; Penal Code, G.O., Oct. 20, 2000, arts. 3, 4.9, & 153–166, available at http://www.oas.org/juridico/spanish/mesicic3_ven_anexo6.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/H9EC-4HV6; Ratification of Statute of Rome, June 2, 2000, available at http://www.iccnow.org/documents/LeyRat_Venezuela_02june00_sp.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/52ME-3FH9.

 

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Vietnam

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Y

Y

 

Y

Y

 

Y

Y

 

Sources: Criminal Code, No. 15/1999/QH10 (1999), arts. 342 & 343, available at http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?file_id=385615, archived at https://perma.cc/R2LN-CV52.

 

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Yemen

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

N

N

Sources: Presidential Decree of Law No. 21, 1998, arts. 20–23, available at http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/arabic/Yemeni_Laws/Yemeni_Laws15.pdf (in Arabic), archived at https://perma.cc/YVG9-WVPP.

 

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Zimbabwe

Genocide

Crimes Against Humanity

War Crimes

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

Nationals

Foreigners – Offense Within Country

Foreigners – Offense Abroad

 

 

 

 

 

 

Y

Y

Y

Sources: Geneva Conventions Act 36 of 1981, § 3 (Feb. 1, 1984), http://www.parlzim.gov.zw/acts-list/download/688_666a603c4a57e847a412a528b289e1af, archived at https://perma.cc/2Z7G-RRG2.

 

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Prepared by the Staff of the Global Legal Research Directorate
November 2016


[1] Foreigners may be prosecuted for offenses committed abroad if such offenses are defined by an international treaty concluded by Armenia.

[2] Foreigners may be prosecuted for offenses committed abroad if a victim was a citizen of Belgium, a resident of Belgium, or a refugee granted asylum in Belgium.

[3] Id.

[4] Id.

[5] See discussion in Bonolo Ramadi Dinokopila, The Prosecution and Punishment of International Crimes in Botswana, 7(5) J. Int’l Crim. Just. 1077, 1081 (2009). 

[6] This Decree promulgates the statute for the International Criminal Court (Rome Statute), but that statute has not been implemented in Brazil.

[7] Applies when one of the victims is Cambodian.  Criminal Code art. 20.

[8] Id.

[9] Id.

[10] Specific rules of jurisdiction apply for “Offences outside of Canada” under section 8 of the Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act. These include if “(i) the person was a Canadian citizen or was employed by Canada in a civilian or military capacity, (ii) the person was a citizen of a state that was engaged in an armed conflict against Canada, or was employed in a civilian or military capacity by such a state, (iii) the victim of the alleged offence was a Canadian citizen, or (iv) the victim of the alleged offence was a citizen of a state that was allied with Canada in an armed conflict;” or if “after the time the offence is alleged to have been committed, the person is present in Canada.”

[11] Id.

[12] Id.

[13] The PRC Criminal Law provides for universal jurisdiction over crimes which are stipulated in international treaties concluded or acceded to by China, and to which China agrees to exercise criminal jurisdiction within the scope of its treaty obligations.  Nevertheless, China has rarely made any special criminal provisions defining the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes, and therefore prosecution of such crimes may have to be made for ordinary crimes wherever available.

[14] There are only two Chinese criminal law provisions, one on servicemen “cruelly injuring innocent residents in an area of military operation or plundering their money or property” during wartime and the other on maltreatment of war prisoners, that may be deemed to be war crimes under the international criminal law.

[15] Foreigners may be prosecuted for offenses abroad if a victim was a Djiboutian national.

[16] Id.

[17] The cited provisions of the Dominican Criminal Procedure Code indicate that genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity may be prosecuted in Dominican courts.  The Dominican Republic is party to the Rome Statute.

[18] Foreigners may be prosecuted for offenses abroad if a victim was a French national.

[19] Id.

[20] Id.

[21] Nonresident foreigners may be prosecuted for especially grave crimes only if punishment for these crimes is prescribed by a treaty to which Georgia is a party.

[22] Section 70 of the International Criminal Court Act 2007 allows proceedings to be brought against an individual who has committed the offenses of genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes and later becomes a resident of Gibraltar.

[23] Id.

[24] Id.

[25] Applies only if foreigners acquire Greek nationality after the commission of an act.

[26] Id.

[27] Id.

[28] Iran signed the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court on Dec. 31, 2000, but has not yet ratified it.  10. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (July 17, 1998) (status as at Oct. 26, 2016), https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XVIII-10&chapter=18&clang=_en, archived at https://perma.cc/V493-JVS9.  Iran has not adopted domestic legislation on international crimes and/or the International Criminal Court; however, legislation on war crimes trials was proposed in 2004, the text of which is on the website of Iran’s Parliament.  طرح تشکیل دادگاه رسیدگی به جنایات جنایتکاران جنگی  [Bill on War Crimes Trials] ((2907/1383  [Oct. 20, 2004]), http://rc.majlis.ir/fa/legal_draft/show/809517, archived at https://perma.cc/9UPU-V2FN.  Iran ratified the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide, 1948, on Aug. 14, 1956, and the Geneva Conventions, 1949, on Feb. 20, 1957.  Treaties, States Parties and Commentaries: Islamic Republic of Iran, ICRC, https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/vwTreatiesByCountrySelected.xsp?xp_countrySelected=IR (last visited Oct. 26, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/S9TQ-7SAH.

[29] Crimes against humanity are limited to those committed during the Nazi regime (Jan. 30, 1933, to May 8, 1945) in hostile countries (Germany or its allies during the Nazi regime).

[30] War crimes are limited to those committed during World War II (Sept. 1, 1939, to Aug. 14, 1945) in hostile countries (Germany or its allies during the Nazi regime).  There is no express exclusion of nationals but nationals are unlikely to have committed war crimes under the conditions of the Law.

[31] When Japan ratified the ICC Statute, the Japanese government concluded that acts of genocide and crimes against humanity could be mostly punished as traditional crimes, such as murder and rape.  Therefore, Japan did not create crimes with these particular names.  Yasuo Nakauchi, Japan’s Participation in the ICC and Subsequent Issues, Rippo to Chosa No. 266, 21, at 27–8 (Apr. 2007), http://www.sangiin.go.jp/japanese/annai/chousa/rippou_chousa/backnumber/2007pdf/20070406021.pdf (in Japanese), archived at https://perma.cc/FQ8F-AUL4.

[32] Japan may apply its laws on crimes of murder, rape, etc., committed outside Japan by a non-Japanese if a Japanese victim is involved.  Criminal Code art. 3-2.

[33] Nakauchi, supra note 31.

[34] Applies when a Japanese victim is involved.  Criminal Code art. 3-2.

[35] Id.

[36] Among war crimes, offenses that are not covered by the Penal Code are covered by the Act on Punishment of Acts of Significant Violation of International Humanitarian Law.

[37] Section 53 of the International Criminal Court (Jersey) Law 2014 allows proceedings to be brought against an individual who has committed the offenses of genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes and later becomes a resident of Jersey or the United Kingdom.

[38] Id.

[39] The Act applies to a foreigner who commits the crime against South Korea or against its people outside the territory, or to a foreigner who resides in South Korea. 

[40] Id.

[41] Id.

[42] Nonresident foreigners may be prosecuted if such a prosecution is required by an international treaty binding for Latvia.

[43] Liechtenstein coordinates its Criminal Code with Austria.  Austria recently enacted new Criminal Code provisions for crimes against humanity and war crimes and expanded the jurisdiction to prosecute crimes abroad to these crimes as an implementation of the substantive law of the Rome Statute of the ICC.  It is to be expected that Liechtenstein will enact similar provisions soon.  A report by the government of Liechtenstein indicated that the amendment of the Criminal Code to insert the crime of aggression will be done simultaneously with the amendment to insert crimes against humanity and war crimes, probably by the end of 2016.  Bericht und Antrag der Regierung an den Landtag des Fürstentums Liechtenstein betreffend die Änderungen des Römer Statuts des internationalen Strafgerichtshofs vom 10. und 11. Juni 2010 [Report and Motion of the Government to the Parliament of the Principality of Liechtenstein Concerning the Amendments of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of June 10 and 11, 2010], Berichte und Anträge der Regierung an den Landtag Nummer [BuA-Nr.] [Reports and Motions from the Government to the Parliament No.] 2012/6, p. 17, http://bua.gmg.biz/BuA/default.aspx?nr=6&year=2012&content=ges, archived at http://perma.cc/SER6-2YC6.

[44] According to section 65, ¶ 1, no. 2 of the Criminal Code of Liechtenstein, a crime committed abroad is subject to the criminal law of Liechtenstein if it is considered a crime in both countries (reciprocity) and if the perpetrator is a foreigner who cannot be extradited to the country where the crime was committed for reasons unrelated to the nature or characteristic of the crime.

[45] The New Criminal Code of Mongolia, scheduled to be in force on Sept. 1, 2016, but postponed for implementation until July 2017, also only has a provision on genocide, not on crimes against humanity or war crimes.  Amnesty International, Mongolia: Logistical Challenges Should Not Delay Abolition of Death Penalty and Measures to Combat Torture, ASA 30/4806/2016 (Sept. 13, 2016), http://www.refworld.org/docid/57d904b34.html, archived at https://perma.cc/YP4S-S9RC.

[46] Though specific crimes like genocide, crimes against humanity, etc. are not specifically enumerated in this law, an offense labeled “gross violation of human rights,” mentioned and defined under section 2(j), may apply.  The definition includes, among other acts, “any kind of inhuman acts inconsistent with the international human rights or humanitarian law or other crime against humanity.”  Other criminal provisions of Nepal’s General Code may be used to prosecute those recommended by the Commissions to the Government of Nepal for this offense under section 29.

[47] Id.

[48] Id.

[49] For genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, applies if a suspect in the Netherlands has committed a crime outside the Netherlands. 

[50] For genocide and crimes against humanity, applies if the victim is a Dutch national.

[51] The Act was last amended by Wet van 6 juli 2016, houdende uitvoering van de op 10 en 11 juni 2010 te Kampala aanvaarde wijzigingen van het Statuut van Rome inzake het Internationaal Strafhof (Trb. 2011, 73) [Act of July 6, 2016, Implementing the Amendments of June 10 and 11, 2010, to the Rome Statute of the International Court Accepted in Kampala (Treaty Series 2011, 73)], but the amendment is not yet in force.  Staatsblad No. 304 (Aug. 31, 2004), https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/stb-2016-304.html, archived at https://perma.cc/2QW5-S7ZL.  The International Crimes Act implements  Council Decision 2003/335/JHA, of 8 May 2003, Concerning the Investigation and Prosecution of Genocide, Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes, 2003 O.J. (L 118) 12, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A32003D0335, archived at https://perma.cc/D6YP-TXZ4.  The Director of Legal Affairs of the Netherlands Defense Ministry has stated that “[t]he definitions of the crimes contained in this Act are to a large extent based on those contained in the ICC Statute, while taking into account the experience of the Netherlands in implementing other relevant international treaties.”  Ministry of Defense of the Netherlands, Letter to Mr. Bede Sheppard of Human Rights Watch (Aug. 19, 2010), https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/related_material/schools-netherlands.pdf (appending an English translation of the International Crimes Act), archived at https://perma.cc/949W-ND44. International crimes committed before October 1, 2003, must be handled under previous law: the Wartime Offenses Act of July 10, 1952; the Genocide Convention Implementation Act of 1964; and the Act Implementing the Convention Against Torture of 1988.  Human Rights Watch, Universal Jurisdiction in Europe: The State of the Art (June 27, 2006), http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2006/06/27/universal-jurisdiction-europe-0?print#_ftn359, archived at https://perma.cc/83HZ-AQWF.

[52] Foreigners may be prosecuted for offenses abroad if a victim was a Russian citizen or resident, or if prosecution of a crime is required by international obligations accepted by Russia.

[53] Article 4 of the Penal Code provides that a public servant, being a permanent resident of Singapore, is subject to universal jurisdiction when acting or purporting to act in the course of his employment.

[54] South Africa recently submitted a written notice to the Secretary-General of the United Nations indicating its intention to withdraw from the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court; the government will soon introduce a bill before Parliament to repeal the Implementation of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Act, 2002.  Press Briefing to the Media by Minister Michael Masutha on the Matter of International Criminal Court and Sudanese President Omar Al Bashir (Oct. 21, 2016), http://www.dirco.gov.za/docs/speeches/2016/masu1021.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/ZX5Q-X7VM.

[55] Crimes committed abroad by Swiss nationals will only be prosecuted according to art. 7, ¶ 1 of the Criminal Code if the offense is also liable to prosecution at the place of commission (reciprocity), (b) the person concerned is in Switzerland or is extradited to Switzerland due to the offense; and (c) under Swiss law extradition is permitted for the offense, but the person concerned is not being extradited.  Crimes committed abroad by foreigners will only be prosecuted according to ¶ 1 if (a) the request for extradition was refused for a reason unrelated to the nature of the offense; or (b) the offender has committed a particularly serious felony that is proscribed by the international community.

[56] The Regulation on the Crime of Genocide states its provisions apply “regardless of the status of the offender.”  It is debatable, however, whether this means the court may exercise universal jurisdiction over the crime of genocide.  If it does not mean universal jurisdiction, the ordinary Criminal Code provisions on criminal jurisdiction apply, according to which foreigners who have committed crimes abroad may be prosecuted if the victim was Taiwanese.  Wang Muyi, Analyzing Application of Our Regulation on the Crime of Genocide from the Perspective of the Relevant International Practice of Universal Jurisdiction [從普遍管轄權的相關國際實踐評析我國「殘害人群治罪條例」之適用], Chinese (Taiwan) Society of International Law, http://www.csil.org.tw/, archived at https://perma.cc/C3UA-SXGA.

[57] Foreigners may be prosecuted for offenses abroad if the victim was the Tadjik state or a Tadjik national, or if the crime is identified by an international treaty.

[58] Foreigners may be prosecuted for offenses abroad if a victim was a Togolese national.

[59] Id.

[60] Id.

[61] Turkey acceded to the Convention on Genocide on July 31, 1950, but did not fulfill the obligation to criminalize acts of genocide in domestic law before the adoption and entry into force of the new Criminal Code on June 1, 2005.  Mahmut Koca, The Crime of Genocide in the New Turkish Penal Code, 42 Annales, No. 59, at 255, 261 (2010), http://istanbul.dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/7042, archived at https://perma.cc/6HRA-ZKKQ; 1. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Dec. 9, 1948) (status as at Oct. 31, 2016), https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-1&chapter=4&clang=_en, archived at https://perma.cc/XX6J-FXAV.

[62] However, article 13(3) provides, “[e]ven where a conviction or acquittal pursuant to the offences listed in section one subsections (a) and (b) have [sic] occurred in a foreign country, criminal proceedings in Turkey shall be conducted upon the request of the Ministry of Justice.”  See also Koca, supra note 61, at 282–83.

[63] Foreigners may be prosecuted for offenses abroad if a crime was committed against the interests of Turkmenistan and in cases defined by international treaties.

[64] The statute includes jurisdiction over alleged offenders present in the United States, regardless of where the offense was committed.

[65] The statute includes jurisdiction over prosecutions of war crimes abroad, provided the victim is a member of the Armed Forces of the US or a national of the US.

[66] Foreigners may be prosecuted for crimes against interests of Ukraine and offenses specified by international treaties.

[67] Foreigners may be prosecuted for crimes specified by Uzbekistan’s international agreements.

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Last Updated: 12/29/2016