Library of Congress

Law Library of Congress

The Library of Congress > Law Library > News & Events > Global Legal Monitor

China: Eight Laws Amended to Require New, Unified National Legal Profession Qualification Examination

(Nov. 10, 2017) On September 1, 2017, the National People’s Congress Standing Committee (NPCSC) of China passed a decision on amending eight laws to institute a new unified national legal profession qualification exam, officially retiring the current unified national judicial exam established in 2010.  (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui Changwu Weiyuan Hui Guanyu Xiugai Zhongguo Renmin […]

Netherlands: Mandatory Digital Litigation Extended to Asylum and Detention Cases

(June 15, 2017) According to the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice, beginning on June 12, 2017, a new system of simplified, digital litigation will be used for all asylum and detention cases handled by all courts in the Netherlands and, as of September 1, the new system will be required for claims cases requiring legal representation […]

Australia/New Zealand: Joint Regulatory System for Patent Attorneys Comes into Effect

(Mar. 1, 2017) On February 24, 2017, legislation implementing a joint Australia-New Zealand system for regulating patent attorneys came into effect. (Press Release, Arthur Sinodinos & Jacqui Dean, Trans-Tasman Patent Attorney Regulatory Regime in Effect (Feb. 24, 2017), Minister for Industry, Innovation and Science website.) The relevant New Zealand legislation was enacted in November 2016. […]

Japan: Undertaking by Non-Attorneys of Requests to Delete Online Content Can Constitute Legal Representation

(Feb. 24, 2017) Under the Attorney Act, legal assistance from non-lawyers is restricted in Japan, as it is in most jurisdictions. (Attorney Act, Act No. 205 of 1949, as amended by Act No. 87 of 2005, art. 72, translated in JAPANESE LAW TRANSLATION.) According to news articles, on February 20, 2017, the Tokyo District Court […]

Germany: Quota of Lawyers Suggested for Appointment of Justices to Federal Constitutional Court

(Dec. 5, 2016) In November 2016, the Federal Bar Association (Bundesrechtsanwaltskammer, BRAK) and the German Lawyers’ Association (Deutscher Anwaltverein, DAV) proposed a mandatory lawyers’ quota for the appointment of justices to the Federal Constitutional Court. They suggested that at least one of the justices in each of the two chambers should be an attorney who […]

Thailand/United Nations: Call to Investigate Disappearances, Ratify Treaty

(Jan. 8, 2016) On January 6, 2016, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, called on the Thai government to criminalize enforced disappearances; to investigate the cases of over 80 individuals who have disappeared, including the prominent attorney Somchai Neelapaijit; and to immediately ratify the International Convention for the Protection […]

Japan: Bar Association Guidelines for Defense Counsel in Death Penalty Cases

(Nov. 27, 2015) The Japan Federation of Bar Associations (JFBA) created Guidelines for Defense Counsel in Death Penalty Cases and sent them to local bar associations throughout Japan in October 2015. (Guidelines Exclusively for Capital Defense, JFBA “Special Defense Required,” NIKKEI (Oct. 19, 2015) (in Japanese).) The guidelines are modeled after the American Bar Association […]

Brazil: Bar Association Publishes New Code of Ethics and Discipline

(Nov. 10, 2015) A new Code of Ethics and Discipline was published in Brazil’s Official Gazette (Diário Oficial da União) on November 4, 2015, by the Federal Council of the Brazilian Bar Association (Conselho Federal da Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil). (Código de Etica e Disciplina da Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil, Resolução No. 2, […]

Israel: Restrictions on Fees for Handling Holocaust Survivors’ Claims Constitutional

(July 22, 2015) On July 9, 2015, Israel’s Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, rejected a petition filed by attorneys and public organizations arguing that the introduction of mandatory ceilings on and retroactive reimbursement of excess fees paid in connection with the Victims of Nazi Persecution (Amendment No. 20) Law 5775-2014 violated their basic rights […]

Tajikistan: Human Rights Lawyer Sentenced

(Jan. 15, 2015) On January 13, 2015, prominent human rights lawyer Sukhrat Kudratov was sentenced to nine years in prison in Tajikistan. The conviction was for bribery and fraud. Human rights advocates considered it to be a warning against criticism of the country’s government. (Addison Morris, Human Rights Lawyer Jailed in Tajikistan, PAPER CHASE (Jan. […]