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French Government Plans to Introduce Proportional Representation

(May 22, 2018) On April 4, 2018, French Prime Minister Édouard Philippe announced the government’s plans to reform the country’s Constitution and especially the electoral system. This proposed reform would implement one of President Emmanuel Macron’s campaign promises to take steps towards a more representative and effective Parliament. (Baisse du nombre de parlementaires, proportionnelle… tout […]

China: 2018 Constitutional Amendment Adopted

(May 18, 2018) On March 11, 2018, the National People’s Congress (NPC) of the People’s Republic of China (PRC or China) adopted an amendment to the PRC Constitution. The amendment contains 21 articles numbered 32 to 52 (the numbering of the articles continues from article 31 of the previous constitutional amendment). (Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Xianfa […]

Pakistan: Law Passed Extending Jurisdiction of Supreme Court and Peshawar High Court to Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA)

(May 15, 2018) On April 13, 2018, Pakistan’s Senate (upper house of Parliament) passed a bill allowing the Federal government to extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and the Peshawar High Court to the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). (Nadir Guramani, Senate Approves Bill to Extend Jurisdiction of Supreme Court, Peshawar High Court to […]

Morocco: New Law Establishes Processes for Individuals to Challenge Constitutionality of Laws

(Apr. 25, 2018) On February 6, 2018, Morocco’s Parliament approved, in accordance with article 133 of the 2011 Moroccan Constitution, Law No. 15.86 Concerning the Determination of the Conditions and Modalities of Raising the Issue of Unconstitutionality of a Law. (Law No. 15.86 Concerning the Determination of the Conditions and Modalities of Raising the Issue […]

Russia: No Warrant Needed for Chat and Email Eavesdropping

(Mar. 29, 2018) In a recently issued ruling, the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation confirmed the constitutionality of the current criminal procedural order under which investigators do not need to obtain a court warrant to access the content of electronic communications found on telephones, tablets, and personal computers of persons investigated at the scene […]

Germany: Federal Administrative Court Allows Cities to Ban Diesel-Fueled Vehicles to Reduce Air Pollution

(Mar. 28, 2018) On February 27, 2018, Germany’s highest administrative court, the Federal Administrative Court (Bundesverwaltungsgericht, BVerwG), held in two not-yet-published decisions that older and more-polluting diesel-run vehicles could be banned from predefined zones in the cities and metropolitan areas that are the worst affected by nitrogen dioxide (NO2)-polluted air. The Federal Administrative Court thereby […]

Germany: Islamic Umbrella Organizations Ruled Ineligible to Teach Religious Classes in Public Schools in North Rhine-Westphalia

(Feb. 27, 2018) In a decision published on January 10, 2018, the Higher Administrative Court of North Rhine-Westphalia (OVG NRW), the highest state court in administrative law matters, held that the petitioners, two Islamic religious umbrella organizations, were not entitled to introduce Islamic religious classes in public schools as a permanent part of the school […]

Italy: Constitutional Court Issues Decision on Citizenship Oath

(Jan. 18, 2018) On November 8, 2017, the Italian Constitutional Court issued a decision on requiring an oath of citizenship from an immigrant whose disabilities prevented her from taking it. (Decision No. 258 of November 8, Issued in a Constitutional Legitimacy Case by Incidental Procedure (the Decision), GAZZETTA UFFICIALE [OFFICIAL GAZETTE, G.U.] (Dec. 13, 2017) […]

France: Constitutional Court Strikes Down Prohibition on Accessing Terrorist Websites

(Jan. 17, 2018) On December 15, 2017, France’s Conseil constitutionnel (Constitutional Court) struck down a legislative provision prohibiting access to websites that support terrorism. (Conseil Constitutionnel, Decision No. 2017-682 QPC, Dec. 15, 2017, CONSEIL CONSTITUTIONNEL.) The provision, which was part of a security law adopted in February 2017, prohibited “habitual” access to websites that supported […]

Germany: University Admission Rules for Medical Studies Partially Unconstitutional

(Jan. 16, 2018) On December 19, 2017, the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) held that the federal framework and state implementing provisions regulating university admissions for medical studies at Germany’s public universities are partially incompatible with the German Basic Law, the country’s Constitution. The Court stated that the provisions infringe the applicants’ constitutional right […]