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France: Major Reform of Penal Code

(Sept. 2, 2014) An important reform of the French Penal Code was signed into law on August 15, 2014. (Loi No. 2014-896 du 15 août 2014 relative à l’individualisation des peines et renforçant l’efficacité des sanctions pénales [Law No. 2014-896 of August 15, 2014, on the Individualization of Sentencing and Reinforcing the Efficacy of Penal […]

France: Government Must Apply Law Requiring Anonymous Job Applications

(July 30, 2014) The Conseil d’Etat, France’s highest jurisdiction for administrative matters, recently ordered the government to implement a 2006 anti-discrimination law requiring employers of more than 50 employees to anonymize job applications. (CE [Conseit d’Etat], 9 juillet 2014, M.A… et autres, Nos. 345253, 352987, & 373610.) The Court’s July 9, 2014, decision is mainly […]

European Court of Human Rights; France: Recent Court Decisions on Islamic Veil Bans

(July 11, 2014) The European Court of Human Rights has recently ruled that the French ban on veiling one’s face in public does not breach the European Convention on Human Rights. (S.A.S. v. France, Eur. Ct. H.R. (July 1, 2014), Application No. 43835/11.) This ruling ends a case regarding a 2010 French law banning concealment […]

France: GMO Prohibition Confirmed

(June 19, 2014) The Conseil d’Etat, France’s highest court for administrative matters, has rejected a request from corn producers to strike down a government regulation prohibiting the sale, use, and growing of a type of genetically modified corn known as MON 810. (Ordonnance du 5 mai 2014, Association générale des producteurs de maïs (AGPM), SARL […]

France: Denial of Adoption for Same-Sex Parents of Child Conceived Through Medically Assisted Reproduction

(May 23, 2014) A court in Versailles has denied a same-sex couple the adoption of a child conceived through medically assisted reproduction (M.A.R.). [Gaëlle Dupont, Premier refus d’adoption à un couple de femmes ayant conçu un enfant par PMA [First Refusal for the Adoption of a Child Conceived through M.A.R. by Two Women], LE MONDE […]

France: Animals Granted New Legal Status

(Apr. 25, 2014) The French National Assembly recently adopted a legislative amendment changing the status of animals in the Civil Code. Since the inception of the Civil Code in 1804, the legal status of animals was that of mere objects. (Code civil [Civil Code], art. 528 [as worded from Jan. 25, 1804, to Jan. 7, […]

France: New Law Places Limits on Holding Multiple Political Offices

(Feb. 18, 2014) On January 22, 2014, the French Parliament adopted two laws placing limits on the ability of politicians to hold multiple concurrent political offices. (Projet de loi interdisant le cumul de fonctions exécutives locales avec le mandat de représentant au Parlement européen [Draft Law to Prohibit the Concurrent Holding of Local Executive Offices […]

France: 2010 Law Banning Full Islamic Veil Challenged in Court

(Jan. 6, 2014) In October 2010, France enacted a law banning the concealment of one’s face in public (Loi n° 2010-1192 du 11 octobre 2010 interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l’espace public [Law No. 2010-1192 of October 11, 2010, Banning Concealment of the Face in Public Places], LEGIFRANCE; see also Nicole Atwill, France: Law […]

France: New Mining Code Under Consideration

(Dec. 23, 2013) On September 5, 2012, the French Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, created a working group to elaborate an in-depth reform of the French Mining Code. This working group, which consisted of elected officials, jurists, representatives from non-government organizations, and representatives from the industrial sector, as well as other concerned social actors and experts, […]