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Russia: New Legislation Restricts Anonymity of Internet Users

(Sept. 5, 2017) On July 29, 2017, the President of the Russian Federation signed two recently adopted federal laws that prohibit the anonymous use of online messenger applications and detail the procedure for blocking access to websites recognized by the Russian authorities as prohibited. (Law on Information and Information Technologies Has Been Amended, KREMLIN.RU (official […]

Court of Justice of the European Union: Recognition of Treaty Negotiations as a Legal Act, Validation of Initiative to Stop TTIP

(May 31, 2017) On May 10, 2017, the General Court of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), which, inter alia, deals with actions for annulment of European Commission decisions brought by individuals, businesses, or governments of the EU Member States, reviewed the case M. Efler and Others v. the European Commission.  The […]

European Union: Exclusive Competence over Marrakesh Treaty Confirmed

(May 23, 2017) On February 14, 2017, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), in line with a CJEU Advocate General’s opinion, ruled that the EU enjoys exclusive competence in defining copyright rules concerning materials intended for use by people with disabilities. The Court stated that the Treaty falls, to a large extent, […]

Georgia, Kyrgyzstan: Marriages of Minors Prohibited

(May 9, 2017) As of January 1, 2017, article 15073 of the Civil Code of Georgia, which had temporarily allowed marriages of minors, became obsolete.  (Law No. 4646 of December 16, 2016 on Amending the Civil Code of Georgia, MATSNE.GOV.GE (official publication) (in Georgian).)  The article was a transitory provision that had remained in effect […]

Azerbaijan: President Appointed His Wife as First Vice-President

(Mar. 24, 2017) On February 21, 2017, the President of Azerbaijan, Ilham Aliyev, appointed his wife, Mehriban Aliyeva, as the First Vice-President of the Republic, in accordance with newly added article 1031 of Azerbaijan’s Constitution.  (Appointment by the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan of M. A. Aliyeva as the First Vice-President of the Republic […]

Kyrgyzstan: Parliament Approves Bill Abolishing Military Courts

(Mar. 23, 2017) On December 27, 2016, the President of Kyrgyzstan signed into law amendments to the Constitutional Law on the Status of Judges of the Kyrgyz Republic that had been adopted by the Parliament of the Kyrgyz Republic. (Optimization of Spending: Military Courts Are Terminated in Kyrgyzstan, SPUTNIK-TJ.COM,  (Dec. 27, 2016) (in Russian); Law […]

International: Electronic Apostille Program Developments

(Mar. 16, 2017) From November 2-4, 2016, the Hague Conference on Private International Law (HCCH) held a Special Commission meeting to review the practical operation of the Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents. Better-known as the Apostille Convention, this international instrument entered into force on January 24, 1965, and currently […]

United States: Conventions Proposed by U.N. Commission on International Trade Law Submitted to Senate for Ratification

(Feb. 14, 2017) On November 16, 2016, the U.S. State Department’s Advisory Committee on Private International Law held its annual meeting to discuss ongoing work involving the negotiation and drafting of instruments governing private cross-border transactions. The Committee announced that it had sent transmittal letters for each of several treaty documents to the Senate in […]

Slovenia: Mechanisms Introduced for Stricter Border Control of Refugee Influx

(Feb. 9, 2017) On January 26, 2017, the Parliament of Slovenia adopted amendments to the laws on aliens and on state border control that if implemented would allow the government to introduce a special temporary system of border checks and prevent the admission of refugees into the country. (Slovenia Passes Law Allowing Migrant Border Pushbacks, […]

Armenia: Relocation of Legal Entities Introduced

(Feb. 2, 2017) On December 17, 2016, legislative amendments on re-domiciliation of foreign companies to Armenia came into effect. (Law No. 207-N of Nov. 17, 2016, OFFICIAL GAZETTE, No. 88 (Dec. 7, 2016), Armenian Legal Information System (ARLIS) database (in Armenian).) The amendments affected both the Civil Code and the Law on Registration of Legal […]