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France: Justice Reforms Adopted

(Dec. 6, 2016) On October 12, 2016, the French Parliament adopted a law reforming various aspects of the French justice system. The President promulgated the law on November 18.  (Loi n° 2016-1547 du 18 novembre 2016 de modernisation de la justice du XXIe siècle (1) [Law No. 2016-1547 of 18 November 2016 to Modernize XXIst […]

Côte d’Ivoire: New Constitution Adopted

(Nov. 25, 2016) Alassane Ouattara, the President of Côte d’Ivoire, promulgated a new Constitution on November 8, 2016.  (Côte d’Ivoire: Alassane Ouattara promulgue la nouvelle Constitution [Côte d’Ivoire: Alassane Ouattara Promulgates the New Constitution], JEUNE AFRIQUE (Nov. 8, 2016); Loi No. 2016-886 portant Constitution de la République de Côte d’Ivoire [Law No. 2016-886 Establishing the […]

France: Controversial Labor Law Reform Adopted

(Oct. 14, 2016) On August 9, 2016, French President Francois Hollande signed into law a significant reform of France’s labor laws. (Loi n° 2016-1088 du 8 août 2016 relative au travail, à la modernisation du dialogue social et à la sécurisation des parcours professionnels (1) [Law No. 2016-1088 of 8 August 2016 on Labor, Modernization […]

France: Seized Cell Phone Data Can Be Used

(Sept. 29, 2016) On August 12, 2016, a judge of the Conseil d’État (the highest administrative jurisdiction in France) authorized the use of the data stored in a cell phone that had been seized during a search ordered on the basis of the Law on the State of Emergency.  (CE, ordonnance du 12 août 2016, […]

France: Continuous Video Surveillance of Prisoner Maintained

(Sept. 13, 2016) The Conseil d’État (the highest administrative jurisdiction in France) has rejected a request to suspend continuous video surveillance of Salah Abdeslam, an imprisoned suspect in the Paris and Saint-Denis terrorist attacks that took place on November 13, 2015. (Vidéosurveillance en prison [Video Surveillance in Prison], Conseil d’État [Council of State] website, (July 28, […]

Madagascar: Controversial Mass Media Code Approved

(Sept. 9, 2016) A draft law on a Code of Media Communication was adopted by Madagascar’s Senate and National Assembly on July 13, 2016, and July 14, 2016, respectively. (Loi no 2016-029 portant Code de la Communication Médiatisée [Law 2016-029 Establishing the Code of Media Communication] (Code de la Communication Médiatisée), National Assembly website (July […]

France: Dismissal of Whistleblowers Illegal

(Sept. 8, 2016) On June 30, 2016 the Cour de Cassation (France’s Supreme Court for civil and criminal matters) ruled that the dismissal of whistleblowers is illegal. (Arrêt n° 1309 du 30 juin 2016 (15-10.557) [Judgment No. 1309 of June 30, 2016 (15-10557)] COUR DE CASSATION – CHAMBRE SOCIALE – ECLI:FR:CCASS:2016:SO01309, Cour de Cassation website.) The Cour […]

France/Rwanda: Genocide Convictions

(July 29, 2016) On July 6, 2016, a court in Paris convicted two former local officials of “crimes against humanity,” “genocide,” and “widespread and systematic practice of summary executions” in a “concerted plan aimed at the destruction” of the Tutsi ethnic group. They were sentenced to life in prison. (Génocide rwandais : deux anciens bourgmestres condamnés à perpétuité […]

France/European Court of Human Rights: Intercepted Conversation with Client Admissible Against Attorney

(July 13, 2016) On June 16, 2016, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) issued a judgment validating the interception, transcription, and use by the French government of a wiretapped conversation between an attorney and her client. (Affaire Versini-Campinchi et Crasnianski c. France (Judgment), Application No. 49176/11 (June 16, 2016) (Judgment), HUDOC.) Background This case […]

France: New Law to Punish Prostitution Clients

(Apr. 28, 2016) On April 13, 2016, the French government promulgated a law that aims to end prostitution and fight human trafficking that is related to prostitution. (Loi n° 2016-444 du 13 avril 2016 visant à renforcer la lutte contre le système prostitutionnel et à accompagner les personnes prostituées (1) [Law No. 2016-444 of April […]