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Finding Aids to Individual Collections in the Archive of Folk Culture


AFC 1993/001

Library of Congress
American Folklife Center
September 1994


This collection consists of materials gathered during the Ethnic Heritage and Language Schools in America Project in 1982. Fieldworkers surveyed 23 ethnic schools, 14 of which the Center represented in the book resulting from the study, _Ethnic Heritage and Language Schools in America_. Schools were documented using recorded interviews, photographs, and one video. The collection manuscripts are divided into microfilmed and unmicrofilmed materials. The microfilmed portions of the collection included fieldworkers notes, logs, and reports, while the unmicrofilmed portions include a variety of curriculum materials collected from the schools.

Access and Reproduction: Listening and viewing access to the collection is unrestricted. Duplication of the recorded materials may be governed by copyright and other restrictions. Listening copies of the recordings are available at the Performing Arts Reading Room, while all other materials are available through the Folklife Reading Room.

Key Words: Acculturation; Anthropological linguistics; Arab Americans; Arabic language; Area studies; Armenian Americans; Armenian language; Baltic languages; Bilingualism; Bilingualism in children; Buddhist; Cambodian Americans; Caribbean Americans; Children of immigrants; Chinese Americans; Chinese American children; Chinese language; Christianity; Church and education; Cross-cultural orientation; Cross-cultural studies; Culture; Culture diffusion; Czech Americans; Czechoslovakian language; Dancing; Dancing for children; Dutch Americans; Dutch language; Education; Emigration and immigration; Ethiopian languages; Ethnic art; Ethnic folklore; Ethnic groups; Ethnic neighborhoods; Ethnic schools; Ethnicity; Ethnicity in children; Ethnology; Exiles; Expatriation; Folk art; Folk artists; Folk dance music; Folk dancing; Folk high schools; Folk literature; Folk songs; Folklore and children; Folklore and education; Greek Americans; Greek Language; Hebrew language; Hispanic American children; Hispanic Americans; Hungarian Americans; Hungarian language; Hupa Indians; Hupa language; Identification; Identification (religion); Identity; Identity (Psychology) in adolescence; Identity (Psychology) in children; Identity (Psychology) in youth; Immigrant; Intercultural communication; Intercultural relations; Interlanguage (Language learning); International education; Islam; Islamic learning and scholarship; Islamic education; Japanese Americans; Japanese language; Jews; Judaism; Khmer language; Korean Americans; Korean language; Language acquisition; Language and culture; Language and education; Language purism; Language revival; Language teachers; Language transfer; Latvian Americans; Latvian language; Linguistic analysis; Linguistic informants; Linguistics; Linguistics teachers; Linguists; Lithuanian Americans; Lithuanian language; Martial arts; Migration; Multilingualism; Music; Music and dance; Music and language; Music and folklore; Muslim children; Muslim educators; Muslim students; Muslim teachers; Muslims; Orthodox Eastern Church; Polish Americans; Polish language; Portuguese Americans; Portuguese language; Refugee children; Refugees; Religion; Religion and culture; Religions; Religious education; Religious education of children; Religious education of teenagers; Religious life; Russian Germans; School; School children; Schools; Socialization; Sociolinguistics; Teachers; Teaching; Turkish Americans; Turkish language; Ukrainian Americans; Ukrainian language. The following terms are related only to East Harlem Music School which deals with Urban Caribbeans and Hispanics: Urban anthropology; Urban dialects; Urban folklore; Urban schools.

Language and Dialects: Arabic, Armenian, Baltic, Cambodian, Caribbean, Chinese, Czechoslovakian, Dutch, Ethiopian, German- Russian, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Hupa, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, Latvian, Lebanese, Lithuanian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian German, Spanish, Turkish, Ukrainian.

Physical Description:  


32 boxes unmicrofilmed manuscripts (curriculum materials)
8 microfilms (field notes and reports)

Audio Recordings:

248 audio cassettes
84 7" reels


1130 color slides

9072 black and white negatives


1 3/4" videotape


                     SCOPE AND CONTENT NOTE

The Ethnic Heritage and Language Schools in America Project
Collection (also called the Ethnic Schools Project) represents 22
ethnic groups:  Armenian, Cambodian, Chinese, Czechoslovakian,
Dutch, Ethiopian, German-Russian, two different Greek
communities, Hebrew, Hungarian, Hupa Indian, Islamic, Japanese,
Korean, Latvian, Lebanese, Lithuanian, Polish, Portuguese,
Turkish, Ukrainian, and Urban Caribbean/Hispanic.  The project
has its inspirational roots in the American Folklife Center's
1977 Chicago Ethnic Arts Project, as well as in the scholarly
writings of sociolinguist Joshua A. Fishman.

During the spring of 1982, the project was set in motion by
Center staff member Elena Bradunas to "try to understand the
complex nature of ethnic identity and delineate the cultural,
historical, and social referents by which the group identifies
itself."  Twenty-one primary fieldworkers were selected, two of
which had one co-worker assisting.  All but two of these 23 have
their curriculum vitae or resume on file (see Correspondence). 
Of the 22 groups, 14 are represented in the resulting book,
_Ethnic Heritage and Language Schools in America_.

The fieldworkers, followed by their respective ethnic group
focus, were:  Scott Baird (Chinese), Carole O. Bell (Ukrainian),
Elena Bradunas (Ethiopian and Lithuanian), JoAnn Bromberg
(Armenian), Lee Davis (Hupa Indian), Susan Dwyer-Shick (Islamic),
Jana Fast (Czechoslovakian), Burt Feintuch (Hebrew), Lydia Fish
(Greek, NY), Timothy J. Kloberdanz (German-Russian), Lucy Long
(Korean), Morton Marks (Urban Caribbean/Hispanic), Brenda
McCallum (Lebanese and Greek), Margy McClain (Polish), Susan Nagy
(Hungarian), Marsha Penti (Portuguese), Frank Proschan
(Cambodian), Maurie Sacks (Turkish), Amy E. Skillman (Japanese),
Rižardas Vidutis (Latvian), Phil Webber (Dutch). In addition to
the aforementioned fieldworkers, Nancy Conklin assisted Brenda
McCallum in studying the Lebanese and Greek schools in
Birmingham, Alabama, and Mary-Louise Haas assisted Carole O. Bell
with the study of the Ukrainian school.

Three individuals served as consultants to the project:  Dr.
Joshua A. Fishman, who was consulted regarding sociolinguistics;
Ewa Hauser, who supplemented the study of the Polish school by
conducting an independent study of Polish curriculum materials;
Dr. Richard Hulan, who was consulted on ethnic schools in

Fieldwork consisted of a commitment of at least three site visits
to a fieldworker's respective ethnic school over a three month
period, between April and July 1982.  While most of the fieldwork
was finished by the summer of 1982, the final papers went through
a series of editing up through September of 1986.  Elena Bradunas
left the project after the first round of editing, after which
Brett Topping assumed the editing role.  Long reports were
shortened and standardized for the purpose of publishing.  Both
long and short versions of the fieldworkers' reports have been
retained in both the microfilmed and unmicrofilmed format.

Approximately 200 individuals were interviewed.  On the average a
fieldworker interviewed nine informants, though four groups do
not list the number of their informants.  The interviews were to
focus on the school's history, financing, administrative
concerns, curriculum, teachers, parents, and children.

While the majority of the fieldworkers did their own photography,
seven were assisted by one or two others.  Supplementary
photographers include:  Rudy Arocho (Chinese), Peter Basa
(Hungarian), Barbara Cech (Dutch), Frank Deak, Jr. (Hungarian),
Carl Fleischhauer (Ethiopian and Lithuanian), Bob Gates (Hebrew),
John Leung, Jr. (Chinese), Sandy Seipel (Hupa Indian), and Vicky
Westover (Armenian).  Miscellaneous photos were also donated by
five schools ranging from a few class photos to a 3-ring notebook
full of black and white as well as color photos from the
Hungarian school.

Fieldworkers collected curriculum materials from the schools they
visited.  While the bulk of this material was made up of
textbooks, other items were included, such as:  flash cards,
calendars, workbooks, mimeographed sheets from homemade
notebooks, and an 80-slide carousel with accompanying tape
cassette.  These materials are available in the Folklife Reading
Room of the American Folklife Center.


Microfilmed                               Location:

8 reels of Microfilm                      ALL 8 reels are
available in 
                                          the Folklife Reading

Unmicrofilmed                             Location:

26 boxes                                  ALL 26 boxes are
available in 
                                          the Folklife Reading

Collection Materials                                              

         Box #  1 of 34           Administrative (Part 1 of 2)
         Box #  2 of 34           Administrative (Part 2 of 2)
         Box #  3 of 34           Armenian (Part 1 of 2)
         Box #  4 of 34           Armenian (Part 2 of 2)
         Box #  5 of 34           Chinese
         Box #  6 of 34           Dutch
         Box #  7 of 34           German-Russian
                                  Greek, New York 
                                  [for LEBANESE & GREEKS, 
                                  see "LEBANESE ..."]
         Box #  8 of 34           Hungarian (Part 1 of 2)
         Box #  9 of 34           Hungarian (Part 2 of 2)
         Box # 10 of 34           Hupa Indian
         Box # 11 of 34           Japanese Buddhist
                                  Korean (Part 1 of 2)
         Box # 12 of 34           Korean (Part 2 of 2)
         Box # 13 of 34           Lebanese & Greek
                                  Polish (Part 1 of 6)
         Box # 14 of 34           Polish (Part 2 of 6)
         Box # 15 of 34           Polish (Part 3 of 6)
         Box # 16 of 34           Polish (Part 4 of 6)
         Box # 17 of 34           Polish (Part 5 of 6)
         Box # 18 of 34           Polish (Part 6 of 6)
                                  Polish Curriculum Materials by
                                  Ewa Hauser
                                  Portuguese (Part 1 of 3)
         Box # 19 of 34           Portuguese (Part 2 of 3)
         Box # 20 of 34           Portuguese (Part 3 of 3)
                                  Turkish (Part 1 of 2)
         Box # 21 of 34           Turkish (Part 2 of 2)
         Box # 22 of 34           East Harlem Music School 
                                  (Urban Caribbean/Hispanic)

NOTE: Boxes # 23-28 consist of non-manuscript materials.

         Box # 29 of 34           Finished Products
                                  General Ethnic-Related
         Box # 30 of 34           Ethnic-specific Materials

NOTE: Boxes # 31-32 consist of non-manuscript materials.

         Box # 33 of 34           Three 3-ring Notebooks
                                  Final Inventory
                                  Hungarian photographs
                                  Japanese Buddhist
         Box # 34 of 34           Miscellaneous Over-Sized        

Audio Recordings 


Slides and 
Photographs                       Location:  

8 boxes                           ALL 8 boxes of Photography-
                                  related materials are available
                                  in the Folklife Reading Room

Box # 23 of 34           Numerical Order Contact Sheets
Box # 24 of 34           Slides
                         Armenian, Cambodian,
                         Chinese, Czechoslovakian
Box # 25 of 34           Slides
                         Dutch, German-Russian,
Box # 26 of 34           Slides
                         Hebrew, Hupa Indian
                         Hungarian, Japanese Buddhist
Box # 27 of 34           Slides
                         Latvian, Lebanese and Greek
                         Polish, Portuguese
Box # 28 of 34           Slides
                         East Harlem Music School
                         "Mystery" Slides
Box # 31 of 34           Negatives
                         Armenian through Japanese
Box # 32 of 34           Negatives
                         Korean through Ukrainian,
                         plus East Harlem Music School,
                         Lithuanian, Ethnic Schools Workshop,
                         three "mysteries"


Additional material discovered among unprocessed collections and
added in December 1995:  
One 3/4 inch videotape of the Chinese school made by Scott Baird.
No half-inch viewing copy is currently available (4/29/96 SAH)

This collection guide has been edited for Internet presentation
in ascii format. Collection concordances (tables) and diacritics
have been removed. For a printed version of the complete guide
write to the Library of Congress, American Folklife Center,
Washington, DC 20540-4610.


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