American Folklife Center Annual Report for 2000
Peggy A. Bulger,
Folklife Center (AFC) Strategic Plan
The Board of Trustees of the American Folklife Center, working closely
with the staff, has developed a three-year strategic plan for the Center
that includes a list of five "Goals." The board developed
the goals during its regular fall meeting, on October 8, 1999, at a two-day
planning session facilitated by the Center for Applied Research. At its
February 17-18 meeting, the board reviewed the plan and the particular
strategies developed in the interim by the staff. The five goals outlined
in the plan specify that the American Folklife Center shall:
- Be the central repository for, and provide access to, folklife
archival materials that represent the diversity and spirit of American
- Create national visibility for American folklife, the American
Folklife Center, its programs, and collections, through public access
of folklife traditions, past and present.
- Educate communities about the ways in which the vitality and diversity
of folklife traditions connect us all and create American identity.
- Establish and implement standards of excellence for the field
of folklife in preservation, archiving processes, and fieldwork methods.
- Collaborate with local, grassroots efforts to identify, document,
share, and celebrate diverse American folklife traditions, nationally
Working with the Library Services Budget Team, the Center has prepared
a budget proposal for Fiscal 2002, a Management Decision Package (MDEP)
entitled "Folklife Heritage Preservation and Access Initiative." Drawing
on the goals and strategies outlined in the Center's Strategic
Plan, the proposal calls for nine new positions at the Center, including
processing personnel and a section head for the Archive of Folk Culture,
as well as additional funding for contract services, equipment, supplies,
"Save America's Treasures" Grant
A joint proposal from the Smithsonian Institution and the Library
of Congress/American Folklife Center received a grant for $750,000
preserve and provide access to the historic sound recordings housed
at the two institutions. The grant was part of the White House Millennium
Council's "Save America's Treasures" program,
which is administered by the National Park Service. The two institutions
have two years to raise matching funds, and fund-raising efforts are
underway to identify both individual and corporate sponsors and donors.
Other Awards and Honors
The Center has received a grant of $3,000 from the Country Dance and
Song Society's May Gadd/Phil Merrill Endowment Fund to purchase
a cylinder recording machine to make cylinder-to-tape transfers of 179
cylinders in the James Madison Carpenter Collection.
A symposium entitled "Folklife Collections in Crisis," scheduled
for December 1 and 2, 2000, is being co-sponsored by the AFC and the
American Folklore Society. The gathering will grapple with issues surrounding
the preservation of, and access to, folklife collections, as well as
intellectual property rights. This project has received funding from
the National Endowment for the Arts, the National Endowment for the
Humanities, the Council on Libraries and Information Resources, the
Recording Industry Association of America, and the National Academy
of Recording Arts and Sciences.
Living Legends and Local Legacies. On April 24, the Library of Congress
celebrated its Bicentennial with a number of events and programs including
an outdoor concert on the Capitol grounds, the awarding of medals to
distinguished Americans, dubbed "Living Legends," and special
stamps, coins, and other commemorative items. Among the Living Legends
were Center-sponsored honorees Mickey Hart, Alan Lomax, Pete Seeger,
and Ralph Stanley. In addition, Mickey Hart acted as master of ceremonies
for the concert, which included performances by Hart and former Grateful
Dead colleague Bob Weir, Stanley, Seeger and his grandson Tao Rodriguez,
Kathy Mattea, Tito Puente, and others.
The Bicentennial project Local Legacies culminated May 22 to 24, when
approximately seventeen hundred project participants visited the Library
of Congress for tours of the buildings and special collections divisions,
a reception in the Great Hall, and meetings with their congressional
representatives. Over twelve hundred projects were proposed nation-wide,
with a participation rate by members of Congress of more than 77 percent–413
members in all. An image from, and brief description of, each submitted
project is available online, and the work of processing the collection
National Digital Library Program Presentations
Five new presentations based on American Folklife Center collections
were made available online, as part of the Library's National
Digital Library Program:
Omaha Indian Music features traditional music from the 1890s and the
1980s–from cylinder recordings made by Francis La Flesche and
Alice Cunningham Fletcher to songs and speeches from the 1983 Omaha
harvest celebration pow-wow and the 1985 Hethu'shka Society concert
at the Library of Congress.
Fiddle Tunes of the Old Frontier: The Henry Reed Collection presents
traditional fiddle tunes performed by Henry Reed of Glen Lyn, Virginia,
recorded by Alan Jabbour, 1966-67, when Reed was over eighty years old.
"Now What a Time": Blues, Gospel, and the Fort Valley
Music Festivals, 1938-1943 consists of approximately one hundred sound
recordings, primarily blues and gospel songs, from the folk festival
at Fort Valley State College, Fort Valley, Georgia. The material was
documented by three pioneering African American music scholars, Lewis
Jones, Willis Laurence James, and John Wesley Work III.
Florida Folklife from the WPA Collections, 1937 to 1942 documents
many cultural communities in Florida, including African American, Arabic,
Bahamian, British American, Cuban, Greek, Italian, Minorcan, Seminole,
and Slavic. It features folksongs and folk tales in many languages,
recorded by Stetson Kennedy, Zora Neale Hurston, Herbert Halpert, and
Tending the Commons: Folklife and Landscape in Southern West Virginia,
based on the Center's Coal River Folklife Project (1992-99), includes
over a thousand photographs and hundreds of sound recordings from the
project, along with several essays on the relationship between traditional
culture and environment in the region.
Field Documentation Training Schools
From June 11 to July 1, the Center conducted a field school for cultural
documentation, in Bloomington, Indiana, in conjunction with Indiana
University's Folklore Institute. Fifteen people from throughout
the United States and Canada received training in the course, including
graduate and undergraduate students in folklore and ethnomusicology,
museum directors and curators, community scholars, a state historical
society program officers, a professional storyteller, and a university
professor. The focus of the fieldwork portion of the course was the
history, use, and meaning of Bloomington's town square.
Gift and Trust Funds
The Parsons Fund Committee made two awards for 2000: to Larry Polansky,
Dartmouth College, in support of travel to the Library of Congress for
the purpose of research leading to the publication of work on folksong
transcription and notation by the ethnographer Ruth Crawford Seeger
($1,000); and to Anne Laskey and Gail Needleman of Holy Names College
for the purpose of travel to the Library to do research for educational
music textbooks using folksong according to the Kodaly method ($1,000).
In a valedictory gesture, before his retirement as director of the
American Folklife Center, Alan Jabbour proposed the creation of a trust
fund called the Henry Reed Fund for Folk Artists, and submitted a check
for $5,000 to the Librarian of Congress toward that end. In addition
he solicited and received another check for $5,000 for the fund from
Liz Claiborne and Art Ortenberg. The Library of Congress Trust Fund
Board approved this new fund at its October 2000 meeting.
Gift and Trust Fund Balances (September 2000)
|American Folklife Center Fund
|Friends of the Folk Archive
|Elizabeth Hamer Kegan Fund
|Raye Virginia Allen
|Blanton Owen Fund for Fieldwork
|Gerald and Corinne Parsons Fund for Ethnography
Negotiations for the acquisition of several collections of extraordinary
importance and size continued through FY2000, and the completion of
negotiations appears imminent in each case. During the past year, the
following collections were among those acquired through donation, loan,
By far, the largest new collection was created as a result of the
nation-wide Local Legacies project, with over 970 state and local projects
received by the Library, representing a participation rate by members
of Congress of 77 percent (413 members in all). The collection consists
of approximately 441 audio materials; 24,426 manuscripts; 531 moving
images; 13,953 prints (color and black and white); 1,810 color slides;
78 black-and-white negatives; 600 posters; and 4,311 items of ephemera.
Ethnomusicologist Vida Chenoweth, of Enid, Oklahoma, has added to
her collection already at the Center by adding a variety of original,
ethnographic documentation concerning the music and other elements of
the traditional cultures of Papua New Guinea, Thailand, and Vietnam,
including 55 audio cassettes, 11 reel-to-reel tapes, 55 photographs,
and 904 manuscripts.
Turner Browne, of Seattle, Washington, has donated a large collection
of original photographs and negatives documenting the traditional culture
of Louisiana Cajuns, which formed the basis for his book Louisiana Cajuns/Cajuns
de la Louisiaane. The collection includes 77 black-and-white photographic
prints and 1,554 120-format black-and-white negatives.
The Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives provided copies of 80 instantaneous,
home-made disc recordings of traditional Irish music performed in Butte,
Montana, by John "The Yank" Harrington and other musicians.
The Center has purchased, from David K. Dunaway, of Albuquerque, New
Mexico, copies of audiocassettes containing Dunaway's extensive
interviews with noted folk musician and activist Pete Seeger, which
were used as the basis for Dunaway's biography, How Can I Keep
From Singing: Pete Seeger. The collection consists of 30 audio cassettes
and over 800 pages of manuscript material, including verbatim transcripts
of the interviews.
The University of Georgia has donated a copy of its Art Rosenbaum/Georgia
Folk Music Collection. The collection includes 325 audio cassettes,
made in the field by Rosenbaum, that document interviews with and performances
by musicians and other folk artists living in Georgia.
Ethnomusicologist Robert S. Gottlieb, of San Francisco, has donated
a collection of original documentary materials concerning traditional
Tabla drumming of North India. The collection includes 10 reel-to-reel
tapes, 11 audio cassettes, and 29 pages of manuscript material.
Anthropologist Joel M. Halpern, of Amherst, Massachusetts, has added
to his collection of ethnographic materials about Serbia and Laos by
donating field recordings made on 26 audio cassettes, along with 48
commercial disc recordings and 129 ephemeral publications.
The Ozark Studies Institute, of Southwest Missouri State University,
has donated eight videotapes consisting of programs in its Ozark Watch
Video Magazine series. The programs present various aspects of the cultural
heritage of the Ozarks.
Ethnomusicologist Karl Signell, of Silver Spring, Maryland, has donated a large
collection that constitutes his life's work. The collection includes
a variety of material that documents traditional music of Greece, Japan, Korea,
Thailand, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Turkey, and the United States, as well
as the original audiotapes from the National Public Radio series he created,
Music in a New World. Items in the collection include: 590 reel-to-reel audiotapes,
51 audio cassettes, 37 digital audiotapes, 3 motion pictures, and hundreds
Documentary photographer Sergei Zhirkevich, of St. Petersburg, Russia,
has donated 28 original black-and-white photos depicting village life
in Russia, fieldnotes about village life in Russia, and a copy of his
book From Beyond the Grave to Blessed Land.
Items added to non-classified collections:
Audio Materials 1,616
Moving Images 546
Photographic Prints 14,109
Color Slides 1,814
Black-and-White Negatives 1,632
Other Print Materials (ephemera) 5,316
Processing and Arrearage Reduction
Processing has been limited by staff and space shortages, with the
bulk of the work being done during the summer months, with help from
Library of Congress Junior Fellows, and, during rest of the year, with
the help of 120-day-detail employees from other Library Services divisions.
The AFC's acquisition activities have far exceeded it processing
efforts, with the addition of 105,319 items and the clearance of 21,736
The focus this year has been on the accessioning of new collections.
Several major incoming collections, including Joel Halpern Collection,
Omaha collections, and Sam Eskin Collection, have been added to arrearage
reports. In spite of the severe staff shortage during fiscal year 2000,
the Center was able to complete the processing of two collections:
The Art Rosenbaum/Georgia Folklore Collection consists of the audiocassette
tape reference copies duplicated from the remastered preservation copies
of the original reel-to-reel tape recordings made in north and coastal
Georgia, principally in the 1970s and early 1980s. These field recordings
include gospel, shout, blues, ballads, and some interviews with the
performers, recorded in homes, church, and at festivals (236 items).
The Vance Randolph Collection documents aspects of Ozark life in the
early 1940s. Randolph accumulated an extensive number of newspaper clippings
on a wide variety of subjects, including agriculture, alcoholism, firearms,
superstition, traditional medicine; genres including local legends,
history, language, and sporting activities. This collection also contains
disc field recordings of folksongs and photographs documenting the Ozarks
Folklife Reading Room and Reference
Reading Room visitors this year have included the usual range of scholars,
students, and other researchers. In addition, there were reference requests
from film crews and press media, who have "discovered' the
American Folklife Center as a source for their productions. On October
1, a film crew for the "Today Show" visited the Reading
Room, in order to film the yellow ribbon that Penne Laingen had tied
around an oak tree in her front yard in 1979, to express her determination
to be reunited with her husband, Bruce, held hostage in Iran. The planned
program commemorates the twentieth anniversary of the Iran hostage crisis.
On November 4, a film crew from Robert Lundahl and Associates visited
the Library for a film on the Endangered Music Project and the preservation
of wax cylinders and other fragile recording technologies in the Center's
collections. The British Broadcasting Corporation produced a documentary,
based on the Center's Todd-Sonkin California Migrant Worker collection,
called "Voices From the Dust Bowl," which aired on BBC Radio
Four's "Archives Hour" on Saturday, March 25.
The staff continued to serve many persons in the Folklife Reading
Room and through reference responses to questions arriving by phone,
regular mail, and email. Items (containers) served to persons in the
Reading Room numbered 2,115; and publications given out numbered
2,633. The following statistics reflect reference activity during FY 2000.
Key Personnel Changes
On December 30, 1999, Alan Jabbour retired after more than thirty years
of federal service, including twenty-three years as director of the
American Folklife Center.
At the February 18 meeting of the Board of Trustees of the American
Folklife Center, James Hoy was elected chair and Kay Kaufman Shelemay
was elected vice chair.
Four issues of Folklife Center News were published this year:
fall 1999, with articles on the John and Ruby Lomax 1939 Southern States
Recording Trip, by Rachel Howard, and tributes honoring Alan Jabbour
for his many years of service to folklife, edited by James Hardin; winter
2000, with articles on Turner Browne's collection of Cajun photographs,
by James Hardin, and the Kenyon College field school, by David Taylor;
spring 2000, with a feature article on the Local Legacies project materials
coming to the Library of Congress, by James Hardin, and an article on
the new Omaha Indian Music online presentation, by Laurel McIntyre;
and summer 2000, with articles on "Three Pioneering Folk Music
Collectors," by Christa Maher; the Local Legacies Great Hall reception,
by Audrey Fischer; and "The Art and Influence of Henry Reed," by
Rounder Records has published four more CD reissues from the Library's
series Folk Music of the United States: Afro-American Music from
Tate and Panola Counties, Mississippi (Rounder 1515), American
Fiddle Tunes (Rounder 1518), Negro Religious Songs and Services (Rounder
1514), Negro Work Songs and Calls (Rounder 1517). In addition,
Rounder has produced a new CD, Sacred Music of the Moroccan Jews
from the Paul Bowles Collection at the American Folklife Center (Rounder
On October 6: the Center held a reception in the Madison Gallery of
the Madison Building to thank Sen. Thad Cochran, Sen. Ted Stevens, Rep.
William Thomas, and Rep. David Obie for the support they have provided
the Center and in particular for permanent authorization.
On October 15: Center and NDL staff gave a presentation in the National
Archives theater for the Fall Quarterly Meeting of the National Archives
Assembly in honor of Hispanic Heritage Month. "Digital Collections
from the Archive of the American Folklife Center: Digitizing and Presenting
On-line Multi-format Ethnographic Field Collections from the Library
of Congress" described the Center's six collections online
and emphasized their Hispanic materials.
On December 1: in cooperation with the North American Folk Alliance
and the Folklore Society of Greater Washington, the Center sponsored
a sold-out benefit concert at the State Theater in Falls Church, Virginia,
to raise funds to help establish the Henry Reed Fund for Folk Artists.
Henry Reed was an Appalachian fiddle player and early mentor for Alan
Jabbour. Performers included Pete Seeger and his grandson, Tao Rodriguez;
Christine Balfa, Dirk Powell, and Geno Delafose; Stephen Wade; Hazel
Dickens and Dudley Connell; the gospel group Prophecy; and Alan Jabbour
and members of the Henry Reed family.
On April 17: Professor Saraswathi Venugopal, head of the Department
of Folklore in the School of Tamil Studies at Madurai Kamamraj University,
Madras, India, presented a slide-show and lecture entitled "Women
as Found in Tamil Oral Literature" in the Madison Building West
Dining Room. The program was sponsored by the Center and the Asian Division.
On September 1: Peter Bartis and James Billington were guests on WAMU's
show "The D.C. Politic Hour," with host Kojo Nnambi. The
topic for the nationally broadcast call-in program was the Local Legacies
On September 20: the 2000 National Heritage Fellows of the National
Endowment for the Arts were honored at a dinner held in the Great Hall
of the Library of Congress. This was the first year that the AFC hosted