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Literary Arts

A Voice of Her Own

The gifted young black poet Phillis Wheatley (ca. 1753–1784) was celebrated as “the extraordinary poetical genius” of colonial New England even before this compilation of her poems was published in September 1773. Not yet eight years old when she was brought to America from Africa in 1761, Wheatley was educated by her mistress, and her first poem was published in a Rhode Island newspaper when she was only fourteen. Her pious elegies for prominent English and colonial leaders became popular and were often reprinted in colonial newspapers or as broadsides.

Wheatley’s 1773 visit to London, ostensibly to improve her frail condition, was cut short by her mistress’ failing health. Although she was entertained by William Legge, Earl of Dartmouth, the abolitionist Grenville Sharpe, John Thornton, and Benjamin Franklin, Wheatley did not meet her patron, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon, to whom she dedicated her Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral.

Phillis Wheatley (ca. 1753–1784). Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. . . Portrait facing Title Page - Title Page - Page 2. London, 1773. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress

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We’re Off to See the Wizard

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, published in 1900, is the first American fairy tale and the first fantasy written by an American to enjoy an immediate success upon publication. So powerful was its effect on the American imagination, so evocative its use of the forces of nature in its plots, so charming its invitation to children of all ages to look for the element of wonder in the world around them that author L. Frank Baum was forced by demand to create book after book about Dorothy and her friends—including the Scarecrow, the Tin Woodman, the Cowardly Lion, and Glinda the Good Witch.

When Baum died in 1919, the series lived on under the authorship of Ruth Plumly Thompson and others who themselves had loved the stories as children. Published in many foreign countries, The Wizard even found its way as far as Russia, where it was translated in 1939 by Alexander Volkov, who then wrote two Oz books of his own. That was also the year that Dorothy and her friends appeared on the silver screen in the immortal MGM adaptation featuring Judy Garland, Ray Bolger, Jack Haley, and Bert Lahr.

This exquisite first edition, vibrantly illustrated by W. W. Denslow, was given to the Library in 1982 by antiquarian book dealer E. R. Meyer, in memory of his daughter, Margit.

Lyman Frank Baum (1856–1919). The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Chicago and New York: G. M. Hill, 1900. Page 2. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress

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A Whitman Notebook

The Library holds the world’s largest Walt Whitman manuscript collection, which numbers 20,000 items and includes many original notebooks. In these sometimes homemade or adapted notebooks the poet jotted down random thoughts in prose and expressions in poetry. Here Whitman breaks off from prose ruminations and speaks—perhaps for the first time—in the revolutionary verse form he created. In this “1847” notebook, these remarkable trial flights of verse for what later evolved into “Song of Myself”—the opening section of Leaves of Grass (1855)—probably date closer to 1854. The Library completely conserved this volume in 1995 when it and three other Whitman notebooks were put on the Internet.

Walt Whitman (1819–1892). Holograph notebook, ca. 1847–1854. Page 2 - Page 3 - Page 4 - Page 5 - Page 6 - Page 7. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress

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The Poetry of Robert Frost

Robert Frost wrote a new poem entitled “Dedication” for delivery at the inauguration of John F. Kennedy in 1961, but never read it, because the sun’s glare upon the snow blinded Frost from seeing the text. Instead, he recited “The Gift Outright” from memory.

The Library holds Frost’s original, working draft of “Dedication” as well as this fair copy of the more familiar poem. Robert Frost served as the Library’s consultant in poetry (1958–1959) and honorary consultant in the humanities (1958–1963). In addition, Frost recorded readings of his poetry at the Library in 1948, 1953, and 1959 for the Archive of Recorded Poetry and Literature.

From the Poetry of Robert Frost, © 1970 by Lesley Frost Ballantine, © 1969 by Henry Holt and Company, Inc. Reprinted by permission of Henry Holt and Company, Inc.

Robert Frost (1874–1963). “The Gift Outright.” Holograph. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress

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Groucho’s Letters

At the entrance to this exhibition, Groucho Marx appears on the Tonight Show with Johnny Carson and discusses a request sent by the Librarian of Congress for the comedian’s papers. Marx did, in fact, donate his papers to the Library and among those materials are a rich trove of letters to and from the comic, literary, and political luminaries of his day. Included in the collection is a series of letters between poet, playwright, and critic T.S. Eliot and Marx in which the correspondence evolves from mutual fan letters with an air of formality to affectionate exchanges with raucous dashes of wit.

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  • Groucho Marx (1890–1977). Gelatin silver photograph, ca. 1963. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Gift of Groucho Marx, 1967 (140A)

  • Groucho Marx (1890–1977) to T.S. Eliot (1888–1965). Typescript letter with emendations, November 1, 1963. Page 2 - Page 3. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Gift of Groucho Marx,1967 (140.8a-c)

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A Voice of Her Generation

Edna St. Vincent Millay dominated the American literary scene for the first half of this century. Her publication of “Renascence” in 1912 as a Vassar undergraduate gained her instant recognition. Between 1915 and 1920 she became a celebrity in bohemian Greenwich Village and by 1920 was known as the voice of her generation—full of freshness, gaiety, and implied rebellion. Though her style remained largely traditional, romantic, and lyrical, her free spirit spoke for modernism in the arts during the Jazz Age. In 1923 her third volume of poetry won the first Pulitzer Prize attained by a woman poet.

Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892–1950). “Renascence,” Pencil holograph of the unfinished original draft, ca. 1912. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress

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Moby Dick Literary Map

The Voyage of the Pequod is one of a series of twelve literary maps based on British and American literary classics produced by the Harris-Seybold Company of Cleveland between 1953 and 1964. The map was part of a calendar printed to advertise the capabilities of the company’s lithographic printing equipment. Illustrator Everett Henry was a well-known New York commercial artist also noted for his mural paintings. The Library has more than 225 literary maps that record the location of places associated with authors and their literary works or serve as a guide to their imaginative worlds.

Everett Henry (1893–1961). The Voyage of the Pequod from the book Moby Dick by Herman Melville. Cleveland: Harris-Seybold, 1956. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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Anne Bradstreet, colonial poet

Anne Bradstreet was the first woman poet to be published in colonial America. Her widely-praised poems, sacred and secular in nature, were published in London in 1650 and posthumously published in an expanded compilation in Boston in 1678. Bradstreet’s poetry is not only significant for her breadth of subjects—home and family, nature, history, philosophy, and religion—but also for her sensitivity to the prejudices against women’s writings. This volume is part of the Library’s extensive American Imprint Collection, books printed in the United States before 1801.

Anne Bradstreet (1613–1672) Several Poems Compiled with Great Variety of Wit and Learning . . . . [Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America]. Boston: John Foster, 1678. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress. Purchased from Peter Force, 1867 (177A)

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Capturing the Old West

Anne Bradstreet was the first woman poet to be published in colonial America. Her widely-praised poems, sacred and secular in nature, were published in London in 1650 and posthumously published in an expanded compilation in Boston in 1678. Bradstreet’s poetry is not only significant for her breadth of subjects—home and family, nature, history, philosophy, and religion—but also for her sensitivity to the prejudices against women’s writings. This volume is part of the Library’s extensive American Imprint Collection, books printed in the United States before 1801.

Frederic Remington (1861–1909) to Owen Wister, ca. January 1895. Ink on paper, illustrated letter with sketches by Remington. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Gift of Frances Kemble Wister Stokes, 1952 (179.7)

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The Virginian

Writer Owen Wister had been friends with Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919) since his Harvard University days and later dedicated to Roosevelt his most famous Western story, The Virginian (1902). This seminal novel established many of the conventions of the western. It became a best-seller, was widely translated, gave rise to four motion pictures, and spurred radio and television interest in the western genre. 2002 marks the centennial of the book’s publication.

Owen Wister (1860–1938). The Virginian, A Horseman of the Plains. New York: MacMillan Co., 1902. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress. Gift of Lessing J. Rosenwald, 1948 (180.3)

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MacLeish’s “Ars Poetica”

On March 14, 1925, poet and former Librarian of Congress (1939–1944) Archibald MacLeish drafted what became his most famous poem, “Ars Poetica”—the ultimate expression of American style “art-for-art’s-sake.” Written in three units of rhymed double-line stanzas, it makes the point that a poem is an intimation rather than a full statement, having no relation to generalities of truth or historical fact. It ends: “A poem should not mean/but be.”

Archibald MacLeish (1892–1982). 1924–1925 Paris. Notebook. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Gift of the author (177.3)

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The Virginian, A Literary Map

Owen Wister’s The Virginian was one of the first and most influential of a long line of novels romanticizing life in the American West and establishing the cowboy as a folk hero. Against the outline of the Dakotas, Wyoming, Nebraska, and Idaho, this literary map highlights scenes from the classic novel, such as the card game with Trampas during which the Virginian delivers his famous line “When you call me that, smile.” An inset map shows the states where the events in the novel took place, with Wyoming, the primary locale, highlighted.

Everett Henry (1893–1961), illustrator. The Virginian from America’s First “Western” Novel, Written by Owen Wister. Cleveland: Harris-Intertype, 1962. Color offset lithograph. Copyright deposit. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (183.6)

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Philip Roth’s Patrimony

This heavily revised page is from the first of five typescript and holograph revisions for the ending of Patrimony, Philip Roth’s 1991 non-fiction work about his father’s last years and death. Roth, one of the most important American novelists of the last half of the century, was awarded the National Book Critics Circle Award for this book. Roth donated all the drafts of his early works, including Goodbye Columbus, to the Library in 1969. The Library now holds his complete collection of manuscripts and correspondence.

Philip Roth (b. 1933). Patrimony [1991]. Typescript with holograph emendations. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Gift of the author (179.5)

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Langston Hughes Requests Loan for Tuition

Walter White, the NAACP’s Assistant Secretary and himself an aspiring novelist, worked tirelessly to promote the careers of Harlem Renaissance writers, artists, and performers. Poet Langston Hughes was employed as a busboy at the Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C., when he wrote this letter to White requesting a loan from the NAACP to pay his college tuition. Hughes also reported on the progress of The Weary Blues and his new autobiography, Scarlet Flowers.... In his reply letter White retorted that the latter “sounds like Louisa M. Alcott.” Hughes agreed and eventually published his autobiography under the title The Big Sea (1940).

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  • Langston Hughes (1902–1967) to Walter White, October 29, 1925. Typescript letter. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Gift of the NAACP, 1964 (181D.3a)

  • Walter White (1893–1955) to Langston Hughes, December 15, 1925. Typescript letter. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Gift of the NAACP, 1964 (181D.3b)

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A Harsh Picture of America

Angered by American publication of his work without payment, Charles Dickens portrayed America negatively in the novel Martin Chuzzlewit (1843–1844) through the adventures of Martin and his companion. Dickens attacked American newspapers, politics, commercialism, and deficiencies in manners, conversation, and the arts. Dickens’s American readers bitterly resented the attack.

Charles Dickens (1812–1870). Martin Chuzzlewit. Cover. London: Chapman & Hall, September 1843. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress, (181A.5a-t)

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Charles Dickens’s Walking Stick

During the period of his second tour (1867–1868) to America, Charles Dickens (1812–1870) used this walking stick. Dickens’s ownership of the items is authenticated by accompanying notes from his sister-in-law Georgina Hogarth (1827–1917), to whom Dickens left his personal possessions.

Charles Dickens’s walking stick. Wood with ivory head. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress. Gift of John Batchelder, 1936 (180.4)

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Charles Dickens’s Traveling Kit

Charles Dickens (1812–1870) made two trips to America. His 1842 trip resulted in his travel book American Notes (1842) and the novel Martin Chuzzlewit (1843–1844). Both publications with their unfavorable characterizations of the United States outraged Americans. His second visit, from December 1867 to April 1868, was a highly successful reading tour of his works. His traveling cutlery kit from that time is marked with his initials.

Charles Dickens’s traveling cutlery kit. Ivory and metal. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress. Gift of John Batchelder, 1936 (181D.5)

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The Bookworm

Artist James Montgomery Flagg, best known as the creator of the I Want You for [the] U.S. Army poster, was a frequent contributor to the periodicals of his day. Here Flagg created a cover for The Bookman, an illustrated literary journal dedicated to reviewing contemporary American literature through its four decades of publication. The Bookman was the first American publication to promote best-sellers by listing titles “in order of demand.”

James Montgomery Flagg (1877–1960). The Bookman—April. Color lithograph, 1896. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Gift of the Estate of J. H. Corning, 1940 (139.14) [Digital ID# ppmsca-05580]

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John Steinbeck Map of America

The John Steinbeck Map of America features popular images from Steinbeck’s novels such as Tortilla Flat (1935), The Grapes of Wrath (1939), and The Pearl (1947). The outline of the map shows the route of Travels with Charley (1962), and the central portion consists of detailed street maps of the California towns of Salinas and Monterey, where Steinbeck lived and set some of his works. Numbers on the maps are keyed to lists of events in Steinbeck’s novels. A portrait of the author appears in the upper right corner. Research and design of the map were done by Molly Maguire, who produced a series of literary maps in the 1980s.

Molly Maguire. The John Steinbeck Map of America. [Literary map collection.] Color lithograph map. Los Angeles: Aaron Blake, 1986. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (181.10)

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A Booklover’s Map

At the top of the Booklover’s Map of the United States are portraits of a traditional pantheon of American writers including James Fenimore Cooper, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, Walt Whitman, and Mark Twain. Insets show the important literary areas of New York City, Chicago, and Boston. Writers who lived much of their lives abroad such as Henry James, Pearl Buck, Ernest Hemingway, and Gertrude Stein, are listed on a ribbon at the bottom. of the map.

Amy Jones (Designer and illustrator). Booklover’s Map of the United States. New York: R.R. Bowker, 1949. Color lithograph map. Copyright deposit. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress. (181.12)

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Book Arts

Provincetown Printmakers

In the spring of 1915, a group of American art students, including Edna Boies Hopkins, left wartime Paris and settled in Provincetown, Massachusetts. Here, they began making prints with Japanese-inspired compositions using a unique technique—a “white line” color-woodcut method—that would come to represent the group. A principal print-maker in the art colony, Hopkins lived and studied in Japan and Paris before returning to the United States.

Edna Boies Hopkins (1872–1937). Love Apples. Color woodcut, ca. 1915. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Purchase, 1998 (139.9)

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June Roses

Blanche Lazzell was considered a primary, and particularly avant-garde, member of a group of artists known as the Provincetown Printmakers working in Massachusetts around the early 1900s. June Roses reflects the artist’s growing interest in Cubism and is a stellar example of the Provincetown hallmark style of white-line color woodcut technique and of the Japanese-influenced style known as japonisme. In 1923, Lazzell moved to Paris to pursue studies with leading Cubist painter Fernand Lèger.

Blanche Lazzell (1892–1957). June Roses. Color woodcut, 1922. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (140.10)

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Mary Cassatt

Mary Cassatt has long been celebrated as the only American artist among the core group of French Impressionists, and one of the rare women in that movement. Under the thrall of Japanese woodcuts she had seen at the École des Beaux-Arts, Cassatt embarked on a set of experimental color intaglio prints that are considered among the finest of her works in any medium. The stylistic idiom of Japonisme is underscored here by the flattened modeling, bold outlining, and the oblique perspective of her composition.

The print Gathering Fruit by Impressionist Mary Cassatt is one of a series of works by the artist that relates closely to her commissioned mural for the Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition in 1893 on the theme of the “Modern Woman.” The original mural (which now survives only in photographic reproductions) was composed of three allegorical scenes entitled: “Arts, Music, Dancing;” “Young Women Plucking the Fruits of Knowledge or Science;” and “Young Girls Pursuing Fame.” Gathering Fruit is based on the mural’s central panel showing women and young girls harvesting fruit in an orchard—a symbolic gathering and sharing of the “fruits of knowledge.”

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Clarence H. White School of Photography

Wynn Richards contracted with the National Cotton Council and began its first national fashion advertising campaign in 1943. For the campaign, Richards photographed various state governors’ wives and children wearing cotton fashions, fashion designers with their creations, and the story of cotton from the field to the mill. Richards’s photographs were reproduced in full-page advertisements in Vogue, Harper’s Bazaar, and Mademoiselle. This image is part of the Warren and Margot Coville Collection of the Clarence H. White School of Photography, containing 280 photographs by White and his students and other printed materials relating to this landmark school located in New York City from 1914 to 1942.

Wynn Richards (1888–1960). Preparing Yarn for Weaving, 1948. [published in the June 1948 issue of Vogue.] Gelatin silver photo collage. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Gift/purchase from Warren and Margot Coville and the Coville Foundation for Photographic Art. Displayed online courtesy of the National Cotton Council (195.4a)

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Libertad

One of the defining voices of the Chicano/Chicana political art movement, Ester Hernández is known for her activist imagery in support of farm worker’s rights in California, and for subjects concerned with Chicano culture and history. Of Yaqui and Mexican descent, Hernández was born in California, the sixth child of a farm working family. In Libertad, Hernández lays claim to the Statue of Liberty, which is an emblem of immigration, citizenship, plurality, and freedom. Carved near the base is the word “Aztlán” (“White Land”), the name for the Aztec land of origin, which legend locates somewhere north of Central Mexico-making the point that Chicanos have claim to the land that is now the United States.

Ester Hernández. Libertad. Etching, 1977. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Gift/purchase from the artist (82.5)

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The Art of Romare Bearden

This is one of two Romare Bearden collages that were collected by Ben and Beatrice Goldstein and subsequently acquired by the Library of Congress. Bearden’s prints and drawings are also preserved in the Library’s collections, offering further examples of the artist’s use and mastery of multiple technical and visual languages. As a collagist, Bearden experimented with various image elements including a wide variety of papers and fabrics. He often abraded and hand-painted his surfaces to selectively alter texture, color, and composition.

Romare Bearden (1911–1988). At the Window, 1971. Collage, mixed media. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Gift of the Ben and Beatrice Goldstein Foundation (139.12) [Digital ID# ppmsca-05599]

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A Romare Bearden Collage

One of the premier figures in American art, Romare Bearden embraced the collage technique. The layered, fragmented form allowed him to freely combine ideas, shapes, colors, and cultural references in a way that was both radically modern, and accessible. Bearden drew his subjects from a wide range of sources including his own photography, drawings, and paintings, as well as “found” images from books and magazines. His images were often concerned with his own personal experiences, as well as themes from history, literature, and art. Here, Bearden’s imagery suggests multiple layers of narrative while putting his own unique spin on a well-loved theme of artists—a woman bathing.

Romare Bearden (1911–1988). The Calabash, 1970. Collage, mixed media. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Gift of the Ben and Beatrice Goldstein Foundation (140.13) [Digital ID# ppmsca-05600]

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Fine Arts

A Curious Hieroglyphick Bible

A touchstone of eighteenth-century American book illustration, this “curious” children’s Bible contains nearly five hundred woodcuts made by American artists. The most ambitious woodcut book produced in America up to that time, it is one of the sixty-five children’s book titles produced by the pioneer publisher of children’s literature and preeminent early American printer Isaiah Thomas (1749–1831), who had learned the art of engraving while apprenticed in his youth to the Boston printer Zechariah Fowle. Only four copies of this remarkable piece of early Americana exist today.

A hieroglyphic Bible replaces some of the words of the text with pictures in an attempt to tell a story in a direct, simple, and interesting way. Such Bibles became very popular in the late eighteenth century as an easy means of teaching the Scripture to the young. In his preface to this volume, Thomas offers this first American hieroglyphic Bible, more extensively illustrated than its English prototype, as not only a pleasing method of teaching Bible lessons to children, but as “an easy Way of leading them on in Reading.”

Printed in Worcester, Massachusetts, the book was inscribed by its first owner, “Enoch Brooks’ Book, Princeton, March 13th, 1789.” It is now in the Library’s Early American Imprint Collection. English precursors and nineteenth-century American editions are found in the Bible Collection, a representative sampling of nearly fifteen hundred early editions and rare issues of Bibles in numerous languages.

A Curious Hieroglyphick Bible, or, Select Passages in the Old and New Testaments, Represented with Emblematical Figures, for the Amusement of Youth. Worcester: Isaiah Thomas, 1788. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress

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Janus Press

Night Street, featuring the poetry of Barbara Luck and illustrated by Lois Johnson, is a book in which the design truly bears the influence of the content.

Published by the Janus Press, a small but important printing venture, the book is an example of the creativity of the small press movement in America—a movement devoted to the book as a product of collaborative and intensely aesthetic energies on the part of several artists and craftsmen, whether they be artisans of the word, of the visual image, or of the printed and bound page.

The Janus Press was founded by Claire Van Vliet in 1955, and with unflagging energy she has run the press for more than forty years. The Library has collected her work from the press’s inception, and recently it received the entire Janus Press archives, comprising drawings, proofs, layouts, and designs for each book Van Vliet has produced. The press strives for a balance between various claims to attention and affection that a book exerts upon the reader/viewer/handler.

The Rare Book and Special Collections Division of the Library of Congress has long collected premier examples of the book arts, from the Middle Ages to the present, and is the repository of the collections of the early-twentieth-century book designers Frederic Goudy and Bruce Rogers, as well as contemporaries of Van Vliet such as Leonard Baskin of Gehenna Press and Timothy Ely.

Barbara Luck. Night Street. Vermont: Janus Press, 1993. Mixed media. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress

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Master Typographer

The designs of master typographer Frederic Goudy are a modern marriage of craft and technology. He was the first American to make the design of type a profession, and his name became synonymous with American typography and design. During his long career, he created 124 typefaces, more than any other person in history. The Library’s collection includes Goudy’s personal library of typography as well as drawings, rubbings, proofs, and posters used in creating and promoting Goudy designs.

Frederic William Goudy (1865–1947). “A Specimen of Monotype Kennerly.” Philadelphia: Progressive Composition Company. Broadside. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress. Purchase, 1944 (174.3)

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Manuscript for Baum’s Last Book

This is the hand-written manuscript for Glinda of Oz, L. Frank Baum’s last book. Glinda was Baum’s fourteenth book in the Oz series and was published posthumously. The miscellaneous notes and references to earlier books Baum jotted on the binder indicate that he may have used it to hold manuscripts for some of his earlier works.

L. Frank Baum (1856–1919). Glinda of Oz. Page 2 - Page 3 - Page 4 - Page 5 - Page 6 - Page 7 - Page 8. Chicago: Reilly and Lee, 1920. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Gift of the Baum Family, 2000 (182.4a,b)

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The Wonderful Wizard of Oz First Edition

The first edition of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was published in September 1900. In the introduction, Baum tells readers that the story is “a modernized fairy tale, in which the wonderment and joy are retained and the heart-aches and nightmares are left out.” Baum’s ability to make fantastic circumstances seem plausible and his invention of appealingly outlandish creatures made the book an immediate success.

L. Frank Baum (1856–1919). The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, cover. Chicago and New York: George M. Hill, 1900. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (184)

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Domestic Arts

Jefferson’s Pasta Machine

Thomas Jefferson noted these plans for a macaroni or pasta machine while touring northern Italy in 1787. When Jefferson prepared these plans, macaroni was a highly fashionable food in Paris, where he was stationed as minister to France. He later commissioned his secretary William Short to purchase a macaroni machine in Italy, but the machine was not very durable. In later years Jefferson served macaroni or spaghetti made by cutting rolled dough into strips, which were then rolled by hand into noodles.

While in France, Jefferson became enamored with French cuisine bourgeoise and not only had his slave James Heming trained as a cook, but he later brought his French butler, Adrien Petit, to the United States. Jefferson acquired a stock of standard French recipes for French fries, sauces, fruit tarts, desserts, blood sausages, pigs’ feet, rabbits, and pigeons, which he served to his guests at Monticello.

Thomas Jefferson. [“Maccaroni” machine with instructions for making pasta.] Holograph drawing and text, 1787. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress

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Culinary Arts

As the editor of Marie Martinelo’s 1892 New York Cook Book reminds us, “The fashions of the cuisine, like those of the dress, are subject to changes.” Nowhere is that so clear as in the Library’s incomparable collection of cookbooks, including the many cookbooks in the General Collections, and, in the Rare Book and Special Collections Division, the Elizabeth Pennell Collection and the 4,346-volume Katherine Golden Bitting Collection, donated by Bitting’s husband.

Katherine Bitting, a food chemist with the Department of Agriculture and herself the author of numerous books and pamphlets about food preservation and consumption, acquired Martinelo’s “complete manual of cookery in all its branches.”

In addition to recipes, the book includes helpful household hints on such things as making one’s own soap and ink; how to eradicate “household vermin” like ants and spiders with a mixture of hellebore and molasses; how to remove rust from cutlery (in the days before stainless steel); and how to prepare special dishes for the infirm such as tapioca jelly and wine possets.

Appended to this volume is a special treat: “Miss Leslie’s seventy-five receipts for pastry, cakes and sweetmeats,” temptingly illustrated with this chromolithograph of various fashionable desserts that once were common but are now seldom prepared at home by those who are health-conscious and/or pressed for time.

The New York Cook Book is one of a number of such volumes at the Library that have been consulted by, among others, film art directors trying to create an authentic period feel in their productions.

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Martha Jefferson’s Personal Effects

This household account and recipe book is one of the few surviving documents written by Thomas Jefferson’s wife, Martha. Kept during the years of her marriage, 1772–1782, the book contains household instructions such as how to extract rennet from the stomachs of young ruminants like calves and sheep to coagulate milk for use in the production of cheese.

This thread case, used by Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson, is one of the few personal items Thomas Jefferson kept that had belonged to his wife. Some of the original pins and needles can be seen in the case, which Jefferson preserved in his papers. Martha’s thread case, along with her household account and recipe book (kept during the years of her marriage, 1772–1782), containing her household instructions, recipes, and inventory of household goods provide tangible artifacts of the economic and social role of the southern plantation mistress.

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  • Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), Martha Jefferson (d. 1782), and Anne Cary Randolph. Holograph manuscript notebook, Page 2. 1772–1782. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. State Department transfer, 1904 (196.1)

  • Martha Jefferson’s thread case. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. State Department transfer, 1904 (196.4)

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Jefferson’s Recipe for Vanilla Ice Cream

A passionate gourmet, Jefferson acquired a stock of standard French recipes for sauces, fruit tarts, French-fried potatoes, blood sausages, pigs’ feet, rabbit, pigeons, and various other dishes. Among the most popular of these recipes at Monticello was this one for vanilla ice cream—written by Jefferson, with his own recipe for Savoy cookies to accompany the dessert on the back.

Holograph recipe, 1780s. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress

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World War I Gardeners

In 1918 Maginel Wright Enright, sister of Frank Lloyd Wright, submitted to the Division of Pictorial Publicity a pencil sketch for this poster that depicted Uncle Sam as the Pied Piper, in order to stimulate interest in creating war gardens among the country’s school children. This national campaign was launched in 1917 to increase the food supply during World War I.

Enright’s design was highly praised by Secretary of the Interior Frederick Lane. He wrote, “I think it is a beautiful piece of work . . . I am sure a great many children will find their hearts stirred by the picture, and no older person can look at it without a thrill of loyalty and desire to do his part.”

Maginel Wright Enright (1877–1966). Follow the Pied Piper. Color lithograph, 1918. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress [LC-USZC4-3691]

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A First American Cookbook

This cornerstone of American cookery is the first cookbook of American authorship to be printed in the United States. Numerous recipes that adapt traditional dishes by substituting native American ingredients such as corn meal and squash are printed here for the first time, including “Indian Slapjack,” “Johny Cake,” and “Squash Pudding.” Simmons’s “Pompkin Pudding,” baked in a crust, is the basis for the classic American pumpkin pie. Although this popular work was published in many editions, only four copies of the original edition are known to have survived.

Amelia Simmons. American Cookery. Hartford, Connecticut, 1796. Page 2 - Page 3 - Page 4 - Page 5 - Page 6 - Page 7 - Page 8. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress

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The Millinery Trade Review, 1876–1938

The Library of Congress holds an extensive collection of trade journals. This millinery trade review, for example, is rich in details on changing fashions and new materials, hair and make-up styles, ideals of beauty, and costs. The early issues include lists of new millinery businesses (many women-owned), help wanted and sought advertisements, obituaries, and trade union notes. Also included in the early issues of the review are two inserted pages of color illustrations of the newest Paris designs. From these drawings, U.S. hat manufacturers could create extravagant models to delight the hearts of affluent American women.

The Millinery Trade Review. March 1897. New York: The Gallison & Hobron Co., 1897. Copyright deposit, 1897. General Collections, Library of Congress

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The Home Sewing Machine

The sewing machine was the first widely distributed appliance for use in the home. In 1860 more than 110,000 sewing machines were sold in the United States alone. Their ubiquity spawned an pattern industry. The Home machine and shuttle powered by a means of a foot treadle patented by Thomas H. White and William L. Grout in 1870 was first marketed to the public in 1877 through advertising poster like this one.

Home Excels All Others. Lithographic Poster, ca. 1877. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (201.3)

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Culinary Arts

As a scientist, Katherine Golden Bitting explored the chemistry, bacteriology and preservation of food and built a 2500-volume research collection devoted to the history, sociology and preparation of comestibles from Roman times to the twentieth century. She acquired manuscript and printed sources, looked for cross-cultural influences, and celebrated abundance while identifying the proper place of specific items within the context of a meal. The Bitting Collection is complemented by holdings on gastronomy given by Elizabeth Pennell which is strong in French and Italian cookbooks.

Manuscript cookbook, ca. 1770. Page 2 - Page 3 - Page 4. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (198.2)

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Arbiter of Fashion

For one dollar per year, the Butterick Publishing Company brought women across the country the latest styles and homemaking news. Women could purchase paper patterns for twenty-five to thirty cents and re-create in Nebraska or California the clothes of the Parisian haute monde. From 1873 to 1937, the Delineator was one of the major American fashion magazines with a circulation in 1900 of 480,000. Its French, German, and Spanish editions displayed aspects of American attitudes and a way of life to the Western world through editorials, articles, advertisements, and, in later editions, serialized fiction.

“Fashions for December 1884,” Delineator, A Monthly Magazine. Vol. 24, no. 6. Page 2. London and New York: Butterick Publishing Co. Copyright deposit. General Collections, Library of Congress. (202.1)

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“America Eats”

In the 1930s the federal government, under the auspices of the Work Progress Administration (WPA), created the Federal Writers’ Project to provide work for unemployed professionals during the depression. Shown here are six images produced for the “America Eats” project, depicting eating and cooking food at social gatherings such as picnics, barbecues, and food festivals in locations including California, Alabama, Arkansas, and Mississippi.

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First Yiddish Cookbook in America

Written in the language understood by the majority of newly arriving Jewish immigrants, this cookbook served as an introduction to American as well as traditional Jewish cuisine. The recipes encompass Amchanitzki’s forty-five years of experience in European and American kitchens. In her introduction, the author promises that using her recipes will prevent stomachaches and other food-related maladies in children.

Hinde Amchanitzki. Lehr-bukh Vi Azoy Tsu Kokhen un Baken [Textbook on How to Cook and Bake]. Page 2. New York: 1901. African & Middle Eastern Division, Library of Congress (199.6)

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Nineteenth-Century Product Labels

Early product labels served primarily to identify products and brand names. As later nineteenth-century color lithography developed, illustration and color were combined with text to produce eye-catching designs meant to attract consumers in an even more competitive market place. Advertising schemes ranged broadly and depictions of American Indians, animals, children, flowers, medicinal plants, mythological characters, celebrities, people taking or administering medications, sick and cured people, symbols, and women appeared on products as wide ranging as hair tonic, tobacco, and horse lineament.

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Making Tamales

Artist Carmen Lomas Garza is a key figure in the Chicano movement, a movement—both political and aesthetic—centering on first-person expressions by and about Mexican-Americans living in the United States. Lomas Garza’s work revolves largely around her experiences as a Mexican-American growing up in South Texas. Family and community are primary jumping-off points for her images, which describe a rich range of experiences related to Chicano culture and identity. while also speaking of human universals.

Carmen Lomas Garza (b. 1948). Tamalada (Making Tamales), 1990. Color lithograph. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Gift/purchase from the artist (204.7) [Digital ID# ppmsca-09899]

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Culinary Arts

As a scientist, Katherine Golden Bitting explored the chemistry, bacteriology and preservation of food and built a 2500-volume research collection devoted to the history, sociology and preparation of comestibles from Roman times to the twentieth century. She acquired manuscript and printed sources, looked for cross-cultural influences, and celebrated abundance while identifying the proper place of specific items within the context of a meal. The Bitting Collection is complemented by holdings on gastronomy given by Elizabeth Pennell which is strong in French and Italian cookbooks.

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Doublemint Gum

Wrigley’s Doublemint gum was first produced in 1914. Throughout its long history, twins have been used to advertise the product. These two posters, with twins in matching hats, were created as part of a billboard campaign by Otis Shepard, who worked as the art director of the Wrigley Company from 1932 until 1962. His airbrush technique, economy of line, and clean modern design made Otis Shepard one of America’s premier poster designers.

Otis Shepard (1894–1969). Wrigley’s Doublemint Chewing Gum advertisements. Poster 1 - Poster 2. Color offset bus posters, ca. 1939. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Gift of Rebel Randall (204.8a,b) [Digital ID# ppmsca-12396, ppmsca-12397]

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Brand-Name Product Advertising

During the last two decades of the nineteenth century there was a great change in how food products were distributed and advertised. Buying primarily unpackaged goods was gradually replaced by the availability of sanitary, sealed, individual packaging. Advertising in newspapers, broadsides, and store displays (like the Jell-O poster) was supplemented by company brochures that took advantage of chromolithography, which made mass-production of vividly colored illustrations economically feasible. Due to increasing competition among manufacturers, various advertising techniques were introduced, such as prizes, offers of coupons to be collected for premium household items, and recipe booklets featuring company products.

Jell-O Strawberry Flavor. Leroy, New York: The Genesee Pure Food Company. Chromo-lithograph poster, ca. 1905. Copyright deposit. Copyright Office, Library of Congress. (205.3a)

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Popular Literature

Dime Novels

In 1860 a publishing phenomenon appeared that would provide Americans a wealth of popular fiction in a regular series at a fixed, inexpensive price. Early dime novels, first printed in orange wrapper papers, were patriotic, often nationalistic tales of encounters between Indians and backwoods settlers. By the mid-1890s, bold color covers depicting scenes of bloodshed and courage appealed to a mostly adolescent audience. Through copyright deposit the Library has accumulated a collection of nearly 40,000 titles.

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  • Buffalo Bill’s Special Service. No. 243. New York: Buffalo Bill Stories, 1906. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress. Copyright deposit (190.1)

  • Crack Skull Bob. No. 5. New York: Orum &Company, 1872. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress. Copyright deposit (188.1)

  • Jesse James Protector. No. 113. New York: Jesse James Stories, 1903. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress. Copyright deposit (189.1)

  • [Dime novel grouping] including: Beadle’s Dime Novels. Mrs. Ann S. Stephens. Malaeska; the Indian Wife of the White Hunter. New York: Irwin P. Beadle & Co., 1860. American Novels. Merciless Matt. New York: Frank Starr & Co., 1872. Beadle’s Dime Novels. The Texan Trailer. Beadle & Co., 1871. New Nick Carter Weekly. By Command of the Czar. New York: Street & Smith, 1905. Frank Reade. Transient Lake: Frank Tousey, 1905. Copyright deposits

  • Keetsea, Queen of the Plains. New York: Beadle & Co. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress. Copyright deposit (187A.1)

Related Items

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Tarzan

The great adventure strips of the 1940s represent a golden age in American cartoon art. To make them realistic and believable, publishers turned to such talented illustrators as Burne Hogarth and Rubimor who could draw handsome men and beautiful women, lush landscapes, and convincing fight scenes.

These artists often collaborated with talented writers like Edgar Rice Burroughs, author of the Tarzan series to create captivating dialogue and evoke the mystique of foreign lands. The Hogarth cartoon is part of the Library’s Caroline and Erwin Swann Collection of Caricature and Cartoon. The Rubimor cartoon is part of the Library’s Art Wood Collection of Caricature and Cartoon.

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Krazy Kat

Creator George Herriman transformed physical space, landscape, language and character to make Krazy Kat unique among American comic strips. In this surreal adventure, Krazy Kat adores Ignatz the mouse who abuses him with bricks only to be jailed by Offissa Pup. The Library has a collection of nearly one thousand original drawings published between the 1890’s and the 1990’s in the Caroline and Erwin Swann Collection of Caricacture and Cartoon and the Cartoon Drawings Collection.

George Herriman (1880–1944). Krazy Kat. Ink over Pencil with scraping out and paste-on, June 8, 1941. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. ©1941, King Features Syndicate, Inc. Gift of George Sturman

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The Kin-der-Kids

In 1906, well before Lyonel Feininger became a preeminent early modernist painter, the Chicago Tribune hired him to raise the quality of its Sunday comic supplement. Feininger, who was born in New York and educated and worked in Germany as an artist, produced two comic strips, The Kin-der-Kids and Wee Willie Winkie’s World, breaking the boundaries of the new medium by manipulating time, space and color, and experimenting with abstraction. Despite both strips’ popular appeal, the Tribune could not afford Feininger’s salary, and, after nine months, the strips ceased to appear.

Lyonel Feininger (1871–1956). [The Kin-der-Kids]. How the Jimjam relief expedition set out. Published in the Chicago Tribune, June 24, 1906. Copyright deposit, 1906. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. (194.7)

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The Yellow Kid

America’s first great comic strip character, “The Yellow Kid” first appeared on May 5, 1895, in a comic panel entitled At the Circus in Hogan’s Alley. New York World cartoonist Richard Felton Outcault created a boisterous cast of characters and an unprecedented explosion of activity in his Hogan’s Alley. One particular character, the gap-toothed kid garbed in an oversize yellow night shirt, captured the country’s imagination. When Outcault moved to the New York Journal, he was allowed to take the Dugan character although the World retained rights to the character and the title Hogan’s Alley, and for more than a year rival “Yellow Kids” appeared in the weekly supplements of both papers.

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The Funnies

George T. Delacorte of Dell Publishing Company was one of the first to recognize the possibilities of the comic book genre and in 1929, published The Funnies, a short-lived newspaper tabloid insert. In 1936, the company joined the burgeoning newsstand comic book business with a new version of The Funnies, a combination of comic strip reprints, original stories, and adaptations of radio broadcasts, such as “Captain Midnight.” In 1942, this comic book became New Funnies and was published until 1962.

The Funnies, Vol. 1, no. 57. Dell Publishing Co., July 1941. Copyright deposit. Serial and Government Publications Division, Library of Congress (194.5)

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New York’s Skyline, September 11, 2002

Graphic artist Rebecca Minnich depicts the section of the New York City skyline with the World Trade Center in a striking series of images that re-create the stages of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Minnich made her initial drawing with a pencil and a ruler, basing it on a widely reproduced photograph. Using ink and ink wash on prints of her initial image, she added details of planes, crashes, fire, flying debris, and smoke in a sequence that captures the tragedy, from the moments before the first plane’s appearance to a final view minus the towers and smoke of destruction.

Rebecca Minnich. [Fourteen drawings of the New York skyline showing the destruction of the World Trade Center towers during the September 11th terrorist attacks], 2001. Photomechanical prints with ink, ink wash, porous point pen over graphite under drawing on paper. Published with text in: World War 3 Illustrated, #32. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Gift of the artist, 2002 (194.6a-n) [LC-DIG-ppmsca-01868-1-14]

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Drawing on Tragedy

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, comic book artists were among the first to respond creatively to the tragic events. They formed coalitions with editors and publishers and produced remarkable anthologies of comic book art. Mac McGill joined fellow artists who contributed to a special issue of World War 3 Illustrated. He created a series of five imaginative drawings that capture the devastation of the World Trade Center towers, nearby skyscrapers, and myriad human lives in lower Manhattan. McGill uses his accomplished pen- and ink-technique to render screaming buildings that gradually recede in these last two drawings of the sequence.

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  • Mac McGill. IX XI MMI, 2001 (fourth of five published drawings). Ink, opaque white, and overlays over graphite on paper. Published in: World War 3 Illustrated, issue #32. Sacramento: Mordam Records, ca. 2001. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Gift of the artist, 2002 (225.2a) [LC-DIG-ppmsca-01752] Shown online with permission of the artist

  • Mac McGill. IX XI MMI, 2001 (fifth of five published drawings). Ink, opaque white, and overlays over graphite on paper. Published in: World War 3 Illustrated, issue #32. Sacramento: Mordam Records, ca. 2001. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Gift of the artist, 2002 (225.2b) [Digital ID# ppmsca-01752] Shown online with permission of the artist

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Leisure Arts

Early Baseball Card

Baseball, America’s national pastime, evolved from a child’s game to an organized sport in the 1840s and 1850s. It was an urban sport, and the first teams were established in New York City and Brooklyn. By 1860 baseball had replaced cricket as the nation’s most popular ball game. Before the Civil War, more than one hundred baseball teams played in the New York City area. During the war, the number of teams dwindled to fewer than thirty, but thousands of spectators flocked to games.

The Brooklyn Atlantics dominated early baseball by winning championships in 1861, 1864, and 1865. The Atlantics usually crushed their competition, scoring two or three times more runs than their opponents. The game was an amateur sport: according to the rules of the National Association of Base Ball Players, athletes could not accept wages to play ball, although gifts and jobs were sometimes offered as a means of compensation.

Baseball cards as we know them did not become commonplace until the 1880s. This early prototype is actually an original photograph mounted on a card. At the start of the 1865 season, the Atlantics presented opposing teams with framed photographs of the “Champion Nine.” The Scottish-born photographer Charles H. Williamson opened a daguerreotype studio in Brooklyn in 1851, continuing to work as a photographer until his death in 1874.

Charles H. Williamson (1826–1874). Champions of America. Albumen silver print, 1865. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress

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Endless Summer

In July 1957, Toni Frissell (1907–1988) made this photograph as part of a Sports Illustrated picture story about a group of families who vacationed together each year at the Thousand Islands, a large group of islands in the St. Lawrence River, located in a widening of the river between New York State and Ontario.

For seventy-five years a half-dozen families from various U.S. cities and Europe came together to “the River” to fish, row and sail skiffs unique to the region, and carry on intense three-generational tennis matches and baseball games. Over the years, a dozen marriages resulted from the summer meetings of the clans.

Frissell herself joined the tradition when she married into the Bacon family. She had already started making a name for herself as a photographer when she married New York society member Francis Bacon, so she continued her career under her maiden name. She worked on the staffs of Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar and sold stories independently to other top magazines, as well as making two trips to photograph World War II in the European theater.

Always the sports enthusiast, Frissell found a way to put her athleticism to professional advantage in 1953 by becoming the first female on the staff of the recently begun Sports Illustrated. A female sports photographer was a rarity at the time. When the Baltimore Museum of Art mounted its “Man in Sport” exhibition in 1968, Frissell was the only woman in a long list of photographers selected for the show.

Toni Frissell (1907-88). [The Whites and the Smiths Crossing Bridge from Watch Island for Tennis at Rum Point.] Gelatin silver print, July 1957. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress

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Baseball Cards

Baseball cards first became popular in the 1880s when tobacco companies used them to stiffen small, soft cigarette packages and to promote sales. Although the cards vary in design and format, most are much smaller than today’s sports trading cards.

Cigarette card collector Benjamin K. Edwards preserved in albums a collection of 2,100 baseball cards dating from 1887 to 1914, including these commemorative cards of the most memorable double-play combination in the history of baseball, Chicago Cubs infielders Joe Tinker, John Evers, and Frank Chance, and of such legendary players as Ty Cobb, Cy Young, Charles Bende, Tris (Tristram) E. Speaker, and Walter Perry Johnson.

After his death, Edward’s daughter gave the albums to noted poet and Lincoln historian Carl Sandburg, who donated them to the Library in 1954.

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Baseball Cards

The birth of baseball was followed quickly by the birth of baseball songs. The first piece of such music was The Baseball Polka written in 1858. The most popular of baseball songs, Take Me Out to the Ball-Game, was penned by two songsters who had never even seen the game. This song has become the game’s anthem.

The Library has an extensive collection of sheet music celebrating the game of baseball, its teams, and the sport’s stars reaching as far back as 1858—much of it attained through copyright deposit. An American icon, Babe Ruth is considered by many to be the best baseball player in the history of the game was the subject of numerous popular songs. Batterin’ Babe shown here “dedicated to our own Babe Ruth” was published by St. Mary’s Industrial School, the reformatory and orphanage in Baltimore where Ruth spent much of his youth.

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  • Jack Norworth, lyrics. “Take Me Out to the Ball-Game,” 1908. Music Division, Library of Congress

  • Jack O’Brien, words and music. “Batterin’ Babe, Look at Him Now.” Baltimore: St. Mary’s Industrial School, n.d. Sheet music. Copyright deposit. Music Division, Library of Congress (213.3)

  • Hector Marchese, “Play Ball.” New York: Roger Music, Inc. Sheet music. Copyright deposit. Music Division, Library of Congress (213.2)

  • J.H. Kalbfleisch. “The Live Oak Polka,” 1860. Music Division, Library of Congress

  • Mrs. Lou Gehrig and Fred Fisher, lyrics and music. “I Can’t Get to First Base with You,” 1935. Music Division, Library of Congress

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Breaking The Color Line

Jackie Robinson was the first African American to play Major League baseball in the twentieth century. He quickly became a cultural icon to millions of fans. In 1950, in only his fourth season, he starred as himself in a feature length motion picture (The Jackie Robinson Story) and was the subject of a comic book series.

His breaking of the color line in organized baseball led to the signing of many more African Americans, resulting in the ultimate demise of the Negro Leagues by 1960. In response, the Negro leagues drafted women players including Toni Stone, Connie Morgan, and “Peanut” Johnson, prominently featured in this game program, in an effort to increase fan interest and attendance.

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The Jackie Robinson Story

Arthur Mann collected signatures from Jackie Robinson and other cast members on the cover of the script on which he had sketched profiles of Branch Rickey and Clyde Sukeforth. Mann was an author and journalist who served as Branch Rickey’s assistant while Rickey was General Manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers. Mann, along with Lawrence Taylor, wrote the script for the 1950 feature film starring Jackie Robinson playing himself in the title role.

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A Letter from Jackie Robinson

When Jackie Robinson began his rookie season with the Brooklyn Dodgers on April 15, 1947, he became the first African American to play major league baseball in the 20th century, breaking down the “color line” in effect since 1876. In this letter to Ralph Norton, a fellow alumnus of Pasadena Junior College, Robinson reports on his historic debut, the appointment of Burt Shotton as the Dodgers’ Manager, and the welfare of his wife and infant son.

Autograph Letter Signed, Jackie Robinson to Ralph Norton, May 5, 1947, Page 2. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Jackie Robinson Papers (196C)

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“This I believe...”

The Jackie Robinson Papers include an extensive speech file that reflects the author’s diverse interests in such topics as baseball, racial equality, politics, religion, drug abuse, and black economic development. In this speech Robinson attributes his success and the prospect of limitless opportunity for all Americans to America’s status as “a free society.”

Jackie Robinson (1919–1972). Typed Speech, “This I Believe...,” by Jackie Robinson, n.d., Page 2. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Jackie Robinson Papers (196A)

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An American Pastime

The Carlisle Indian School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, sought to assimilate Native Americans into white society. The coeducational school enrolled students from several Native American communities and taught them basic academic courses with emphasis on domestic skills and industrial trades. All-American pastimes, such as football, were also encouraged. The Library’s Panoramic Photograph Collection contains more than four thousand images, featuring American cityscapes, landscapes, and group portraits—many of athletic teams.

H.F. Peck (active 1900s). Carlisle, ’05. Gelatin silver print, 1905. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. LC-USZC4-6022

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Grand Baseball Match

Despite the establishment of the National League as the first major professional baseball league in 1876, most of the public’s exposure to the game was still based on informally arranged matches played between the smaller amateur and semi-professional clubs that had proliferated throughout America in the years following the Civil War. Civic pride for the “local nine” played no small part in attracting spectators. Walt Whitman stated that baseball “has the snap, go, fling of the American atmosphere—belongs as much to our institutions, fits into them as significantly, as our constitutions, laws: is just as important in the sum total of our historic life.”

Concord Base Ball Club. Concord, Massachusetts. 4th of July 1879! Grand Base Ball Match! Concord: 1879. Broadside. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress

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Rules of the Game

The growth of baseball in the years following the Civil War was given added impetus by the rise of cheap, mass-produced books. Publishers helped standardize the rules and regulations of the sport by issuing playing guides and yearbooks that traveled from the large cities to the smallest hamlets. British-born Henry Chadwick, whose manuals enjoyed great popularity, even made an unsuccessful attempt to spread baseball to Europe.

Chadwick’s Base Ball Manual. London: George Routledge, 1874. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (213) Purchase, 1991

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Dempsey and Baer in The Ring

Max Baer was the reigning heavyweight champion when this May 1935 issue of The Ring was published. He would lose to James Braddock the next month, having held the title exactly one year. Although immensely popular, many felt that he did not live up to his abilities as a fighter. That cannot be said of Jack Dempsey, the “Manassa Mauler,” considered by many one of the great boxers of all time and a sports icon of the1920s. The Library’s holdings of The Ring are incomplete and many volumes are brittle. This issue and several dozen others, all from the 1930s, were donated by the Australian Institute of Sport in Canberra in an effort to aid the Library’s ongoing effort to complete its holdings.

The Ring. Vol. 14, no. 4, May 1935. Gift of Australian Institute of Sport, 1997

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Dempsey in The Ring with Firpo

Heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey (1895–1983), is considered by many to be one of the great boxers of all time. On September 14, 1923, he fought Argentine Luis Angel Firpo (1894–1960) for the heavyweight title. During the match, pictured here, Firpo knocked his opponent out of the ring in the first round, but Dempsey climbed back in to win by a knockout in the second round. Holdings of The Ring are incomplete, but a gift of several dozen issues by the Australian Institute of Sport in Canberra has helped the Library’s ongoing effort to complete its holdings.

The Ring. Vol. 2, no. 9, October 1923. Page 2. Copyright deposit. General Collections, Library of Congress. (210.4)

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Dempsey and Firpo

On September 14, 1923, boxers Jack Dempsey and Luis Firpo fought at the Polo Grounds in New York. American artist George Bellows captures the moment Firpo sent his opponent over the ropes and into the press box below. The image quickly became an American classic. During Word War II, the U.S. Armed Forces commissioned a photographic facsimile of the print for distribution to soldiers in camps and hospitals. Bellows has included his self-portrait in the lower left corner of the print.

The composition seen here closes in tight to focus attention on the fighters. During World War II, the U.S. Armed Forces commissioned a photographic facsimile of the second (nearly-identical) lithograph for distribution to soldiers in U.S. Armed Forces camps and hospitals. Although Bellows was a ringside observer, artistic integrity was a primary concern and he was widely criticized for showing the right-handed fighter punching from his left.

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The Cincinnati Reds

The 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings was the first all-professional baseball team in America. Led by such legendary future Hall of Famers as Harry Wright and his brother George and the often unhittable pitching of Asa Brainard, the Red Stockings dominated their competition, compiling an unprecidented, unbeaten record of fifty-six wins and one tie. Players’ salaries ranged from a low of $600 for substitute Richard Hurley to the highest sum paid to date of $1,400—awarded to George Wright, the team’s brilliant young shortstop.

First Nine of the Cincinnati (Red Stockings) Base Ball Club. New York: Tuchfarber, Walkley & Moelmann. Color lithograph, 1869. Copyright deposit, 1869. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. (207.1)

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The Washington Senators

The Washington Senators 1913 team included Walter “Big Train” Johnson (pictured third from the right). Johnson, considered to be the greatest pitcher of his era, had already distinguished himself as a star player during the 1910 season, when he struck out 313 men. This team photograph was made with a Cirkut camera, that rotates on a special tripod while exposing a narrow slit of film, which makes it possible for someone to appear in the picture twice [see left and right of the line-up]. The Library’s Panoramic Photograph Collection contains more than 4000 images.

Schutz Group Photographers. Washington Senators. Gelatin silver print, 1913. Copyright deposit, 1913. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. LC-USZ62-102418 (213 A.1) [Digital ID# cph.3c02418]

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The Mighty Casey

American composer and educator, William Schuman spent from 1951 to 1953 working on his first opera, The Mighty Casey composed to a libretto by Jeremy Gury and based on the famous poem “Casey at the Bat” by Ernest L. Thayer. Schuman, an avid baseball fan, remarked “To me, baseball is the epitome of American life and character. The Mighty Casey . . . musically is a straight, serious piece . . . it requires no technical knowledge to enjoy it, and we shall be satisfied if it only appeals to baseball lovers.” The opera premiered on May 4, 1953, in Hartford, Connecticut.

William Schuman (1910–1992). The Mighty Casey. Page 2. Full score and sketch for “Peanuts, Popcorn, Soda, Cracker Jacks.” Music Division, Library of Congress. Gift of the composer (207.4a,b)

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Fashions for Cycling

In the 1890s, bicycling became a popular past-time for many American women. The delight of healthy exercise, speed, and freedom from chaperones coupled with long, flowing skirts made this new form of entertainment both dangerous and indecorous. After experimenting with tricycles, side-saddle seats, and screens to keep ankles from view, women pushed the fashion industry to offer new clothing styles for bicycling. This illustration shows a split skirt and a skirt “designed to fit the saddle.” These slight changes satisfied conservatives, but most women cyclists turned to a more radical outfit—bloomers.

The Ladies Standard Magazine. Vol. XVII, No. 4 (June 1897). Copyright deposit, 1897. General Collections, Library of Congress. (209.2)

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Master Illusionist

Harry Kellar (1849–1922) was a dominant force in American magic in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In 1907, Kellar was named the first “Dean of American Magicians,” before retiring from the stage in 1908. He became famous for his self-decapitation effect and advancing the levitation illusion. The Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress has over 140 magic posters, most from the turn of the century, depicting magicians and their various acts.

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Spinner Play

The speed and motion of football are evoked in this lithograph by American artist Benton Spruance. His football subject prints brought him acclaim early in his career, and Spinner Play is a prime example of his ability to combine fluid Modernist forms with a Regionalist’s eye toward daily life in America. It also owes something to the influence of artist George Bellows, whom the artist admired, and to Mexican muralists such as Diego Rivera and José Clemente Orozco.

Benton Murdoch Spruance (1904–1967). Spinner Play. Lithograph, 1934–1935. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Gift/purchase from the Alfred Bendiner Foundation and Mrs. Alfred Bendiner, 1982–1992 (217A.1)

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Swan Dive

The Works Progress Administration (W.P.A.), was established in 1935 by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt as part of his New Deal program to put millions of unemployed Americans back to work. Within the W.P.A., Federal Project Number One (Federal One) was launched as a central administration for the arts-related projects. It provided funds for artists, musicians, actors, and writers through the Federal Art Project (F.A.P), the Federal Music Project, the Federal Theatre Project, and the Federal Writer’s Project. Many New Deal artists and administrators shared a vision in which art could be a part of the daily lives of all Americans, not just the elite. Toward this end, work was made accessible to artists, and art was put within the reach of many through community-based education programs, exhibitions, and affordable purchase prices. WPA/FAP artist Mabel Wellington Jack used the print medium of lithography to produce this stunning chiaroscuro image of a diver in mid-flight.

Mabel Wellington Jack (1890–1970). Swan Dive. Lithograph, ca. mid-1930s. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. W.P.A. transfer (217B.1)

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Bob Hope’s Script for His First Radio Series

Bob Hope was a successful vaudeville dancer, comedian, and master of ceremonies in the 1920s. In the early 1930s he appeared in several Broadway musicals and was an occasional guest comedian on radio variety programs. On January 4, 1935, Hope became the Master of Ceremonies of the radio series, Intimate Revue, sponsored by Bromo Seltzer. That series lasted only thirteen weeks with Hope.

Bob Hope’s First Radio Series Script. Page 2. Manuscript, January 4, 1935. Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division, Library of Congress. Gift of Bob and Dolores Hope, 2000 (195.1)

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A Spalding Guide

Spalding Guides were published for more than 50 years. Volumes exist for almost every sport and athletic endeavor. They functioned as manuals of playing techniques, surveys of the previous year’s sporting achievements, and are a valuable resource for studying the development of athletic equipment. This issue covers women’s basketball. Developed by Dr. James Naismith in 1891 as an indoor sport, basketball’s initial noncontact nature made the game particularly appealing to women. Schools like the National Training School for Women and Girls, founded in 1909 by Nannie Helen Burroughs helped the sport gain popularity.

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Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show

William Frederick Cody (1846–1917), known as Buffalo Bill, served as U.S. army scout, a buffalo hunter for the railroad, and as a renowned prairie scouts. He is probably best know as the man who gave the “Wild West” its name. In 1883, Cody created the Wild West show, a vehicle that propelled him to fortune and worldwide fame and helped create a lasting image of the American West.

The four hour show, which ran from 1883 until 1913, included legendary figures such as Sitting Bull, Calamity Jane and Annie Oakley. It comprised such acts as Indian war dances, an “attack” on a stagecoach, trick riders, ropers, and shooters as well as many different wild American animals. The show was so popular that Cody took it on the road to England in 1887 where it was such a success that Queen Victoria saw it three times. This poster announces the return of Cody to the United States from a highly successful French theatrical tour in 1889.

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The Barnum’s American Museum Illustrated

Impressario Phineas Taylor Barnum’s (1810–1891) American Museum was an institution that exhibited natural history specimens, oddities, paintings, wax figures, amusements, and memorabilia. It was located, from 1841 to 1865, at the corner of Broadway and Ann Street in New York City. The museum was visited by working class and upper-class citizens of the city as well as those in rural areas. After the museum closed due to a fire, Barnum produced the circus, for which he is known today. Shown is the museums magazine produced during the height of the museum’s popularity.

Barnum’s American Museum Illustrated Magazine. New York: 1850. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (207.8)

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