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Herblock (1909–2001).They’re Still There, Boss! 1941. Published by the Newspaper Enterprise Association, April 1941. India ink, crayon, and opaque white drawing. Herbert L. Block Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (002.01.00)
LC-DIG-hlb-00297 © Herb Block Foundation

Before the United States entered World War II in December 1941, cartoonists, like the rest of the United States, were divided over the issue of American intervention. Although public opinion initially leaned toward an isolationist position in response to the European war, by late 1941, 70 percent of the American people thought that defeating Germany was more important than staying out of the war. After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor most Americans ceased to be ambivalent and threw themselves into the war effort. Herblock worked for the conservative Newspaper Enterprise Association from 1933 to 1943 and drew the ire of his editor for drawing cartoons increasingly in favor of intervention in Europe. However, during the same period, many of his fellow cartoonists discounted Hitler or chose to focus on national defense.

HERBLOCK, Newspaper Enterprise Association

Although the United States did not officially declare war until December 8, 1941, it increasingly participated in the Allied war effort. Herblock was an early supporter of defense against German aggression. Although the Dutch government had surrendered to the German Army on May 16, 1940, Americans, with the permission of the British and Dutch governments in exile, occupied Dutch Guiana, the South American country, now known as Suriname, beginning on November 23, 1941. The country held rich bauxite mines, coveted by the military for its use in manufacturing aluminum airplanes.

Herblock (1909–2001). “Look—Americans in Your Territory,” 1941. Published by the Newspaper Enterprise Association, November 27, 1941. India ink, crayon, and opaque white drawing. Herbert L. Block Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (001.00.00)
LC-DIG-hlb-01041 © Herb Block Foundation

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HERBLOCK, Newspaper Enterprise Association

The Lend-Lease Act, signed into law on March 11, 1941, was celebrated by Herblock, as the first ships and airplanes headed toward Europe and factories increased production to meet the needs of what the cartoonist called “the struggle for civilization.” President Roosevelt and Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr., asked Congress for an additional 3.5 billion dollars (in tax revenue) with which to infuse military supplies into Europe to help the Allies defeat the Axis powers.

Herblock (1909–2001). The Struggle for Civilization, 1941. Published by the Newspaper Enterprise Association, April 18, 1941. India ink, crayon, and opaque white drawing. Herbert L. Block Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (002.00.00)
LC-DIG-hlb-00584 © Herb Block Foundation

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JERRY COSTELLO, Albany Knickerbocker News

The day before Czechoslovakia capitulated to the German Army, Jerry Costello drew the emaciated German people starving as manufacturing overtook agricultural labor. Although German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels had admitted on March 5, 1939, his country was barely able to feed its people, his goal had been to goad the German people into working toward self-sufficiency, not to undermine the war effort. Costello spent forty years of his forty-seven-year career as a cartoonist at the Albany Knickerbocker News, from 1922 to 1962.

Jerry Costello (1897–1971). Feeling the Pinch, 1939. Published in the Albany Knickerbocker News, March 14, 1939. India ink, crayon, and opaque white drawing. Art Wood Collection of Cartoon and Caricature, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (003.00.00)
LC-DIG-ppmsca-38552 © Times Union, Albany, NY

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EDWIN MARCUS, New York Times

Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist Party achieved control of the Reichstag in 1933, where they established their vicious rule by decree and ruthlessly governed the Third Reich. As the Nazi’s began to attack Jews and communists, the press widely characterized then Gestapo head Hermann Goering as the real power and claimed that “Chancellor Hitler is merely the window-dressing.” Edwin Marcus, the New York Times editorial cartoonist for fifty years, between 1908 and 1958, mistakenly suggested that Hitler did not have the personality necessary to lead the German people.

Edwin Marcus (1885–1961). The Misfit, 1933. Published in the New York Times, March 26, 1933. India ink, graphite, and opaque white drawing. Gift of Edwin Marcus, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (004.00.00)
LC-DIG-acd-2a10517 © By Permission of the Marcus Family

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CLIFFORD BERRYMAN, Washington Star

Using a small airplane as a metaphor for national defense, Washington Star cartoonist Clifford Berryman proposed enhancing the national defense program by revising the 1939 Neutrality Act. President Roosevelt argued that arming shipping merchants was crucial to support his Lend-Lease program, which provided U.S. weapons and other goods to European allies. During his fifty-five-year career as a cartoonist in Washington, D.C., Berryman won a Pulitzer Prize for his art.

Clifford Berryman (1869–1949). It’ll Fly Better When That Other Wing Is On, 1941. Published in the Washington Star, October 13, 1941. India ink over graphite drawing. Gift of Clifford Berryman, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (005.00.00)
LC-DIG-acd-2a05836

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HERBLOCK, Newspaper Enterprise Association

Uncle Sam authoritatively turns “plans” for war production into “planes” in this patriotic Herblock cartoon that encouraged Americans to increase military supplies for Europe. During the summer of 1941, manufacturing demands for both British and American markets outstripped supplies. Employees facing longer hours and harder work went on strike for higher wages. Herblock encouraged their production efforts in support of the war, suggesting to his readers that it was their patriotic duty.

Herblock (1909–2001). Make It a Reality, 1941. Published by the Newspaper Enterprise Association, June 1941. India ink, crayon, and opaque white drawing. Herbert L. Block Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (001.01.00)
LC-DIG-hlb-01291 © Herb Block Foundation

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HERBLOCK, Newspaper Enterprise Association

Supporting President Roosevelt’s call for increased war production, Herblock depicted an American worker next to a British sailor—working together to defeat Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany. The president pushed Americans to work harder and produce more goods for the war effort. In April 1941, the Axis powers did not fear the Allies. Germany forced Yugoslavia and Greece into surrendering, blitzed several British cities, and began to push toward the Soviet Union, which it attacked in June 1941.

Herblock (1909–2001). “They’re Still There, Boss!” 1941. Published by the Newspaper Enterprise Association, April 1941. India ink, crayon, and opaque white drawing. Herbert L. Block Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (002.01.00)
LC-DIG-hlb-00297 © Herb Block Foundation

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HUGH HUTTON, Philadelphia Inquirer

In 1939, feeling that America had been treated like a pariah for its role in financing World War I, Hugh Hutton portrayed Uncle Sam resisting involvement in World War II. Hutton’s use of the character Shylock from Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice reflected the opinion, current in both Europe and the United States, that Americans had greatly profited from the First World War. Hutton drew for the Philadelphia Inquirer from 1934 until he retired in 1969.

Hugh Hutton (1896–1976). Art Treasure, 1939. Published in the Philadelphia Inquirer, October 3, 1939. Crayon over blue pencil drawing. Art Wood Collection of Cartoon and Caricature, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (003.01.00)
LC-DIG-ppmsca-38553

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JAMES BERRYMAN, Washington Star

While Senator Hiram Johnson, Republican from California, and Senator Tom Connally, Democrat from Texas, dress Congress as an angel defending the peace, an irritated Uncle Sam thinks they would be better off working on domestic legislation. This may have been published around the same time as the passage of the Neutrality Act of 1939, which Johnson opposed and Connally supported. James Berryman followed in his father’s footsteps and became a Pulitzer Prize-winning editorial cartoonist at the Washington Star.

James Berryman (1902–1971). [Congress being dressed as an angel by Senators Johnson and Connally while Uncle Sam grumbles], between 1935 and 1939. Published in the Washington Star, between 1935 and 1939. India ink over graphite drawing. Tom Connally Papers, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (004.01.00)
LC-DIG-acd-2a06909

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JERRY COSTELLO, Albany Knickerbocker News

As Europe plunged into war, isolationists decried President Roosevelt’s attempt to alter neutrality legislation. In 1939, Roosevelt, wanting to better arm the Allies against German aggression, asked Congress to eliminate the arms embargo in the “cash-and-carry” provision of the Neutrality Act of 1937. Jerry Costello showed Uncle Sam pulling Roosevelt back from the brink of war and using the law as his anchor. Costello spent forty years of his forty-seven-year career as a cartoonist at the Albany Knickerbocker News, from 1922 to 1962.

Jerry Costello (1897–1971). The Restraining Hand Needed, 1939. Published in the Albany Knickerbocker News, July 7, 1939. India ink, graphite, and opaque white drawing. Art Wood Collection of Cartoon and Caricature, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (005.01.00)
LC-DIG-ppmsca-38554 © Times Union, Albany, NY

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