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1900
Booker T. Washington founded the National Negro Business League
1900
James Weldon Johnson and brother J. Rosamond Johnson wrote “Lift Ev’ry Voice and Sing,” widely referred to as “the Negro national anthem”
1900–1906
Blacks organized boycotts in every Southern state to protest segregated streetcars
1903
W. E. B. Du Bois published The Souls of Black Folk
1905
Niagara Movement organized by W. E. B. Du Bois and others in opposition to Booker T. Washington’s leadership
1906
Three companies of black troops accused of waging a murderous raid in Brownsville, Texas, were denied a fair trial by court martial and dishonorably discharged by President Theodore Roosevelt
1906
A five-day race riot in Atlanta killed at least twenty-seven, injured hundreds, and destroyed black-owned property
1908
Bloody two-day race riot erupted in Springfield, Illinois, and destroyed the city’s black section
1909
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) formed in New York City in response to the Springfield race riot
1909
Nannie Helen Burroughs established the National Training School for Women in Washington, D.C.
1910
The National Urban League founded in New York City
1910
African American inventor and entrepreneur Madame C. J. Walker, generally considered the first black woman millionaire, started a hair care company for black women in Indianapolis
1911
El Primer Congreso Mexicanista, the first large Mexican American civil rights conference, met in Laredo, Texas
1914–1918
World War I
1914
NAACP published an open letter to President Woodrow Wilson protesting segregation in federal agencies
1915
Carter G. Woodson founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History
1916
Representative Jeannette Rankin (R-MT) became the first woman elected to Congress
1917
Marcus Garvey established the American branch of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in Harlem
1917
Harlem Renaissance began
1917
NAACP led a “Silent March” of 10,000 black New Yorkers down Fifth Avenue to protest the East St. Louis race riot
1919
NAACP published Thirty Years of Lynching, 1889–1918, as part of an antilynching campaign
1919
Summer and early fall race riots erupted in twenty-five cities across the U.S.; later called “Red Summer”
1922
U.S. House of Representatives passed the NAACP-supported Dyer antilynching bill; defeated by Southern Democrats in the Senate
1925
A. Philip Randolph organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Union
1926
Carter G. Woodson inaugurated “Negro History Week,” later extended to Black History Month
1928
Octaviano Larrazolo (R-NM) became the first Latino U.S. Senator
1929
Oscar DePriest (R-IL) elected as the first black congressman since Reconstruction
1929
NAACP-supported “Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work” economic boycott movement began with the goal of securing better jobs for African Americans
1931
A filibuster by Southern Democrats defeated the NAACP-supported Costigan-Wagner antilynching bill in the Senate
1931
Nine black men were wrongfully charged and convicted of the rape of two white women in Scottsboro, Alabama; the accused chose the Communist Party-supported International Labor Defense (ILD) rather than the NAACP to represent them
1932
Hattie Wyatt Caraway (D-AR) became the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate
1933
Joint Committee on National Recovery formed to represent African Americans during the first 100 days of President Franklin Roosevelt’s administration
1934
Southern Tenant Farmers’ Union, an interracial organization, formed to advocate for the fair treatment of sharecroppers and tenant farmers under the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
1935
National Council of Negro Women founded
1935
National Negro Congress (NNC), led by A. Philip Randolph, called for the unionization of black workers, desegregation, and the protection of migrant workers
1935
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) formed, espousing racial egalitarian rhetoric but allowing discriminatory practices
1936
Jesse Owens defied Nazi racist propaganda by winning four gold medals at the Olympic games in Berlin
1937
The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters signed a collective bargaining agreement with the Pullman Company, the first such agreement between a black union and a major American company
1938
African American choreographer and dancer Katherine Dunham formed her own dance company
1939
African American contralto Marian Anderson sang in concert at the Lincoln Memorial before an integrated audience of 75,000
1939
NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund formed