Update for 2012 ALA Midwinter Meeting: June-December, 2011
Roberta Shaffer, Associate Librarian for Library Services
Service units, divisions, and offices within the Library have submitted the information in this briefing document for the attention and use of Library of Congress staff who will attend the American Library Association (ALA) 2012 Midwinter Meeting in Dallas, Texas, January 20-24, 2012. The document covers initiatives undertaken at the Library of Congress since the ALA 2011 Annual Conference in New Orleans, Louisiana, June 2011. Information in the printed document is valid as of Dec. 23, 2011. This document will be updated regularly until the close of the Midwinter Meeting.
The Library of Congress Exhibit Booth is no. 1829 in the Dallas Convention Center. The Library of Congress’s booth manager is Isabella Marques de Castilla.
Exhibit hours are (view schedule of presentations):
- Friday, January 20: 5:30 -7:30 pm (ribbon-cutting at 5:15 pm)
- Saturday/Sunday, January 21-22: 9:00 am - 5:00 pm
- Monday, January 23: 9:00 am - 2:00 pm (wrap-up from Noon - 2 pm)
Library staff making presentations in the booth theater include: Rosemary Brawner, Colleen Cahill, Ana Cristan, Beth Davis-Brown, Jeanne Drewes, Paul Frank, Denise D. Garrett, Linda Geisler, Anne Harrison, Patricia Hayward, Ahmed Johnson, Everette Larson, Cheryl Lederle-Ensign, Guy Lamolinara, Sally McCallum, Ruth Nussbaum, Roslyn Pachoca, Amber Paranick, Steve Prine, Dave Reser, Regina Reynolds, Donna Scanlon, Roberta Shaffer, and Min Zhang.
Of special note is a showing of the HISTORY Modern Marvels program featuring the Library of Congress that aired on June 10, 2010 (Friday at 6:00 pm). Associate Librarian for Library Services Roberta Shaffer will be at the booth from 11:30 am to 12:00 pm on Saturday, Sunday, and Monday to meet ALA members and listen to their priorities for the Library of Congress.
Two Cataloging Distribution Service (CDS) promotional brochures are available at the booth: one for all LC Classification publications and products and one for LC’s subject headings authority control publications. Available free to booth visitors while supplies last: LC Classification posters, single copies of the pocket-sized LC Classification system, and the pamphlet What is FRBR? Attendees of the Cataloger’s Desktop and Class Web booth presentations will receive a CDS 1GB flash drive.
Every day a CDS Cognotes ad will list the schedule for LC booth theater presentations about CDS products, along with an extra incentive to attend (the free flash drive).
CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE
Mary B. Mazanec was permanently appointed Director of the Congressional Research Service (CRS) effective Dec. 5, after serving since April 2011 as CRS acting director since the retirement of Dan Mulhollan in April 2011. Dr. Mazanec has advanced degrees in Law and Medicine. Before joining CRS, she worked from 2002 to 2010 with the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), where she served most recently as a deputy assistant secretary and director of the Office of Medicine, Science and Public Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. Previously, she was a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow, serving as a senior adviser to the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, Subcommittee on Public Health. Earlier in her career, she served as a senior policy analyst at the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC).
U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE
Jewel Player, chief of the Copyright Acquisitions Division, retired Dec. 30, 2011. Daria Proud is acting chief. Peter Vankevich, head of the Copyright Information Section, Copyright Information and Records Division, retired Nov. 3, 2011.
Michele J. Woods was appointed Associate Register for Policy and International Affairs, effective Oct. 23, 2011. Woods has extensive experience in both domestic and international copyright policy, including through prior positions with the US Copyright Office. She has headed the Office of Policy and International Affairs for the past year on an acting basis, and before that served as Senior Counsel for Policy and International Affairs from March 2009 to October 2010. Prior to joining the Copyright Office, she was in private law practice in Washington, D.C., most recently from 2000 to 2009 as Counsel in the Intellectual Property and Technology group at Arnold & Porter LLP.
Register Announces Priorities and Special Projects
On Oct. 25, 2011, Register of Copyrights Maria A. Pallante made public her office’s priorities and special projects through October 2013. The paper articulates 17 priorities in the areas of copyright policy and administrative practice, as well as 10 new projects designed to improve the quality and efficiency of the US Copyright Office’s services in the 21st century.
Congress has charged the Copyright Office with administering the United States Copyright Act and performing important public services for the nation. The work plan presented in October reflects the commitment of the office to address current complexities in the copyright system and prepare for future challenges. Rogue Websites, illegal streaming, small claims, orphan works and library preservation are among the issues the Copyright Office will focus on through research and legislative support for Congress. The document also summarizes the work of the office in global policy, including US trade negotiations, anti-piracy efforts and international discussions of exceptions and limitations.
The administrative practice of the Copyright Office will be particularly active during the next two years. The office has launched the fifth triennial rulemaking involving the anti-circumvention provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and will spend significant time considering and resolving regulatory issues affecting the copyrightability and registration of Websites and other forms of digital authorship.
The ten new projects announced include maximizing the technical operation of the registration system; a study of the office’s costs and fees for public services, a major revision of the "Compendium of Copyright Office Practices," increased accessibility to historic copyright records, dialogues and roundtables with members of the copyright marketplace, and research partnerships with the academic community. In addition, the office will bolster its role in educational undertakings, focusing on core principles of copyright law and finding innovative ways to address the growing copyright education needs of the public. To read the document, see URL <www.copyright.gov/docs/priorities.pdf>.
Reports, Studies, and Publications
Updated Circular 92 Available on Office Website
The new and completely up-to-date online edition of Circular 92, the text of the US copyright law, is available on the Copyright Office Website at URL <www.copyright.gov/title17>. The online version of title 17 includes the amendments in 2009 and 2010 that extended the section 119 satellite statutory license (Pub. L. No. 111-118, Pub. L. No. 111-144, and Pub. Law No. 111-157). It also includes the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act of 2010 (Pub. L. No. 111-175), enacted May 27, 2010, and the Copyright Cleanup, Clarification, and Corrections Act of 2010 (Pub. L. No. 111-295), enacted Dec. 9, 2010. Circular 92 will be available in book form from the Government Printing Office.
Report on Federal Copyright Protection for Pre-1972 Sound Recordings
The US Copyright Office on Dec. 28, 2011, issued its report on Federal Copyright Protection for Pre-1972 Sound Recordings, as required under the Omnibus Appropriations Act of 2009. The report, prepared after receiving written and oral input from stakeholders, recommends that sound recordings made before Feb. 15, 1972, be brought into the federal copyright regime. The Office believes that bringing pre-1972 sound recordings into the federal copyright system serves the interests of consistency and certainty, and will assist libraries and archives in carrying out their missions while also offering additional rights and protection for sound recording right holders.
Although sound recordings were first given federal copyright protection in 1972, sound recordings made before Feb. 15, 1972, remained protected under state law rather than under the federal copyright statute. As a result, there are a variety of legal regimes governing protection of pre-1972 sound recordings in the various states, and the scope of protection and of exceptions and limitations to that protection is unclear. Current law provides that pre-1972 sound recordings may remain protected under state law until Feb. 15, 2067. After that date they will enter the public domain.
At the urging of sound recording archivists, Congress instructed the Copyright Office to conduct a study on the desirability of and means for bringing pre-1972 sound recordings into the federal copyright regime. Congress directed that the study was to cover the effect of federal coverage on the preservation of such sound recordings, the effect on public access to those recordings, and the economic impact of federal coverage on rights holders. The study was also to examine the means for accomplishing such coverage.
The Office made the following recommendations:
- Bringing pre-1972 sound recordings into the federal copyright system completes the work Congress began in 1976 when it brought most works protected by state common law copyright into the federal statutory scheme.
- Federalization would best serve the interest of libraries, archives and others in preserving old sound recordings and in increasing the availability to the public of old sound recordings.
- The objection that federalizing protection for pre-1972 sound recordings would cast a cloud over existing ownership of rights in those recordings can be addressed by expressly providing that the ownership of copyright in the sound recording shall vest in the person who owned the rights under state law just prior to the enactment of the federal statute.
- The term of protection for sound recordings fixed prior to Feb. 15, 1972, should be 95 years from publication or, if the work had not been published prior to the effective date of legislation federalizing protection, 120 years from fixation. However
- In no case would protection continue past Feb. 15, 2067, and
- In cases where the foregoing terms would expire before 2067, a right holder may obtain extended protection for any pre-1972 sound recording by making that recording available to the public at a reasonable price and, during a transition period of several years, notifying the Copyright Office of its intention to secure extended protection extended protection. For works published before 1923, that extended term would run an additional twenty-five years from the effective date of the legislation implementing the recommendations. For all other pre-72 sound recordings, the extended term would run until Feb. 15, 2067.
The report is available at URL <www.copyright.gov/docs/sound>.
Analysis and Discussion Document on Mass Digitization of Books
The Copyright Office published a preliminary analysis and discussion document that addresses the issues raised by the intersection between copyright law and the mass digitization of books. The purpose of the analysis is to facilitate further discussions among the affected parties and the public—discussions that may encompass a number of possible approaches, including voluntary initiatives, legislative options, or both. The analysis builds on prior work by the Copyright Office, Congress, and the stakeholder community in a variety of areas, including orphan works, library exceptions, and effective licensing models. The analysis also identifies questions to consider in determining an appropriate policy for the mass digitization of books.
Public discourse on mass digitization is particularly timely. Earlier this year, the US District Court for the Southern District of New York rejected a proposed settlement in the copyright infringement litigation regarding Google's mass book digitization project. The court found that the settlement would have redefined the relationship between copyright law and new technology, and it would have encroached upon Congress's ability to set copyright policy with respect to orphan works. Since then, a group of authors has filed a lawsuit against five university libraries that participated in Google's mass digitization project. These developments have sparked a public debate on the risks and opportunities that mass book digitization may create for authors, publishers, libraries, technology companies, and the general public. For further information, see URL <www.copyright.gov/docs/massdigitization>.
Study on Small Copyright Claims
On Oct. 27, 2011, the Copyright Office published a Federal Register notice (76 FR 66758) requesting written comments on how copyright owners have handled small copyright claims. Specifically, the Office seeks comments on how copyright owners and defendants use the current legal system for small copyright claims; the obstacles and benefits of using federal district courts; potential alternatives for handling copyright claims that have a relatively small economic value; the logistics of potential alternatives; and the benefits and risks presented by different types of processes. Over the next two years, the Office expects to seek additional comments, conduct roundtables or hearings, and meet with stakeholders. The notice of inquiry is now available at URL <www.copyright.gov/docs/smallclaims>. The deadline for comments is Jan. 16, 2012.
Office Reports to Congress on Repeal of Cable and Satellite Licenses
The Copyright Office submitted a report to Congress in August 2011 about potential repeal of the cable and satellite statutory licenses in sections 111, 119, and 122 of the Copyright Act.
Congress directed the Office to prepare the report in the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act of 2010; specifically, it asked the Office to submit recommendations to achieve the phaseout and eventual repeal of the licenses. “It is the Office’s view that sublicensing, collective licensing, and direct licensing offer feasible alternatives to the existing statutory regime, with the caveat that copyright owners will need time to develop, invest in, and experiment with a variety of solutions, tailored to the needs of their licensees and consumers,” the report states. The full text of the report is available at URL <www.copyright.gov/docs/section302>.
Office Contributes to Report on Global Intellectual Property Rights
The Office of the US Trade Representative (USTR) published its annual Special 301 Report in May 2011. Mandated under US trade law, the report evaluates the adequacy of intellectual property protection among trading partners of the United States.
Once again this year, staff from the Copyright Office’s Office of Policy and International Affairs (PIA) helped prepare the report. Among other findings, this year’s report calls attention to the problem of Internet-based piracy. “Piracy over the Internet is rapidly supplanting physical piracy in many markets around the world,” the report states.
Pirate Internet sites permit consumers to view unlawfully retransmitted sports telecasts or to purchase illegal copies of movies, music, books, or software. Piracy using mobile technologies, such as telephones, tablets, and flash drives, is also common.
To develop the Special 301 Report, public comment was invited through the Federal Register about the status of intellectual property protection worldwide. Representatives of the US, foreign governments, industry groups, and nongovernmental organizations also testified at a public hearing before representatives of US government agencies including the Copyright Office.
On Dec. 22, 2011, USTR issued its “Notorious Markets List” of physical and online markets that are reportedly engaged in large scale piracy and counterfeiting.
Congress is exploring ways to provide more effective legal tools to address online infringement of US books, films, music, and software, including infringement that originates overseas. So-called rogue Websites are a particularly egregious problem. Typically, these Websites make money either by directly selling pirated copies to the public, often accepting payment by means of major credit cards, or by selling advertising on the sites. Potential legislative solutions would make it possible for the United States Attorney General (and possibly copyright owners) to obtain various court orders including: injunctions ordering operators of the sites to cease their infringing activity; orders to credit card companies and Internet advertising agencies to cease providing services to the Websites; and orders requiring domain name server operators and search engines to cease directing end users to Websites. The Copyright Office is continuing to advise Congress on these proposals.
In November 2011, Register of Copyrights Maria Pallante testified before the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Intellectual Property, Competition, and the Internet on the proposed Stop Online Piracy Act (see URL <www.copyright.gov/docs/regstat111611.html>). She supported congressional action to address the ongoing problem of Websites created mainly to distribute unauthorized use of intellectual property, including copyrighted works and counterfeit material such as pharmaceuticals. “The Internet harbors a category of bad-faith actors whose very business models consist of infringing copyright in American books, software, movies, and music with impunity,” she stated in written testimony. “Frequently located offshore, these operators of rogue Websites target American consumers and facilitate transactions using the services of search engines, advertising networks, and credit card companies.” In March 2011, the Register testified about the problem of rogue Websites before the House Judiciary Committee, recommending that Congress design legislation to “follow the money,” while also considering the role of all players in the Website ecosystem. For more information, sees URL <www.copyright.gov/docs/regstat031411.html>.
In 1997 and 2004, Congress updated the criminal remedies for copyright infringement to take into account the increasing harm from evolving forms of infringement on the Internet. The focus of those amendments, however, was on the unlawful distribution of “copies” (addressing the rights of reproduction and distribution). Since that time, streaming (which primarily implicates the exclusive right of public performance) has become a major form of dissemination for copyrighted work and illegal streaming has become a more serious threat to copyright owners and legitimate US businesses. Streaming legislation has been introduced in the Senate and streaming is addressed in the Stop Online Piracy Act that has been introduced in the House. The Register of Copyrights testified on the issue before the House Judiciary Committee in June 2011, highlighting the importance of streaming in the legitimate marketplace and calling for an increase in criminal penalties for egregious cases (see URL <www.copyright.gov/docs/regstat060111.html>). The Copyright Office will continue to support Congress on this high-priority issue.
Comments Requested on Works Whose Users Are Likely to Be Adversely Affected by Circumvention Prohibition
The Copyright Office is conducting proceedings in accordance with provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act under which the Librarian of Congress, upon the recommendation of the Register of Copyrights, may exempt certain classes of works from the prohibition against circumvention of technological measures that control access to copyrighted works. The purpose of this rulemaking proceeding is to determine whether there are particular classes of works as to which users are, or are likely to be, adversely affected in their ability to make noninfringing uses due to the prohibition on circumvention. The notice requests written comments from interested parties, including libraries, archives, scholars, researchers, and members of the public, to elicit evidence on whether noninfringing uses of certain classes of works are, or are likely to be, adversely affected by this prohibition on the circumvention of measures that control access to copyrighted works. The Office received 21 proposals for classes of works to be exempted from the prohibition; taking duplicative proposals into account, 10 classes of works are being considered. The deadline for comments supporting or opposing those proposed classes is Feb. 10, 2012, and reply comments are due by March 2. A notice on dates and locations of hearings will be published later in the Federal Register and on the Copyright Office Website.
For further information, see URL <www.copyright.gov/1201>.
- see also under Library Services/Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate and Office of Strategic Initiatives
The Copyright Office hosted two public meetings in spring 2011 to improve the process for acquiring electronic serials from publishers, one focused on issues common to small publishers, the other on problems affecting larger publishers. The Office of Strategic Initiatives and Library Services cosponsored the meetings.
The Copyright Office solicited its first electronic serial in September 2010 under interim regulations it adopted the previous February. By the time of the two 2011 meetings, publishers had delivered 61 additional submissions containing more than 100,000 electronic files. No two publishers submitted materials in the same way, and almost every delivery of electronic content prior to the meetings required manual intervention.
The interim regulations the Office adopted to acquire eSerials permit it to demand, under the mandatory deposit provision of copyright law, serials available exclusively online and in digital format. Before the Office adopted the interim regulations, such works were exempt from the mandatory deposit provision.
The eSerials project is part of a larger effort to build the Library of Congress’ collection of works that exist solely in electronic formats. The Library identified digital serials as the first category of online-only works to be subject to demand by the Copyright Office under the interim regulations.
The Library selected 100 titles from 38 publishers to start the project; it will soon announce additional eSerials to be collected and, eventually, other categories of digital works.
The Library is considering whether to request all the titles it will want to collect from a single publisher at once, rather than selecting individual titles over time, so that publishers will be more likely to set up packaging and delivery mechanisms that suit the Library and themselves.
Ultimately, the Library hopes to receive most serial content in XML (extensible mark-up language) format that complies with a widely used standard developed by the National Library of Medicine. The “best edition” criteria included in the interim regulations specify this format as the Library’s first preference among a hierarchy of file types publishers can submit. XML files that meet these standards are the easiest to preserve and make accessible in the long term, which is the Library’s goal.
Office Amends Regulations on Termination
The Copyright Office has issued amended regulations governing notices of termination of certain transfers and licenses of copyright under section 203 of the Copyright Act (76 FR 32316). The amended regulations were effective June 6, 2011. Section 203 permits an author who executed a grant of a transfer or license of rights in a work before 1978 to terminate the grant 35 to 40 years after the grant was made.
The Office’s amended regulations clarify the recordation practices of the Office and state that, where an author agreed, prior to 1978, to a grant of rights in a work that was not created until after 1977, a notice of termination of a grant under section 203 may be recorded if it recites, as the date of execution, the date on which the work was created. The rationale for this is that a grant cannot be “executed” (in the words of section 203) until the work has been created. For further information, go to the Copyright Office Website at URL <www.copyright.gov/docs/termination>.
For works already under statutory copyright protection on the effective date of the 1976 Copyright Act, which was Jan. 1, 1978, the law contains a separate provision (section 304) allowing the termination of any grant during the last 39 years of the copyright term (or, if the grant was not terminated under that provision, it may be terminated during the last 20 years of the copyright term.)
Termination is optional and can be exercised only by certain persons and under certain conditions and time frames defined in the law.
The Copyright Office registered 670,044 copyright claims in fiscal 2011, the highest number in its history. It started the year with 273,472 workable claims on hand; workable claims are those staff can process without further action from remitters. The Office ended the year with 93,706 workable claims remaining. Altogether, staff completed 734,256 claims in fiscal 2011, including those that were not registered.
On Oct. 1, 2011, the Office commenced a major revision of its Compendium II: Copyright Office Practices (published in 1984 and amended in part in 1988 and 1998). The Compendium is the primary internal guidebook followed by Copyright Office registration specialists and is the recognized authority consulted by copyright owners, legal practitioners, and the courts. This project will include updating examination and recordation practices and corresponding regulations for purposes of consistency, as well as developing certain new practices for the registration and deposit of works of digital authorship consistent with Office regulations and case law. The revision process will include opportunities for stakeholder review and input throughout the process. The revised Compendium will also include practices relating to the Office’s Licensing Division. For further information, see URL <www.copyright.gov/compendium>.
Because of delays in processing applications for registration, the Office decided in August 2009 to suspend the fee for special handling in certain circumstances (74 FR 39900). Special handling is the expedited processing of an application and may be granted when compelling reasons are present. The fee was first suspended from Aug. 10, 2009, until July 1, 2011. The Office has extended it for one year, until July 1, 2012 (76 FR 38306). The special handling fee, which is in addition to the regular fee for an application to register a copyright claim, will not be assessed for conversion of a pending application to special handling status when the application has been pending for more than six months without any action by the Copyright Office and the applicant has satisfied the Office that expedited handling of the registration is needed because the applicant is about to file a suit for copyright infringement.
The project to digitize the contents of the world’s largest card catalog, which contains records of copyright ownership, succeeded in scanning 10 million cards by the end of fiscal 2011. Another 10 million were ready to be scanned. The records, many of which are hand written, date from 1870 through 1977. The goals of the digitization project are to preserve the records and to provide access to the information in a searchable, online catalog of pre-1978 copyright records that integrates with the post-1977 records that are now available on the Copyright Office Website at URL <www.copyright.gov>.
The Copyright Office launched a blog to encourage discussion about the project. Blog posts highlight project plans and progress and invite feedback, allowing readers to participate in the development of the database. See URL <blogs.loc.gov/copyrightdigitization>.
LAW LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
Librarian of Congress James H. Billington appointed David Mao Law Librarian of Congress effective Jan. 3, 2012, to succeed Roberta Shaffer who was appointed Associate Librarian for Library Services. Mr. Mao had served as Deputy Law Librarian of Congress since June 2010. The Law Librarian appointed Robert Gee to the new position of Assistant Law Librarian for Virtual Services.
Mark Strattner retired as chief of the Collections Services Office, Nov. 3, 2011.
Collections were a strong focus of the Law Library in 2011. Work continued on the project to reclassify more than 554,927 volumes shelved under the legacy in-house LAW system. During the year, a total of 24,697 titles, representing 41,887 volumes, were classified into the Library of Congress Classification.
One World Law Library (OWLL) is envisioned to be a repository of, and “one-stop” portal for, global legal and legislative information that uses emerging technologies to enable search and retrieval of content contained in divergent information silos. The Law Library completed its reorganization establishing the new Virtual Services Directorate to support development and ongoing oversight of OWLL/Law.gov. The Librarian’s Office approved the Law Library and Library Services tribal law project, for which the Library of Congress Classification Schedule can provide critical access to content.
The Law Library of Congress Website offers a wide range of publications and services for librarians. The Global Legal Monitor, a continually updated online publication covering legal news and developments worldwide, reached an email readership of 16,097. The Guide to Law Online, an annotated portal of Internet sources of interest to legal researchers, received 451,917 page views.
The Law Library actively uses social media. This includes Facebook, YouTube, two Twitter accounts (see URLs <twitter.com/LawLibCongress> and <twitter.com/THOMASdotgov/>, and the popular blog In Custodia Legis (see URL <blogs.loc.gov/law>). Librarians can also submit requests to the Law Library via the Website at URL <www.loc.gov/law>. RSS feeds and email alerts notify subscribers about the availability of selected resources.
THOMAS, the public legislative information system, received 10.3 million visits in fiscal 2011. The Law Library implemented numerous improvements to THOMAS, making it significantly easier to find and access legislative information.
The Law Library sponsored a number of events in the past six months, many of them accessible through the Law Library Website. This included a Human Rights Day panel on “Women’s Rights and Opportunities;” A Constitution Day speaker, Dahlia Lithwick of Slate Magazine, who spoke on “The Supreme Court and Free Speech;” and The Frederic R. and Molly S. Kellogg Biennial Lecture in Jurisprudence which featured Joseph Raz speaking on the topic of “Sovereignty and Legitimacy: On the Changing Face of Law – Questions and Speculations.”
The Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation awarded a $150,000 grant to the Law Library of Congress to support a program on demography, technology and criminal justice. A board of advisors was formed to oversee the creation and establishment of the program. The Board met on Dec. 1, 2011, and determined that the program will support a scholar/practitioner-in-residence at the Law Library of Congress to conduct research on the topic area “Information Technology v. Privacy — The Impact on Criminal Justice.”
The Law Library offers a number of internships and practica for library school students concentrating in law librarianship. For any questions related to these programs or other Law Library products and services, contact Robert Newlen at [email protected].
OFFICE OF THE LIBRARIAN
Vicki Magnus was appointed acting director of the Office of Opportunity, Inclusiveness, and Compliance, effective Aug. 1, 2011. She is a member of the Maryland Bar and has managed the Library’s dispute and equal employment opportunity complaint processes.
Elizabeth Scheffler, formerly chief operations officer, US Copyright Office, was appointed director of Integrated Support Services on July 18, 2011.
World Digital Library
The World Digital Library (WDL) has been rapidly expanding both the number of partners and number of items publicly available through the site. To increase capacity, the Library team has rewritten the cataloging and metadata applications to streamline the process of ingesting partner records and creating metadata translations.
The new WDL metadata application launched at the end of September is part of a larger content management system, which has been integrated into the production process as part of the “WDL 2” effort. WDL 2 launched at the end of September 2011 to realize improvements in key areas: page load times have been improved, resulting in improved site performance, particularly for users with slow Internet connections; code optimization for improved search engine placement and social sharing; the quality of the images has been improved throughout the site; and the public site has migrated from a substantially static architecture to a dynamic content delivery design needed to support future growth. The WDL increased the size of its collection from 1,350 library items from 38 institutions comprising 98,278 images, to 4,050 items or approximately 212,000 images. Content was contributed by 44 institutions from 26 countries.
CONGRESSIONAL RELATIONS OFFICE (CRO)
The following are highlights of congressional activities relating/of interest to the Library since the ALA Annual meeting last June:
Outreach to 112th Congress
New and continuing members have been visitors to the Library for numerous events, tours, exhibits, concerts, behind-the scenes looks at requested collections, research, and book talks. An increasing number of offices are making regular trips to select surplus books to send to their districts. The Gateway to Knowledge traveling exhibit visited 90 congressional districts between the start of the 112th Congress and the National Book Festival; several members’ offices participated by holding ribbon-cuttings, putting out press releases, or arranging local television appearances.
In conjunction with the Education Outreach team, CRO provided a congressional staff briefing on the Library’s educational materials and teacher training opportunities in July, attended by 128 hill staff. The House Democratic Caucus, chaired by Rep. John Larson, hosted a similar briefing in October, with participation from 81 offices. CRO also coordinated a Veterans History Project briefing for congressional offices.
CRO organized another behind-the-scenes 2011 event for the Congressional Library of Congress Caucus, working with the staff of co-chairs Reps. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) and Robert Aderholt (R-AL). On Oct. 25, 2011, the Caucus co-hosted with the Librarian an exhibition of nearly 70 treasures from the Rare Book and Special Collections Division, ranging from Robert Hooke’s book describing the first views of the microscopic world (1665) to James Madison’s own copy of his proposed twelve amendments to the US Constitution. Earlier LOC Caucus events included a preview of the Liljenquist exhibit and a book talk with The Greater Journey author David McCollough.
Joint Committee on the Library of Congress (JCL)
At its organizing meeting June 20, 2011, the JCL elected Chairman Charles Schumer (D-NY) and Vice Chairman Gregg Harper (R-MS). Other members are Sens. Richard Durbin (D-IL), Patrick Leahy (D-VT), Lamar Alexander (R-TN), and Thad Cochran (R-MS); and Reps. Daniel Lungren (R-CA), Ander Crenshaw (R-FL), Robert Brady (D-PA), and Zoe Lofgren (D-CA).
The Library, like most of the federal government, operated under fiscal 2010 funding levels through April 15, by operation of a series of Continuing Resolutions (CR). On April 15, President Obama signed P.L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011, which funded the federal government through the end of September and avoided a temporary Government shutdown. The appropriations act cut $38.5 billion in overall spending. The Library received an appropriation of $628.7 million – a reduction of $14.7 million, or 2.3 %, from the base appropriation for the previous fiscal year.
The fiscal 2012 budget process did not come to resolution until Dec. 17, 2011, with Congress committed to significantly reducing the federal budget. The Library’s appropriation for the remainder of fiscal 2012 reflects a $42 million reduction (6.3%) from the fiscal 2011 base. In anticipation of the funding cuts, CRO assisted the Library in obtaining congressional authority to offer buyouts to encourage staff to voluntarily retire before the end of November, 2011.
Library of Congress Legislative Requests
The Congressional Relations Office briefed the House and Senate oversight committee staff on our requests for legislation, including: authorization to use proceeds from the sale of surplus or obsolete property; accepting travel funding from foreign governments; authorizing travel funding for congressional committee-related travel; amending the Library’s revolving fund to allow collection of fees for storage of audio/visual media, traveling exhibits and training; and updating archaic statutes governing Cataloging Distribution Service. The request also includes language to tighten reduction-in-force procedures and to clarify the authorizing statute for the Inspector General. The provision authorizing sale of surplus or obsolete property was included in the appropriations act funding the Library along with most of the federal government through September 2012. (The House had also passed a bill with similar authorization which was not acted on by the Senate.)
During the first session of the 112th Congress CRO provided the House and Senate oversight committees with more than 25 briefings on the Library’s programs and legislative requests, introducing key Library managers to committee staff and providing an opportunity for them to discuss their programs and goals, and provided multiple site visits for hill staff to see Library facilities and operations first-hand.
Government Printing Office; Appointment of Public Printer
On April 19, 2010, President Obama nominated William J. Boarman to be Public Printer. Mr. Boarman’s nomination was not acted on by the Senate prior to the end of the 111th Congress, and President Obama placed him at GPO via a recess appointment in December 2010. He resubmitted the nomination in the 112th Congress, and the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration recommended confirmation. However, the time limit on Mr. Boarman’s appointment as Public Printer ran out at the end of the first session of the 112th Congress without action by the full Senate, and he is stepping down before the beginning of the next session in January 2012. Davita Vance-Cooks will serve as the Acting Public Printer.
In the House Report for the appropriations bill for the Legislative Branch, GAO was directed to review the feasibility of breaking up GPO and moving the Superintendent of Documents to the Library. “The Committee has some concern about the future of the GPO as a viable printing operation for the Federal Government.…The Committee believes that a study is needed to review the feasibility of Executive Branch printing being performed by the General Services Administration, the transfer of the Superintendent of Documents program to the Library of Congress, and the privatization of the GPO. Therefore, the Committee directs the [GAO] to conduct a study on these three options and report its findings to the Committee on Appropriations of the House and Senate no later than Jan. 31, 2012.” GAO commenced work on the study but in November informed the Library that it was asked to suspend their work on the review.
OFFICE OF SECURITY AND EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS (OSEP)
The Office of Security and Emergency Preparedness continued developing the Library's security and emergency programs, with a focus on enhancing the emergency preparedness program, updating Continuity of Operations (COOP) plans, enhancing electronic and security controls protecting collections and assets, and conducting additional Site Assistance Visits.
The Office of Emergency Preparedness significantly furthered the readiness level of Library management's COOP relocation site by positioning new desktop computers, installing security caging for storing mission equipment, and expanding its training program for COOP teams. The office sponsored a Town Hall meeting in February 2011 to give updates to Library staff members on emergency preparedness, law enforcement, security, safety, and health services. In the aftermath of the August 5.8-level earthquake affecting the National Capital Region, emergency planners reassessed their earthquake response procedures, resulting in the establishment of more comprehensive earthquake procedures. The Office of Emergency Preparedness plans to integrate these revised procedures into its upcoming evacuation drills.
The Protective Services Office continued improving electronic and physical security controls to protect collections and assets in all Library buildings on Capitol Hill and at the Library's annexes. The office conducted additional Site Assistance Visits in collaboration with senior librarians/collections management specialists to ensure that divisions continued meeting minimum standards established in the Library's Strategic Plan for Safeguarding the Collections. Protective Services completed electronic and physical security upgrades for Area Studies storage facilities to safeguard high-value collections.
Deanna Marcum retired as Associate Librarian for Library Services on Dec. 31, 2011. She became managing director, Ithaka Strategies and Research (Ithaka S+R), on Jan. 1, 2012. Ithaka S+R provides research and strategic consulting services that help transform scholarship and teaching in an online environment. Dr. Marcum has also agreed to chair the advisory committee for the Library of Congress Bibliographic Framework Initiative (see below), on a volunteer basis.
Roberta Shaffer was appointed Associate Librarian for Library Services, effective Jan. 3, 2012. She was formerly Law Librarian of Congress.
Peggy Bulger retired as Director of the American Folklife Center on Dec. 31, 2011. Elizabeth “Betsy” Peterson is the new director, effective Jan. 16, 2012.
Fenella France was appointed chief of the Preservation Research and Testing Division on Aug. 15, 2011. Dr. France first joined the Library of Congress in 2007 as a preservation research scientist. She has more than 20 years’ experience in the field of preservation science.
Allene Hayes was appointed chief of the US/Anglo Division, effective Nov. 21, 2011. She was formerly digital projects coordinator for the ABA Directorate and leader of the Electronic Resources Management System Pilot Team. She served as acting chief of USAN earlier in 2011.
John Hébert, chief of the Geography and Maps Division, retired Aug. 31. His successor is Ralph Ehrenberg, a former chief of G&M who has returned to the Library.
Adrija Henley was appointed permanent chief of the Preservation Reformatting Division, effective Oct. 16, 2011, after serving for several months as acting chief. She was formerly head of the Southeast Europe Section, Germanic and Slavic Division.
Philip Melzer retired as chief of the Asian and Middle Eastern Division on Dec. 31, 2011. Thompson A. (Tom) Yee, formerly assistant chief of the Policy and Standards Division, was reassigned as chief of ASME.
Regina Reynolds was appointed head of the ISSN Publisher Liaison Section, US and Publisher Liaison Division, on Dec. 1, 2011.
John Mark (Mark) Sweeney was appointed chief of the Humanities and Social Sciences Division on Sept. 12, 2011. He was formerly chief of the Serial and Government Publications Division.
The following section heads retired in 2011, since the ALA Annual Conference in New Orleans:
- Eve Dickey, Dewey Section, US General Division, Dec. 31
- Hiroshi Suzuki, Art and Religion Section, US General Division, Dec. 31
- Sharon Tsai, United Kingdom and Ireland Section, US/Anglo Division, Aug. 3
The service unit mourned the deaths of seven treasured staff members from June through December 2011: Larry Dixson (Network Development and MARC Standards Office), Reid Graham (African, Latin American, and Western European Division), Kenneth Henderson (Collections Access, Loan, and Management Division), Oscar Hernandez (ALAWE), Shirley Scott-Davis (US General Division), Letitia Reigle (Dewey Section, USGEN), and Betty Smith (Cooperative Programs Section, Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division).
Bibliographic Framework Transition Initiative
In May 2011 Deanna Marcum, the Associate Librarian for Library Services (now retired), announced an initiative to review the bibliographic framework to better accommodate future needs. A major focus of the initiative is to determine a transition path for the MARC 21 exchange format in order to reap the benefits of newer technology while preserving a robust data exchange that has supported resource sharing and cataloging cost savings in recent decades. In October 2011 a high-level general plan was published on the Initiative Website (URL <www.loc.gov/marc/transition/>) that indicated the approach would be oriented to semantic Web and linked data technology.
Some of the initial “requirements” for the Initiative would be broad accommodation of description rules such as RDA: Resource Description and Access, CCO (Cataloging of Cultural Objects), DACS (Describing Archives: A Content Standard), and others; consideration of all types of metadata (including e.g., preservation, technical, and rights, in addition to traditional catalog descriptive metadata); and consideration of the needs of all types and sizes of libraries. In addition, the Initiative would be sensitive to the existing metadata infrastructure with a continuation of maintenance of MARC as long as needed, development of compatibility with and transition paths for MARC-based records, and collaboration with infrastructure institutions.
This work will be carried out in consultation with the format’s partners -- Library and Archives Canada and the British Library, and the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, other national libraries, the many agencies that provide library services and products, the many MARC user institutions, and the MARC advisory committees such as the MARBI committee of ALA, the Canadian Committee on MARC, and the BIC Bibliographic Standards Group in the UK.
The Library has established a Website at URL <www.loc.gov/marc/transition> that will be the central place for plans, news, and progress of the Bibliographic Framework Transition Initiative. It will indicate formal channels established for working with the community, receiving feedback and input from various sources and stakeholders, and proceeding in this major undertaking. The Library has also established BIBFRAME, an electronic discussion group for constant communication during the effort of reshaping our bibliographic framework. Interested colleagues may subscribe to BIBFRAME from the Website at URL <www.loc.gov/marc/transition>.
Collection Development Office Initiative
For the past sixteen years, the Library has not had a central collections development coordinating office. Under the direction of the Associate Librarian for Library Services, work has been underway to re-establish such a unit, to be called the Collection Development Office (CDO). In August 2010, Library Services issued a document titled, Authorities and Responsibilities of the New Collection Development Office. Currently, administrative steps are being taken to formally establish the Office as an independent entity within Library Services, with completion targeted for later in 2012. The application period for the newly defined position of Collection Development Officer was from Dec. 1-15, 2011.
Specific responsibilities for the CDO will include the following:
- Coordinates collection development activities for all formats, subjects, languages, custodial units, and sources of acquisition.
- Prepares acquisitions plans, annual budgets and collection development targets.
- Creates, reviews and updates, as needed, all collections policy documents.
- Coordinates and/or conducts collection assessments.
- Manages collection development agreements between Library Services and external entities.
- Manages contracts and licenses for electronic materials.
- Coordinates and plans training for all staff directly involved in collection development.
- Provides guidance to Recommending Officers.
- Provides analytical reports and data about the Library’s collections.
- Monitors and reports on the use of all acquisitions funds.
National Book Festival
The 2011 National Book Festival was held Sept. 24-25 and attracted an estimated 200,000 book lovers to the National Mall. The expansion to a two-day program was made possible by the assurance of long-term funding from the donation announced May 6, 2010, of $1 million per year for the next five years from David M. Rubenstein, co-founder and managing director of The Carlyle Group. This year’s festival, with honorary Co-Chairs President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama, featured presentations and book signings by more than 100 bestselling American authors, illustrators and poets including Toni Morrison, Hoda Kotb, Dave Eggers, David McCullough, Terry McMillan, Katherine Paterson, Garrison Keillor and Jim Lehrer. Three new genre pavilions were devoted to the Cutting Edge, Graphic Novels, and State Poets Laureate. The Family Storytelling Stage was again sponsored by corporate sponsor Target. Additional support for the Festival was provided by Charter Sponsors The Washington Post and Wells Fargo; Patrons AT&T, the Institute of Museum and Library Services, The James Madison Council, the National Endowment for the Arts and PBS KIDS; Contributors Barnes & Noble, Digital Bookmobile powered by OverDrive, Penguin Group (USA), ReadAloud.org and Scholastic Inc.; and--Friends of the National Book Festival The Marshall B. Coyne Foundation Inc; the Harper Lee Prize for Legal Fiction; The Hay-Adams and the National Endowment for the Humanities. The Library also thanks C-SPAN2’s Book TV and the Junior League of Washington. See URL <www.loc.gov/bookfest/authors/> for a complete list of participating authors.
US National Libraries RDA Implementation Preparation
As announced in June 2011, the Library of Congress, National Agricultural Library, and National Library of Medicine intend to adopt the new cataloging instructions, RDA: Resource Description and Access (RDA), with certain conditions, and implementation will not occur before Jan. 1, 2013. As part of addressing the conditions identified, about 35 Library of Congress staff members who participated in the US RDA Test resumed applying RDA in November 2011. This will allow the Library to prepare for training, documentation, and other preparatory tasks related to the further development and implementation of RDA.
The US RDA Test Coordinating Committee continues in an oversight role to ensure that the conditions for implementation are met. The nine-member Coordinating Committee is co-chaired by Christopher Cole (NAL), Jennifer Marill (NLM), and Beacher Wiggins (LC). Other LC members are Susan Morris, Dave Reser, Regina Reynolds, and Barbara Tillett.
The Library’s Policy and Standards and Cooperative and Instructional Programs divisions (PSD and COIN) have worked together to develop and deliver training related to RDA for Library of Congress staff and members of the broader community. In fiscal 2011, Judy Kuhagen (now retired from LC), Barbara Tillett, and other members of PSD conducted RDA training in Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Texas, Maryland, Missouri, Louisiana, and Georgia. Owing to intensive interest about RDA in Europe and Latin America, well beyond the Anglo-American constituency out of which RDA grew, Barbara and PSD staff member Ana Cristán continued international outreach from previous years. They conducted workshops and attended conferences in the Czech Republic, Colombia and Mexico (in Spanish), Germany (in German), Italy, and Puerto Rico to speak about RDA and LC’s plans for implementation. Their outreach visits on behalf of RDA were sometimes accompanied by instruction in the theoretical foundations on which RDA rests, namely IFLA’s Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR), Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD), and the International Cataloguing Principles (ICP). Continuing a practice from previous years, PSD translated more training materials into Spanish, as written documents, PowerPoint presentations, and Webcasts. More information about the LC implementation plans, training materials, and documentation can be found at URL <www.loc.gov/aba/rda>.
During summer 2011, PSD prepared nearly a dozen documents for consideration by the Joint Steering Committee for RDA, including proposals for RDA instruction revisions and discussion papers for longer-range development of the code, such as its coverage of subject cataloging and the incorporation of “time” as a separate entity in RDA’s theoretical model. At the October meeting of the JSC, Barbara Tillett was announced as the incoming JSC Chair.
Documentation for the US National Libraries RDA Test were posted at URL <www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/RDAtest/rdatest.html>. The full announcement by LC, NAL, and NLM, an executive summary of the US RDA Test Coordinating Committee report, and the full report of the Coordinating Committee are available on the Testing Resource Description and Access (RDA) Website at URL <www.loc.gov/bibliographic-future/rda/>. Current information on LC’s implementation planning and additional training materials are available at a new Website, URL <www.loc.gov/aba/rda>.
West Africa Project
In fiscal 2011, the Library of Congress commissioned the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC) to test a new model for obtaining materials from important but difficult to access regions of the world. This effort was in response to a study requested by Congress and the General Accounting Office for the Library to explore ways to reduce costs incurred by the Library’s overseas offices. The study revealed West Africa as a region where the Library and other large research libraries have challenges in acquiring materials. CAORC, with its network of independent overseas research centers that maintain a permanent presence in the countries in which they are located, was selected by the Library as the institution for testing an acquisitions model in West Africa. Eleven bibliographic services representatives from mostly francophone countries--Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea Conakry, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal and Togo--were chosen to participate in the first pilot project. All materials received through the project were shipped to the African, Latin American, and Western European Division (ALAWE) for completion of the cataloging process, with the exception of law materials, which were directed from ALAWE to the US & Publisher Liaison Division for whole item cataloging. In its first year of operation, the project yielded 1,355 titles for cataloging, including many titles published in regional areas of West Africa.
Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate
The ABA Directorate now has approximately 500 staff. The directorate mourned the deaths of five treasured staff members from June through Labor Day 2011: Reid Graham, Oscar Hernandez, Shirley Scott-Davis, Letitia Reigle, and Betty Smith. More than 50 nonsupervisory staff retired between Oct. 31 and Nov. 3, 2011, under the Library’s Voluntary Separation Incentive Program. Their positions were abolished when they retired. The VSIP retirees included Antony Franks and Gracie Gilliam of the Cooperative Programs Section. The directorate has been authorized to fill seven section head vacancies in 2012. The directorate plans to examine staffing assignments beginning in early 2012 in order to maintain its high levels of production and its leadership role in cataloging and acquisitions policy and training.
Cataloging Distribution Service
Cataloging in Publication (CIP) Program
Karl Debus-López, chief of the US General Division and acting chief of the US and Publisher Liaison Division, is currently responsible for the Cataloging in Publication program.
The Cataloging in Publication Advisory Group (CAG) will not meet at ALA Midwinter. CAG will meet at the ALA Annual Conference in Anaheim, Calif., in June 2012.
CIP and EPCN Web pages
The CIP and PCN web pages were updated in October 2011. They provide more information on the CIP and EPCN programs than contained on the former pages and much easier access to the ECIP and EPCN application systems for participating publishers. The CIP Page can be found at URL <www.loc.gov/publish/cip>. The PCN page can be found at URL <www.loc.gov/publish/pcn>.
ECIP Cataloging Partnership Program
The new subject-based focus of the ECIP Cataloging in Publication Partnership Program continues to be of great interest to many ECIP partners. The Queens Public Library became independent in ECIP cataloging of selected children’s literature titles. Northwestern University took on the responsibility for cataloging all African studies ECIPs. Cornell University added the cataloging of ECIP titles that focus on Southeast Asian studies. Brigham Young University added a new Mormon publisher and the Mormon publications of general publishers through the addition of a new subject term for Mormonism in the ECIP Traffic Manager. This ensures that it receives all titles related to Mormons and Mormonism. As a Mormon institution, BYU is in a unique position to share its expertise with the Library of Congress. The University of Chicago began cataloging ECIP titles in a variety of subject areas: classics, linguistics, music (selected publishers), and the following area studies: Pakistan, Mongolia, and Russia. The University of Wisconsin Madison began cataloging titles published by the American Society of Microbiology and Stanford University began cataloging the publications of the Hoover Institute.
Two new partners have been added to the program since the last Library of Congress report. Beginning in 2012, the Getty Research Library will catalog the publications of its Research Institute, while the University of Florida will catalog its university press publications.
The Partnership Program has a strong interest in recruiting libraries with science or technology expertise, as these are high-volume subject areas for ECIP applications. If your library is interested in joining the program, please contact Karl Debus-López, Acting Chief of the US and Publisher Liaison Division at [email protected].
The ECIP cataloging partners collectively cataloged 4,617 titles in fiscal 2011. This is an increase of 252 titles over fiscal 2010 production of 4,365 titles.
ECIP E-books Pilot
The ECIP E-books Pilot began on Oct. 11, 2011. Four publishers are currently participating in the pilot: RAND Corporation, the University Press of Mississippi; Wiley, and an imprint of Wiley, Jossey-Bass. The first participating publisher, the University Press of Mississippi, began submitting e-book applications immediately. They have received CIP data for five e-books so far. Wiley and Jossey-Bass have submitted a number of applications and have received data for fourteen e-book titles.
Two other publishers, RAND Corporation and World Bank, expressed interest in joining the pilot after learning about it through a webinar conducted by CIP Program staff for the Professional and Scholarly Publishing Division of the American Association of Publishers. World Bank is still working out details of participation, but RAND joined the pilot and received data for their first e-book application on Dec. 13.
If this pilot is successful, the Library of Congress will be able to provide quality metadata for use by the international library community for electronic books that are simultaneously published with the print version.
Here are examples of e-book records for each publisher/imprint:
- Jossey- Bass: LCCN 2011015807
- RAND Corporation: LCCN 2011051417
- University Press of Miss.: LCCN 2011048940
- Wiley: LCCN 2011051654
Medical ECIPs trial
The Library of Congress began a six month trial on July 1, 2011 to stop assigning Library of Congress Classification (LCC) and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) to clinical medicine titles processed through the ECIP program. During the review period, the National Library of Medicine will continue to provide subject headings from the MeSH vocabulary and NLM classification numbers for these titles. Upon completion of this task, the ECIPs will be forwarded directly to the Dewey Section for final processing. At the post-publication stage, any title selected for the LC permanent collection will be referred to the Science, Technology, and Medicine Section for full LC cataloging. The trial concluded on Dec. 31, 2011, and an evaluation of the project will take place in early 2012.
The project to add American Mathematical Society (AMS) caption terms (converted from AMS classification numbers) continued throughout 2011, following one of the recommendations from On the Record: Report of The Library of Congress Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control. The AMS terms were included in the record in addition to LCSH terms, appearing in MARC 21 field 650 with the second indicator value “7” and the subfield 2 code “msc,” the source code for the Mathematics Subject Classification. Two USPL Science, Technology, and Medicine Section staff members reviewed the terms when they performed the subject analysis needed to add the LCSH terms. They prepared a report, which will be reviewed by appropriate management groups in early 2012.
ABA Cataloging Automation Specialist David Williamson also added BISAC (Book Industry Standards and Communications) Subject Headings to ECIP bibliographic records this year, at the request of ECIP publishers. These headings are extracted automatically from the ONIX data created and supplied by the publishers. The CIP Group will explore adding other specialized vocabularies as the opportunity arises.
ONIX to MARC conversion program
The Library of Congress expanded use of the ONIX/MARC 21 converter software that was developed by cataloging automation specialist David Williamson for converting ONIX data provided by publishers to MARC 21 for ECIP (Electronic Cataloging in Publication) catalog records.The full-scale rollout to all catalogers who handle ECIP records is awaiting security review and approval by the Library’s information technology management. Meanwhile, those catalogers who have been trained in use of the converter program produced 8,499 ONIX-derived bibliographic records in the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 2011, compared to only 2,810 ONIX-derived records in fiscal 2010. The ONIX-to-MARC conversion program is part of the Library’s response to the recommendations of the LC Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control (see URL <www.loc.gov/bibliographic-future>).
- see under Policy and Standards
Cooperative Cataloging Programs/Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division
Program for Cooperative Cataloging
The Cooperative Programs Section of the Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division of ABA provides the secretariat for the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC). The PCC includes a name authority cooperative, NACO; a subject and classification authority cooperative, SACO; and two bibliographic record programs for monographs—BIBCO—and serials—CONSER.
At the PCC Policy Committee Meeting held Nov. 3-4, 2011, at the Library of Congress, most of the discussion concerned the implementation of RDA and the formation of task groups to address implementation and training issues. The decision was made that there will be a PCC Day One for RDA Authority Records. There will be many discussions of these and related topics during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Dallas.
Even with the economic downturn, PCC attracted 42 new institutions in fiscal 2011. Of these 42 institutions, 27 were funnel members and the remainder were individual institutions. The bulk of the new members joined NACO, but every program had some gains. To join PCC, an institution must participate in the NACO program and receive training. Some of these institutions are also participating in other PCC programs, namely BIBCO, CONSER, and SACO. By the end of the fiscal year, there were 799 PCC member institutions active in one or more of the constituent programs: NACO, SACO, BIBCO, and CONSER. A considerable number of the active PCC member institutions participate through funnels.
The Getty Research Institute joined both BIBCO and the ECIP Cataloging Partnership Program in December 2011. Louise Ratliff of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) served as trainer for Getty, and she will review Getty’s BIBCO records until it achieves independence.
The PCC BIBCO program implemented BIBCO Standard Records (BSR) on Oct. 1, 2011 for Archival Collections and for Supplemental Requirements for Electronic Monographic Resources (Remote and Direct Access) other than Leader/06=Computer Files Materials. At the same time, the PCC implemented the revised Provider-Neutral E-Monograph MARC Record Guide, expanded to cover all formats, not just textual monographs. The Standing Committee on Standards prepared all three of the new documents.
In September 2011 CONSER members successfully completed a pilot of the Open Access Journal Project (see URL <www.loc.gov/acq/conser/Open-Access-Project.html>). CONSER plans to continue the project for another year. This cooperative cataloging project targeted over 1200 e-serials in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) that did not previously have CONSER records associated with them. Twenty-five CONSER institutions contributed unique CONSER records for electronic resources in over 29 different languages. The work was distributed among participants by language and subject expertise. The projected demonstrated a cooperative model for successfully providing metadata for resources in a large scholarly collection.
Update 20 of the CONSER Editing Guide (CEG) was published in fiscal 2011. The update includes changes in MARC coding and PCC practices that CONSER implemented in the past several years. The update includes guidelines for the repeatable 260 field, the new MARC field 588 Source of description.
Integrating Resources: A Cataloging Manual was updated in 2011 by members of a task force from BIBCO and CONSER. The manual (see URL <www.loc.gov/catdir/pcc/bibco/irman.pdf>) serves as the primary documentation for cataloging integrating resources in both the BIBCO and CONSER programs.
The Minaret Subject Proposal System for proposing new and updated LCSH headings was implemented on Aug. 1, 2011. The Minaret Subject Proposal System is a Classification Web product that allows contributors to work directly in a copy of the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) database. SACO members may contribute new LCSH subject headings for topics, geographic names, fictitious characters, and buildings through the Minaret Subject Proposal System. This new mode of contribution adds multiple efficiencies to the SACO workflow; these efficiencies benefit both SACO contributors and CP Section staff working with SACO proposals.
National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections (NUCMC)
NUCMC accessions of cataloging data totaled 2,770 in fiscal year 2011. Staff worked with sixty-five repositories located in Arkansas, California, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington (State), Wisconsin, and Wyoming. Nineteen of the repositories (29%) were new participants to the NUCMC program. Since the NUCMC program’s inception in 1959 it has worked with approximately 1,800 repositories.
NUCMC staff produced 3,867 OCLC bibliographic records during the fiscal year. Since the NUCMC program’s inception in 1959 it has produced approximately 125,615 bibliographic records.
The first installment of the five year NUCMC Web observance of the Civil War sesquicentennial was mounted on the NUCMC Website (see URL <www.loc.gov/coll/nucmc>) in January 2011 and highlighted NUCMC cataloging of the last quarter century as well as related visual content. This first installment focused on the causes of the war, the election of Abraham Lincoln, the secession crisis, the outbreak of hostilities, mobilizing for war, foreign public opinion, and the press. Planning subsequently proceeded for the second installment of the Web observance that is scheduled for mounting in January 2012 and will focus on personal narratives of members of the Union and Confederate armed forces. Future installments of the Web observance will focus on the sesquicentennial of the Emancipation Proclamation and the African-American experience from slavery to the end of the war (2013); the home front, women in the war, the role of charitable organizations, economic aspects of the war, and patriotic societies (2014); and the sesquicentennial of the death of Abraham Lincoln, Reconstruction, Confederate exiles, war memorials, and the rise of veterans’ organizations (2015).
Children’s and Young Adults’ Cataloging Program
The new Children’s and Young Adults’ Cataloging Program Website was launched in November (see URL <www.loc.gov/aba/cyac>).
CYAC (pronounced "kayak") is the Children’s and Young Adults’ Cataloging Program at the Library of Congress. The Children's Literature Section, under the US and Publisher Liaison Division (USPL), is responsible for administering the CYAC Program. The program provides cataloging for material published in the United States for children and young adults, and tailors the cataloging to meet the specific needs of our primary users, school and public libraries. The site provides descriptive and subject cataloging practices followed by the CYAC Program as well as other resources for the cataloging of children’s literature.
The Dewey assistant editors, Dr. Julianne Beall and Dr. Rebecca Green, continued to work in the Editorial Support System to update data for DDC 23. The Dewey editorial staff members also continued to assist translation partners in the development of several translations of the Dewey Decimal Classification. They moved forward on the Arabic and Swedish translations.
The last half of 2011 saw continued advances in the eDeposit Program, which provides for the receipt of electronic serials demanded under Copyright law into the Library’s collection. The Library continues to develop the necessary workflows, procedures and infrastructure to support the receipt of these serials and actually began to receive the first issues this past year. Since they are Copyright serial receipts, they are the responsibility of the USGEN Serials – Arts, Humanities & Sciences Section and the USGEN Serials – Social Sciences Section to process and catalog. The Library Services Project Manager for eDeposit, Theron (Ted) Westervelt, is also Head of the USGEN Serials – Arts, Humanities and Sciences Section.
Dr. Westervelt coordinated the work of staff in other service units on this project and worked with his counterpart section head in USGEN Serials – Social Sciences, Ms. Kristie Muldrow, to initiate the two serials sections into working with eDeposit receipts as part of their regular workload. Since this is a period in which the Library needs to learn how to develop and improve the systems and workflows implemented for eDeposit, a limited number of staff was chosen to work on the project: four technicians and three catalogers. The work of the pilot staff has allowed the Division to add more than 490 issues of e-serials to the Library’s collection to date, while also providing essential feedback which has allowed for improvements for each version of the software and each update of the workflow. With the integration of the processing systems in the Office of Strategic Initiatives – the Content Transfer System (CTS) and the Delivery Management System (DMS) – with the eCO system in Copyright in October 2011, eDeposit project staff can focus their energies on the next round of improvements in the workflow tracking mechanisms in the CTS and DMS and on the integration of the LC ILS with those two systems, with a goal of expanding the scale of eDeposit for the Library in 2012.
The Web Duplicate Material Exchange (DMEP) program works in conjunction with thousands of LC partner institutions worldwide who exchange duplicate works from their collections for duplicate works from LC. The Web DMEP application, created by an offsite vendor and hosted offsite, provides Shopping Cart and Inventory displays for the program. The LC Information Technology Services Directorate this year completed work begun in 2010 to bring the current Web DMEP application within the LC firewall and ensure that it met LC information technology security requirements. Staff of ABA began testing the results in the second half of fiscal 2011.
The International Digital Exchange Assessment Project (IDEA) seeks to establish exchange of electronic government publications between the Library of Congress and international agencies in order to sustain the free flow of government information among countries and provide library users with access to international publications in a systematic way. In fiscal 2011, the National Library of France and the National Library of Chile began active participation. The ALAWE Division selected 50 sample titles of Websites that were harvested by the Library of Congress from the National Library of France for the project.
The directorate expanded its print exchange programs to include the Bosnjacki Institut Fondacija Adila Zulfikarpascia (Bosnia), Stopanska akademiia-Svishtov (Bulgaria), Cesky Archeologicky Ustav (Czech Republic), Politechnika Lubelska (Poland), and Shanxi University at Taiyuan (China).
The Government Documents Section, US/Anglo Division, sent 12,402 items to International Exchange Service partners. These items included subscription mailings, claims filled, and congressional hearings.
In addition, other sections sent 26,190 items (primarily excess books received from Copyright or through the CIP program) to exchange partners through the DMEP Website and other methods. The Library selected 122,954 items received via exchange for its own collections, making exchange a very cost-effective acquisitions technique.
Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek (EZB)
The Library continued its commitment to membership in the Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek (EZB) which is managed by the Univesity of Regensburg in Germany to allow users direct access to thousands of e-journals published in various European countries. The Germanic and Slavic Division strove to update more than 20,000 aggregator titles indicated on the LC EZB Web pages and to provide a channel through which additional packages not available to other EZB member libraries could be added. In December 2011 LC added more than 30,000 publicly available journals, from a list of titles that was compiled by EZB members and provided to Serials Solutions, to our E-Resources Online Catalog. The same titles are also available directly from the EZB.
ISSN for Archiving Projects
The potential future need for large numbers of ISSN assignments to long-ceased serials being digitized by HathiTrust and other projects has been brought to the attention of the US ISSN Center. A collaboration between the ISSN International Centre (IC) and the PEPRS Project (now called thekeepers.org) will likely result in requests for ISSN to be assigned to at least those HathiTrust serials in the public domain. In addition to mass digitization projects, collaborations for long-term storage of print serials will require ISSN to be assigned to older print serials that libraries are sending to off-site storage.
Core e-Journals Project
To ensure ISSN coverage of high research interest serials, the ISSN International Centre periodically assigns projects to the ISSN network libraries. The US ISSN Center received a list of 2,822 titles of core e-journals as identified by the ISSN International Centre. The ISSN staff are currently assigning ISSN or updating records as needed. Staff determined that many titles, especially those in the EBSCO and FirstSearch databases, were not e-serials in their own right and did not assign ISSN to them. Under the ISSN policy currently in place, no separate ISSN were assigned to reproductions only available from JSTOR, HathiTrust and Google Books.
ISSN and Historic US Serials
ISSN are being assigned to the print titles in ProQuest’s American Periodicals Series. At the request of the Serial and Government Publications Division, ISSN were assigned to print versions of 162 historic American newspapers digitized in the Chronicling America project. When the new policy for assigning a separate ISSN to online digital reproductions is implemented, the online versions of the titles in both of these collections will be eligible for separate ISSN assignments.
Law Library support
In June, staff started to assign genre-form terms to legal materials. A subset of 19 common terms will be applied to English language receipts. If the Law Section cataloger feels comfortable with assigning the common terms to foreign language titles, they may do so.
New Law Classification Schedules
Several new classification schedules were released recently, and the USPL Law Section has started to apply them. These include KBS (Canon law of Eastern Churches), KBT (Canon law of Eastern rite churches in communion with Rome), and KIA-KIX (Law of Indigenous Peoples in the Americas.)
At the request of the Policy Support Division, the Law Section reclassed about 800 international law titles from the K schedule to the new portions of the KZ schedule. The Section was assisted in this effort by law classification specialist Ms. Jolande Goldberg (PSD) and by Mr. George Prager, who was on sabbatical from the New York University Law Library.
Reclass of LAW 7 titles
Law Section catalogers continued to reclass legal treatises originally classed in LAW. Since the project began, 59,980 titles have been reclassed. Catalogers are currently focusing on Italy, Japan, and Russia.
Policy and Standards: Bibliographic Description
Resumption of RDA Cataloging
- see under LIBRARY SERVICES
Library of Congress Policy Statements
The Library of Congress Policy Statements (LCPSs) are statements for use with RDA: Resource Description & Access, in much the same way that the Library of Congress Rule Interpretations (LCRIs) were used in conjunction with AACR2. First developed for use by LC cataloging staff during the US RDA Test in 2010, the LCPSs have been updated for various reasons: corrections and clarifications to the original LCPSs; deletion of some LCPSs to better reflect reliance on cataloger judgment; changes to LC policy based on the experiences of testers at LC and elsewhere; and consultations with other national libraries. More than 100 LCPSs were deleted, added, or modified, and the additions and modifications were made available in the online RDA Toolkit in November 2011. More than 80 LCPSs were adjusted for publication in January 2012.
The current versions of LCPSs are freely available as part of the RDA Toolkit, and are also available via Cataloger's Desktop. The Policy and Standards Division (PSD) maintains a list of current LCPSs, and a brief summary of changes at URL <www.loc.gov/aba/rda/lcps_access.html>. Several other RDA-related resources (e.g., RDA Vocabularies, LC Documentation for the US RDA Test, Information and Resources in Preparation for RDA, RDA-L, JSC Website) have also been fully integrated into Cataloger's Desktop and are searchable using Desktop's integrated search engine. RDA itself is available in Cataloger’s Desktop to libraries with separate RDA Toolkit subscriptions.
2011 was a very productive year for romanization table development. Four new or revised ALA-LC tables were completed (Judeo-Arabic, Persian in non-Arabic scripts, Thai, and Vai). Three new or revised tables are currently receiving constituent review (Khmer revision, Syriac new, Tamazight new) with discussion by CC:AAM (Committee for Cataloging: Asian and African Materials) scheduled for the ALA Midwinter Meeting. An additional nine new or revised tables are in development. At least two (Manchu, Shan) should be ready for constituent review in the next few months.
The Policy and Standards Division has been working on converting older ALA-LC romanization tables to Microsoft Word. This effort generates PDF files that are much easier to read and can be searched. In coming months the source Word DOC files will be posted to the LC Website to make table revision significantly easier. To date 36 of the 58 romanization tables have been converted. It is hoped that the remainder will be completed during 2012. Questions about ALA-LC romanization tables should be emailed to Bruce Johnson ([email protected]) in PSD.
Virtual International Authority File (VIAF)
In the past year, the VIAF has grown to include more than 20 million source authority records and nearly 100 million associated bibliographic records from 25 different participating institutions. As of September 2011 searching and matching now include uniform titles along with personal and corporate names. For uniform titles, VIAF attempts to match records for works and expressions across sources and create clusters for them, as well as to link authors to their works and expressions. At this time no attempt has been made to incorporate information from bibliographic records into the work and expression clusters, but this is expected to take place over the next year. Usage of the VIAF has been increasing with more than 30,000 visits from 116 countries/territories reported in October 2011 and more than 6 million hits per month from automated systems such as Web harvesters or other programs. There has been a notable increase in sites that have links to VIAF for names.
Policy and Standards: Classification and Subject Analysis
LC Classification (LCC)
Available from the Cataloging Distribution Service [email protected] is the new print 2011 edition of D-DR (History (General) and History of Europe). Also available from CDS is a new edition of Library of Congress Classification: JZ and KZ: Historical Notes and Introduction to Application. Prepared by law classification specialist Jolande Goldberg, this publication replaces the 1997 edition and provides insight into the development process, governing policies, and underlying structure to aid the user in applying LCC subclasses JZ and KZ. Both new publications are included in Classification Web.
New Subject Heading Proposal System
On Aug. 1, 2011, the Policy and Standards Division (PSD) implemented a new system for making LC subject heading proposals, and for the maintenance of subject authority records. All subject authority work is now done in the new Minaret system. The system is also capable of producing the data for the annual printed editions of LCSH.
LCSH Genre/Form Update
Development of Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials (LCGFT) is ongoing.
Moving images: In August 2011, PSD posted a discussion paper, “Cancellation of LCGFT character- and franchise-based terms for moving images.” A review of the responses showed that there was general support for the plan. Approximately 90 gene/form terms will therefore be cancelled in February 2012. The full announcement of this decision can be found at URL <www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/character_franchise_disposition.pdf>.
- Music: The Music Library Association (MLA) continues to partner with PSD to develop genre/form terms in the area of music. A separate, but related, project to develop medium of performance as a separate facet is described below, under Music Medium of Performance Project.
- Religion: The American Theological Library Association (ATLA) and PSD have partnered to develop the genre/form terms in the area of religion, and ATLA is also coordinating the participation of smaller library organizations organized around religion, such as the Catholic Library Association.
- Literature: PSD has begun the process of examining LCSH for subject headings that denote literary forms and genres. Approximately 400 terms that are candidates for inclusion in LCGFT have been identified to date.
Further information on LC’s genre/form projects, including an extensive FAQ, timeline, discussion papers and announcements, is available on PSD’s Website at URL <www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/genreformgeneral.html>.
Music Medium of Performance Project
Developing new means of access to music by its medium of performance is a major by-product for the music community of the development of music vocabulary for Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials (LCGFT). Medium of performance is out of scope for LCGFT, and we have come to recognize medium as an entirely separate bibliographic facet for music, neither genre/form (LCGFT) nor topic (LCSH), that requires a separate controlled vocabulary. It is recognized as a separate identifying characteristic (element) in RDA. The Library of Congress has been collaborating with the Music Library Association on medium of performance vocabulary as it has been for LCGFT vocabulary. We are readying a list of approximately 800 terms to be posted on the LC genre/form Website that represents the vocabulary we have agreed on so far as candidates for this new controlled vocabulary. Several small categories of terms are still under discussion and will be posted later. The other major aspect of this project is to determine how medium of performance should be coded in the MARC 21 bibliographic and authority formats. The MLA Subject Access Subcommittee has sent ALA MARBI a proposal addressing this issue. It will be on MARBI’s agenda for the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Dallas.
In August 2011, PSD undertook a project to update LCSH and LCC to reflect the establishment of South Sudan as an independent country. Of the over 300 subject headings for historical time periods, ethnic groups, indigenous languages and literatures, geographic features (e.g., rivers), and man-made structures (e.g., bridges) of Sudan, approximately 200 had to be revised. The revisions and several new headings were approved on Oct. 14, 2011. A new LC Classification span for South Sudan, DT159.915-159.978, was also approved on the same date, as were revisions to the schedule for Sudan (DT154.1-159.9), where cutters for ethnic groups that are now in South Sudan have been cancelled and parenthesized, and the captions for the general and local histories of the country have also been revised.
Program for Cooperative Cataloging
Shelf-ready cataloging enables LC and many US research and academic institutions to use the language skills and cataloging capacity of the vendor community to provide their institutions with cataloging and physical processing services. The ALAWE Division managed two shelf-ready cataloging programs with vendors Casalini Libri of Florence, Italy, and Garcia Cambeiro of Buenos Aires, Argentina, that brought nearly 5,000 shelf-ready titles to the Library’s collections. The Northeast Asia Section, ASME, received 150 high-quality whole book cataloging records from the Kinokuniya Co., and 500 descriptive cataloging records from another Japanese vendor, Japan Publishing Trading Co. (JPTC). Full level bibliographic records from the National Diet Library of Japan (NDL) also helped the section process high volumes of gift and exchange materials. The Library entered into an agreement with the China National Publications Import and Export Co. (CNPIEC) for CNPIEC to perform core cataloging for up to 600 titles and enter the records into OCLC.
US General (USGEN) and US and Publisher Liaison (USPL) Divisions Organizational Review
Library of Congress management is reviewing a proposal to reorganize the US General and US and Publisher Liaison divisions. The reorganization proposes: 1) creation of a new US Arts, Sciences, and Humanities (USASH) Division to focus principally on subject expertise, production work, and ABA liaison work with the Copyright Office and the new Collection Development Office; and, 2) creation of a new US Programs, Law, and Literature Division (USPRLL) to focus principally on support of the Cataloging in Publication (CIP), Children’s and Young Adults’ Cataloging (CYAC), Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), and Electronic Preassigned Control Number (EPCN) programs and serve as the principal ABA liaison to the Library of Congress Law Library. The reorganization will help the two divisions absorb the loss of 22 staff who voluntarily retired in November 2011 and will ultimately provide greater support for the critical program and production areas that build the Library of Congress’ core collection of US national imprints.
Library of Congress Acquisitions and Cataloging Production
|Items purchased for LC collections||1,904,478||1,080,021||1,263,411|
|Items acquired for LC by non-purchase||713,050||818,112||599,377|
|Expenditures for collections purchases||$28,392,920.65||$21,693,550.45||$19,300,000|
*ABA Directorate production only
|Bibliographic Records Completed||FY2011||FY2010*||FY2009*|
|Minimal level cataloging||18,702||15,088||12,834|
|Total records completed||391,974||272,422||243,884|
|Total volumes cataloged||524,812||365,725||313,182|
*ABA Directorate production only
**Core-level or Bibliographic Standard Records
|New name authority records||84,207||103,525||171,124|
|New LC Subject Headings***||8,512||53,900||22,344|
|New LC Classification Numbers||3,222||2,674||2,800|
|Total authority records created||95,941||160,099||136,871|
*ABA Directorate production only
***FY10 included subject-subdivision strings to support automated validation.
Collections and Services Directorate
Collections Access, Loan and Management Division (CALM)
The Collections Access, Loan and Management Division continues to transfer special format collections from Capitol Hill to the most recently opened collections storage modules at Ft. Meade. As of the close of fiscal 2011, 164,000 trackable containers of special format collections have been relocated to the Ft. Meade facility. Special format collections (e.g., maps, manuscripts, folios, prints, photographs, bound US and foreign newspapers, and three dimensional objects) are now preserved in a 50 degree Fahrenheit, 30% rh environment at Ft. Meade. Also, more than 500,000 reels of microfilm, all housed in 12-reel containers, are now preserved in cold storage rooms maintained year round at 35 degrees Fahrenheit, 30% rh. The Library is now in the third year of a major transfer program, at the end of which a total of 237,000 trackable containers of special format collections will permanently reside at Ft. Meade. The Library continues to provide twice-daily delivery service between Capitol Hill and Ft. Meade, thus making collections quickly available when requested by researchers.
Geography and Map Division
The Geography and Map Division’s online outreach reached a new high in fiscal year 2011 with nearly 1.1 million visits to the “Maps and Geography” section of the Library’s website and nearly 8 million maps viewed.
Collaborations with other governmental agencies and libraries are a particularly effective way of sharing the extraordinary scope and richness of the collections and the expertise of the division’s talented staff. As a recent example, the Geography and Map Division is working with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Archives and Record Administration to identify, scan and make available online the entire archive of USGS quadrangles. This comprehensive collection will provide researchers with an historical record of the mapping of the entire nation. A second example, this time on an international level, is the preservation and digitization of four more items from the division’s Korean cartographic collections, funded by the National Library of Korea. These online materials will join 30 other unique Korean map scrolls and sheets and more than 30,000 maps in American Memory.
The Cataloging Hidden Special Collections grant from the Council on Library and Information Resources focused on cataloging and therefore making broadly accessible the division’s African set maps. By the end of the fiscal year, 355 sets with more than 25,000 map sheets had been completed. An experimental geospatial web delivery platform, using Google Earth, was developed with the aim of allowing readers to search the data by keyword and geospatially.
The Division launched “Places in History,” a companion online site to “Places in the News.” “Places in History” provides access to historical maps that are related to current events, such as the 150th anniversary of the beginning of the Civil War. Also being launched is a monthly update of newly digitized maps on the “Map Collections” of the American Memory site.
The first Twitter outreach by a collection division at the Library, [email protected] made its debut on June 22, 2011. The goal is to engage librarians, researchers, genealogists, the general public and map collectors with daily news about recently acquired collection items, website features, digitized maps and other interesting information about the division.
Humanities and Social Sciences Division (HSS)
Only a Driver’s License (photo identification) is required to register to use Library’s Reading Rooms!
Outreach: Connecting Users with LC’s Collections
Research Orientations. HSS reading rooms are open to researchers age 16 and over at time of reader registration. Staff taught a total of 238 research orientation classes to 3,197 researchers in both regularly scheduled programs offered by the Main Reading Room and the Local History and Genealogy Reading Room, as well as special request subject orientations. Presentations were offered to a wide variety of institutions: Semester in Washington Programs (American University, Boston University, Ohio State University, State University of New York at Bridgeport); Heritage Foundation; Stanford Alumni; University of Maryland Undergraduate Scholars Program; Cape Cod Genealogical Society; New England Historic Genealogical Society; Central Jersey Genealogical Club; and Family History Class, Georgetown University.
Programs Sponsored by HSS. Ruth Ann Hager spoke about her book Dred and Harriet Scott: Their Family Story on Sept. 27, 2011. She is a certified genealogist, and works at the St. Louis County Public Library, Mo.
Publications/Bibliographies/ WebGuides. LH&G Web Pages: Reference Specialists in the LH&G Reading Room compiled key resources for pursuing family history, and state, county and municipal historical research by state. To date, 11 States have been completed and added to the page: Resources for Local History and Genealogy by State at URL <www.loc.gov/rr/genealogy/bib_guid/states/states_intro.html>.
Main Reading Room Open Houses. The Main Reading Room opened for a number of special public and private events. The National Book Festival Authors Reception was on Friday evening, Sept. 23, 2011. The Main Reading Room doors opened at 7:30 p.m. and the last guests left the Main Reading Room at 10:30 p.m. Approximately 310 people attended.
Sept. 30, 2011 Initiative for Russian Culture (IRC) had a dinner and program which included the Main Reading Room being open from 9:15 – 11:30 p.m. Approximately 290 people came in. Many of the students had used LC for their research.
On the Oct. 10, 2011 Columbus Day holiday, the Main Reading Room was open to public touring from 10:00 to 3:00. Over 3000 visitors came through the doors. Many did not realize that the Main Reading Room was open to anyone 16 and older.
Clint Eastwood directed Leonardo DiCaprio in J. Edgar, a movie about J. Edgar Hoover, who worked at the Library of Congress as a young person on March 26-27, 2011.
The Division responded to a total of 7,089 Ask a Librarian electronic requests in fiscal 2011.
Collection Development and Acquisitions
Growth of the Microform Custodial Collections: After the receipt of 118,142 items in fiscal 2011, the microform custodial collection grew to an estimated 8,516,918 items.
Growth of the Machine-Readable Custodial Collections: During fiscal 2011, the Machine-Readable custodial collections received 2,888 items, of which 2,430 were printed monographs and serials with disks and 458 were computer file CD-ROMs. The MRC collection at the end of fiscal 2011 totaled 90,258 items.
Key acquisitions. C19: the Nineteenth Century Index - A comprehensive source for discovering nineteenth-century books, periodicals, official documents, newspapers and archives. C19 Index draws on the strength of established print indexes to create integrated bibliographic coverage of over 1.7 million books and official publications, 70,000 archival collections and 20.9 million articles published in over 2,500 journals, magazines and newspapers.
Microform acquisitions included: Students for a Democratic Society Papers plus its printed finding aid. The papers contain more than 80,000 pages of records and publications of campus opposition to the establishment; Civil Rights and Social Activism in the South. This collection includes papers of local organizations of the Civil Rights Movement.
Approximately 160 books written by former volunteers and staff were sent to Representative Garamendi's office on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Peace Corps. The books were primarily about the Peace Corps experience and history; Yves Saint Laurent: Haute Coutur—L’oeuvre Integral, 1962-2002. Distributed by Harry Abrams and limited distribution in the United States to 100 copies. This catalogue of Yves St. Laurent designs includes four portfolios of loose sheets (276 per volume) which are in order by year and season, a 96-page booklet, and an album of designs and history.
During fiscal 2011, HSS received 342 gift books and periodicals including 197 genealogies sent to LH&G, 115 books written by Peace Corps volunteers, and 35 issues of Harvard Gay and Lesbian Review, all of 1994-1999.
National Audiovisual Center/Packard Campus
The Library opened a 200-seat theater in the state-of-the-art Packard Campus of the National Audiovisual Conservation Center on Mount Pony, near Culpeper, Va., on Sept. 4, 2008. The theater is one of only five in the US equipped to show original classic film prints on nitrate film stock as they would have been screened in theaters prior to 1950. The Mount Pony theater also features a custom-made organ that can rise from a pit in the stage. The theater is located on the ground floor of the Packard Campus of the National Audiovisual Conservation Center, 19053 Mount Pony Rd., Culpeper, Va.
All Packard Campus programs are free and open to the public. For reservation information, call (540) 827-1079 extension 79994 or (202) 707-9994 during business hours beginning one week before any given screening. For further information on the theater and film series, visit URL <www.loc.gov/avconservation/theater/>.
National Film Registry. On Dec. 28, 2011, Librarian of Congress James H. Billington announced the 25 culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant films that have been added to the National Film Registry for 2011. For each title named to the registry, the Library of Congress Packard Campus for Audio Visual Conservation works to ensure that the film is preserved for future generations, either through the Library’s massive motion-picture preservation program or through collaborative ventures with other archives, motion-picture studios and independent filmmakers. The films added in 2011 are: Allures (1961); Bambi (1942); The Big Heat (1953); A Computer Animated Hand (1972); Crisis: Behind a Presidential Commitment (1963); The Cry of the Children (1912); A Cure for Pokeritis (1912); El Mariachi (1992); Faces (1968); Fake Fruit Factory (1986); Forrest Gump (1994); Growing Up Female (1971); Hester Street (1975); I, an Actress (1977); The Iron Horse (1924); The Kid (1921); The Lost Weekend (1945); The Negro Soldier (1944); Nicholas Brothers Family Home Movies (1930s-1940s); Norma Rae (1979); Porgy and Bess (1959); The Silence of the Lambs (1991); Stand and Deliver (1988); Twentieth Century (1934); and War of the Worlds (1953).
Prints and Photographs Division (P&P)
The Prints and Photographs Division offers many services at URL <www.loc.gov/rr/print/>. For ongoing information about newly available collections and recent and upcoming activities, see "What's New" at URL <www.loc.gov/rr/print/whatsnew.html>.
Prints & Photographs Online Catalog (see URL <www.loc.gov/pictures>). Easy-to-use features for searching, browsing, and sharing are now available. The visually inviting design and improved indexing resulted from a rapid rescue project to replace 15-year old software.
Flickr Commons Pilot Project. New sets feature “Civil War in 3D,” “Gottlieb Jazz Photos,” and “Civil War Faces” at URL <www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/sets/ >. The Flickr project background information is at URL <www.loc.gov/rr/print/flickr_pilot_faq.html>.
New Collections Online
African American military photographs: The William A. Gladstone Collection provides almost 350 images showing African Americans and related military and social history. The Civil War era is the primary time period covered at URL <www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/gld/>.
Civil War soldiers: The Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs offers more than 700 ambrotype and tintype photographs highlighting both Union and Confederate enlisted men at URL <www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/lilj/ >.
Sikkim photographs: This selection of 300 images from the Dr. Alice S. Kandell Collection portrays the people and places of a kingdom high in the Himalaya Mountains, primarily 1965-1971 at URL: <www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/kskm/> .
Online Reference Aids: Illustrated English Language Periodicals. This overview lists some of the most popular illustrated periodicals, offers information on how to find pictures in them, and provides a select bibliography about their development. View online at URL <www.loc.gov/rr/print/coll/illperiod.html>.
Women Photojournalists: Jessie Tarbox Beals. Known as America's first female news photographer, Beals’ tenacity and self-promotion in her later freelance work set her apart in a competitive field through the 1920s at URL < www.loc.gov/rr/print/coll/womphotoj/bealsessay.html>.
New Acquisition: Civil War Stereoviews. More than 1,000 rare early stereograph views by George Stacy document scenes in New York City and parts of New York State, as well as the Civil War. More than fifty stereograph cards from the Civil War era have been digitized. View sampler of 50 Civil War images online.
Serial and Government Publications Division (SER)
Collection Activities. The Serial & Government Publications Division completed a retrospective conversion project to create publicly available holdings statements in the LC integrated library system (ILS) for all United States newspaper microfilm held in the division, converting a manual card file dating back to the division’s first newspaper filming efforts of the mid-twentieth century. As a result of this project, more than 5,500 US newspaper holdings records were created or updated, representing over 590,000 reels of microfilm.
Work continues on the transfer of US bound newspaper volumes from the Landover Annex to the new climate-controlled Ft. Meade high-density storage facility. The complete US newspaper transfer will be completed by December, 2011.
Newspaper Topic Guides. The Serial & Government Publications Division continues to develop short newspaper collection research guides called Topics in Chronicling America,in support of the National Digital Newspaper Program. The pages represent widely covered historic subjects and social phenomenon in the American press. Subjects are as varied as baseball’s Bloomer Girls, the Sinking of the Titanic, The Roller Skating Craze, Butch Cassidy, Serge de Diaghilev and the Ballet Russes (Russian Ballet), and Lizzie Borden. Topics Pages offer students, teachers, genealogists, and scholars an introductory access point to Chronicling America’s digitized pages, but are also complimentary to Library of Congress newspaper holdings that aren’t yet digitized.
RSS feed. Chronicling America offers a weekly notification service. Readers may subscribe for free to this RSS (Really Simple Syndication) service, which provides updates on new content, points of interest, research, and re-use of the Chronicling America digitized newspapers (see the Subscribe feature or URL <www.loc.gov/rss/ndnp/ndnp.xml>) and recent additions can be monitored using the “Recent Additions” RSS feed (see URL <chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/newspapers/feed>). To subscribe to a feed, select the Subscribe button under the blue Chronicling America search bar. Users can select the RSS link to access regular updates through an RSS reader (or RSS-enabled Web browser) or click on the e-mail link to subscribe to regular e-mails about the site.
National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP) – Chronicling America. The National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP), a partnership between the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the Library of Congress (LC), is a long-term effort to develop an Internet-based, searchable resource for US newspaper bibliographic information and selected digitized historic content through the Chronicling America Website at URL <chroniclingamerica.loc.gov>. This site is hosted by the Library of Congress and made freely available to the general public. This rich digital resource will eventually include content contributed by all US states and territories.
Chronicling America now provides access to more than four million newspaper pages, digitized by 22 states and the Library of Congress. These historic newspapers include more than 500 titles published between 1860 and 1922 in Arizona, California, the District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Virginia, and Washington. The site also includes an extensive Newspaper Directory of US newspaper titles published between 1690 and the present (approximately 140,000 bibliographic records) as well as associated library holdings information, and linked to digitized pages, when available. In May 2011, the Website was upgraded to take advantage of technology advances and provide new ways to access the newspapers. Features of the site include 100 Years Ago Today; full-text search from every screen; tools to connect with social networks; a downloadable “All Digitized Newspapers” list of available digitized titles with start and end dates, LCCNs, and ISSNs; full-screen views, and improved navigation between search results, as well more than 300 contextual essays regarding the historical significance of each digitized newspaper. To encourage a wide range of potential uses, Chronicling America provides content through open protocols and an API and publishes the application as the LC Newspaper Viewer on the SourceForge open-source software directory. The site is updated every two months with new content received from NDNP awardees and LC collections. By the end of 2011, the site will include more than 4 million pages, published between 1836 and 1922 from 25 states and the District of Columbia.
In late September 2011, support for French and Spanish language newspapers was added. The program was also able to update the application infrastructure to switch from quarterly content loads to ongoing ingestion and indexing. The wait time from receipt of drives at the Library to availability on the site has been reduced by weeks. Infrastructure changes were made in the application at the same time that have improved overall performance.
In September 2011, Chronicling America contained 4,298,103 pages. Last, but not least, Chronicling America continued work with the Office of Strategic Initiatives’ Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that are generating more and more use across the Web. The content is available via an OpenSearch endpoint, it is available as Linked Data and RDF, with RDFa embedded in the HTML views that match those in the LC Prints and Photographs Online Catalog. Recent uses include projects at the Newberry Library and at the Bill Lane Center for the American West, Stanford University.
Additional information about the NDNP program is available from the NDNP Website (see URL <www.loc.gov/ndnp>) describing the program, current awardees, selection guidelines, technical conversion specifications for historic newspapers, and sustainable development plans. In addition, the site provides access to the program and technical guidelines for the annual NEH program competition. The competition for the 2012 awards closed on Jan. 17, 2012. The awardees are expected to be announced in July.
Partnerships and Outreach Programs Directorate (POP)
American Folklife Center
- see also Veterans History Project (VHP)
Elizabeth “Betsy” Peterson was appointed director of the AFC, effective Jan. 16, 2012. She holds a doctorate in folklore from Indiana University and is a highly respected folklorist, consultant, and leader in increasing awareness and funding for folklore studies. She succeeds Peggy Bulger, who retired from the Library on Dec. 31, 2011.
- see also Library of Congress Exhibit Booth
The Office of Business Enterprises was created to merge and manage three of Library Services’ fee-based services: Cataloging Distribution Service, The Library Shop, and Duplication Services. All three business units that make up the Office of Business Enterprises (BE) were represented for the first time at the LC booth at ALA Annual Conference in Washington, DC, in June 2010.
The Library Shop features both Library of Congress-related items and other items of interest to Library visitors. Visit the Library Shop online at URL www.loc.gov/shop or visit the shop in the Thomas Jefferson Building, ground floor, just inside the main entrance. Duplication Services provides expanded access to the collections of the Library of Congress through a wide variety of high quality reproduction services. These services are designed to meet the needs of scholars, publishers, libraries, institutions, researchers, and the general public for photocopies, photographs, microfilm, or digital copies of materials in the Library of Congress. See URL <www.loc.gov/preserv/pds>.
Cataloging Distribution Service
Cataloging Distribution Service (CDS), a unit of the Office of Business Enterprises (BE), packages, publishes, and distributes the Library’s cataloging records and cataloging-related publications, tools, and resources for the catalogers within the Library and for libraries around the world. CDS presents its products and services in the LC exhibit booth.
New US Toll-Free Telephone Number. The new US toll-free telephone number for CDS is 855-266-1884. The new number is activated now. The previous toll-free number, 800-255-3666, was disconnected on July 1, 2011.
This web-based subscription service provides cataloging and metadata documentation. With more than 300 resources and multi-language interfaces, Desktop incorporates the most up-to-date searching and navigation and is updated quarterly. Extensive, free online learning aids and practical tips are available. Hundreds of cataloging-related synonyms now bring together related concepts without needing to use precise references. Visit URL <www.loc.gov/cds/desktop> for the latest news or for a free 30-day trial. Questions about Cataloger's Desktop content or functionality can be forwarded to Bruce Johnson ([email protected]) in PSD. Subscription questions should be directed to CDS ([email protected]).
This web-based subscription service features all LC Classification schedules and all subject headings and name headings—and is updated daily. Records display non-Roman captions where applicable. For a free 30-day trial subscription visit URL <www.loc.gov/cds/classweb/CWorder_files/ClassWebOrderForm.pdf>.
Recently published and pending print publications. New, 2011 editions of LC Classification schedules D-DR, History (General) and History of Europe and JZ and KZ: Historical Notes and Introduction to Application (last published in 1997) were published recently. A new edition of L: Education will be published early in 2012. See URL <www.loc.gov/cds/products/lcClass.php> for the latest information on LC Classification. Subject Headings Manual, Update No. 1 (2011) and Update No. 2 (2011) have been published since ALA Annual Conference last June.
Planning for future distribution of cataloging and products
The Library is initiating a strategic study that will examine the impact and opportunities of changes in the bibliographic framework and the technological environment on the future distribution of its bibliographic data and cataloging products. The Library has engaged Outsell, Inc., a research and advisory firm focused on the publishing and information industries, to conduct the study. The study will involve in-depth interviews with key stakeholders in the library and information community and a comprehensive analysis of current and potential distribution scenarios.
Over its history, the Library has set the standard for other libraries through its cooperative efforts to develop and support advances in library services and technologies. Today, the Library still plays a significant role in developing new ways to describe and provide access to information, but the landscape is changing. With the rapid expansion of digital technologies, open-source software services, and web-based distribution, the information industry’s interaction with the library environment has become significantly more direct, is increasingly robust, and will provide the Library with opportunities and challenges to transform its cataloging distribution services.
The Library will use the strategic study to guide its response to this changing environment, supporting the Library in its goal to effectively define its future role.
Center for the Book
Young Readers Center
As part of the Library’s increased interest in sharing its resources with young people, the Center for the Book oversees and operates the Young Readers Center in the Thomas Jefferson Building, which opened in October 2009. Attendance at the YRC averages 300-400 per day. The center is headed by Jane Gilchrist, who was the Library’s ALA exhibit booth coordinator from 2007 through June 2011.
The Website at www.Read.gov, which is overseen by the Center for the Book, has been a huge success and continues to increase its usage. An exclusive story, written for the site, was “The Exquisite Corpse Adventure,” published as a book by Candlewick Press in August 2011. A companion Facebook page, the Books & Beyond Book Club (URL <www.facebook.com/booksandbeyond >), complements the Center for the Book’s Books & Beyond author series at the Library with discussions and links to author Webcasts.
National Ambassador for Young People’s Literature
Walter Dean Myers, five-time winner of the Coretta Scott King Award and two Newbery Honors, was named National Ambassador for Young People’s Literature by Librarian of Congress James H. Billington on Jan. 3, 2012. Myers, who succeeds Katherine Paterson, has chosen “Reading Is Not Optional” as the platform for his two-year term as Ambassador. The Center for the Book in the Library of Congress, the Children’s Book Council (CBC) and Every Child a Reader, the CBC foundation, are the founders and sponsors of the National Ambassador for Young People’s Literature initiative. Financial support for the National Ambassador program is provided by Penguin Young Readers Group, Scholastic Inc., HarperCollins Children’s Books, Random House Children’s Books, Candlewick Press and the Lois Lenski-Covey Foundation. The initiative was created to raise national awareness of the importance of young people’s literature as it relates to lifelong literacy, education and the development and betterment of the lives of young people.
Letters About Literature
The Center once again co-sponsored with Target the Letters About Literature contest for children in grades 4 though 12, encouraging them to write a letter to an author (living or dead) explaining how that writer’s work affected them. Winners and their schools receive cash awards at the state and national levels. Approximately 70,000 letters were received for the 2010-2011 contest. Each year, six National and 12 National Honor letters are chosen from the tens of thousands of entries. National winners can name the library of their choice to receive a $10,000 award from Target, and the students receive a $500 Target GiftCard. National Honor winners can name a library to receive a $1,000 award from Target, and the students receive a $50 Target GiftCard. For more information, see URL <www.lettersaboutliterature.org >.
River of Words
The Saint Mary’s College Center for Environmental Literacy in Moraga, Calif., became the new home of the River of Words environmental poetry and visual arts program in October 2011. The Center for the Book has co-sponsored River of Words since the K-12 program was founded in 1995 by former US Poet Laureate Robert Hass (a Saint Mary’s College alumnus) and the Center for Environmental Literacy’s new director, Pamela Michael. River of Words engages students to create poetry and art based on the watersheds in their communities. The Center for the Book looks forward to continuing its relationship with River of Words in its new home at Saint Mary’s College. For more information, please see URL <www.riverofwords.org >.
Federal Library and Information Center Committee (FLICC)/FEDLINK
FLICC/FEDLINK has undertaken a number of initiatives than span the 2011-2012 period.
FLICC/FEDLINK (F/F) becomes FEDLINK
To simplify management and to make the organization more transparent to libraries and vendors, F/F is becoming FEDLINK only. This single name will describe an organization that continues all of the previous work but with new bylaws, a simplified management structure and a change in federal agency representation and meetings. A major feature of these changes will be the sponsorship of spring and fall expositions for the federal library and information center community.
Completing FELDINK’s new 2012-2017 Business Plan
Based upon extensive research, FEDLINK is planning for the next five fiscal years. A major component of this plan will be the Strategic Sourcing initiative (described in more detail below) and the creation of a Balanced Scorecard assessment method for FEDLINK programs.
Directory of Federal Libraries
FEDLINK, in partnership with the Federal Research Division, has created a new online international directory of federal libraries. Available now and being updated regularly, this directory makes use of open linked data to display information on federal libraries around the world.
Series 1410 (Librarian) education requirements
FEDLINK, in cooperation with the Federal Research Division, completed a review of the Series 1410 (Librarian) education requirements to determine the current status and future steps. This report is available online at the FEDLINK Website .
Competencies for Federal Librarians
FEDLINK’s Human Resources Working Group completed an extensive revision of the Competencies for Federal Librarians that is now available on the FEDLINK Website.
FEDLINK is working with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the General Services Administration (GSA) to be designated as a Strategic Sourcing Initiative in the federal government. FEDLINK would be designated as an Executive Agent for the procurement of information content resources for the federal government. Similar Strategic Sourcing Initiatives have included office supplies, domestic delivery services, and wireless services. FEDLINK has also begun the publication of a quarterly report on the information content commodity market in the federal government.
FEDLINK, in cooperation with the Law Library of Congress and the Asian Division, is involved in a research project to determine how the Library’s Area Collections can be better utilized by other federal libraries and agencies.
Federal Health Technology Initiatives
FEDLINK is sponsoring a research project on the future of federal health technology initiatives and federal libraries and information centers. Work is now underway to identify an advisory committee to help determine the rest of the research process. Advisory committee members will include representatives from medical libraries, schools of library and information science, medical professionals, information technology professionals, and public health policy officials.
Shared collections management
FEDLINK, in cooperation with the Library’s CALM Division and the National Archives’ Federal Records Centers, are developing plans for a Federal Library Shared Collection Management Plan. The first step has been to work with the Federal Records Centers to establish remote storage capabilities in various facilities throughout the US. Work is now underway to do determine broader federal library interest in shared remote storage and to conduct a federal library collection assessment project.
Online Web conferencing
FEDLINK, in cooperation with COIN and other offices in the Library, has established an online web conferencing center with potential to host online communities of practice for federal libraries and information centers. Using a commercially available software product, the service has been named VLC—Virtual Learning and Collaboration.
FEDLINK is working with other parts of the Library and other federal agencies and associations to establish a research agenda for federal libraries and information centers. Having identified several major trends affecting libraries, the FEDLINK staff is working to develop a research agenda to encourage others to study these trends and their impacts on federal libraries.
New financial management system
FEDLINK is continuing work to implement a new financial management system and a new customer/vendor Website. Both systems should be operational in fiscal 2012.
Expanding vendor product offerings
FEDLINK is exploring expanding its vendor product offerings beyond books, serials, and databases. Areas of potential contracting include staffing, integrated library systems, and data analytics. Currently, FEDLINK has contracts with over one hundred information vendors.
FEDLINK has established a new Working Group called FEDGREY which will explore issues of grey literature in the federal government.
FEDLINK, in cooperation with the Copyright Office, is planning a series of programs for federal librarians and information content vendors on copyright issues. This is the result of the Copyright Office’s recent publication Priorities and Special Projects of the United States Copyright Office.
Interpretive Programs Office
Current onsite exhibitions
Herblock Gallery (permanent exhibition), opened in the Library’s permanent new Graphic Arts Galleries on March 18, 2011, celebrates the work of editorial cartoonist Herbert L. Block—better known as “Herblock”—with an ongoing display of ten original drawings, selected from the Library’s extensive Herbert L. Block Collection. A new selection, based on a theme, is displayed every six months. The inaugural exhibition, Herblock Looks at Communism, presented ten cartoons from 1951 about the Korean War. On view through March 10, 2012, is Herblock Looks at 1961: Fifty Years Ago in Editorial Cartoons.
Swann Gallery (permanent exhibition), opened in the Library’s permanent new Graphic Arts Galleries on March 18, 2011, introduces visitors to the quality and variety of the Library’s cartoon collections through a permanent memorial exhibition featuring fifteen facsimiles of seminal cartoons. The diverse selection includes caricatures, political cartoons, comics, animation art, graphic novels, and illustrations that suggest the rich cartoon holdings housed at the Library of Congress.
Earth as Art 3: A Landsat Perspective. Opened May 31, 2011, the most recent United States Geological Survey (USGS) “Earth as Art 3” exhibit, the exhibition is displayed in the James Madison Building in the hallways outside the Geography and Map Reading Room. The third in the series of award-winning Landsat satellite images, this exhibition showcases Landsat 7 images created by the USGS. The images will remain in the permanent collection of the Library of Congress Geography and Map Division.
I Love Lucy: An American Legend (Aug. 4, 2011—Jan. 28, 2012). To celebrate the 60th anniversary of the debut of the television show I Love Lucy, this exhibition, located in the Performing Arts Reading Room foyer, explores the show's history through scrapbooks from the families of stars Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz as well as documents from the Library’s collections. The I Love Lucy show enjoyed enormous popularity during its six-year run and in 1955 became the first television series to be broadcast in reruns. A version of the exhibition will be mounted at the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, Calif.
Timely and Timeless: New Comic Art Acquisitions (permanent exhibition), the inaugural exhibition in the third space of the Library’s new Graphic Arts Galleries, opened Sept. 15, 2011, displaying 48 comic drawings and cartoons acquired by the Library during the past decade. The exhibition demonstrates the multi-faceted development and impressive growth of the comic art collections at the Library. Among the artists represented are historical masters James Gillray (1756?-1815) and Honoré Daumier (1808-1879), as well as modern creators such as John Held, Jr., Reginald Marsh, Oliver Wendell Harrington, Steve Ditko, Roz Chast, and Eric Drooker. A brochure accompanies the exhibition.
Changes to permanent exhibitions
Exploring the Early Americas. In spring 2011, the “Mapping the World” section was enhanced by the addition of the first map of the US that was compiled, printed, and published in America. The landmark map was created in 1784 by Abel Buell (1742–1825) and is entitled A New and Correct Map of the United States of North America Layd Down from the Latest Observations and Best Authorities Agreeable to the Peace of 1783, Humbly Inscribed to his Excellency the governor and Company of the State of Connecticut By their Most Obedient and Very Humble Servant Abel Buell. The map, which is on five-year deposit from philanthropist David Rubenstein, is the most important early American map not in the LC collections. Mr. Rubenstein has generously placed the map here so that it can be both publicly displayed and by means of digital technology made available for research purposes. With the addition of the Buell map, the “Mapping the World” section is to be completely overhauled to focus on “Cartographic Firsts,” with the 1507 Waldseemüller map and the 1784 Buell Map serving as chronological bookends. The Library is working with the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) to create a state-of-the-art case for the Buell Map that will virtually eliminate detrimental environmental conditions that could cause harm to this important historical document and will allow the map to be safely viewed for generations to come.
Here to Stay: The Legacy of George and Ira Gershwin. Among items displayed in the exhibition for the first time were the Porgy and Bess printed-vocal piano score used and annotated by Rosamund Johnson, who was in the original cast in 1935; rare snapshots of George Gershwin; and Ira Gershwin’s drafts of some of his most famous song lyrics.
The Gerry Mulligan Collection. A clarinet once owned by Mulligan was added to the permanent exhibition this year.
Recently closed exhibitions
The Last Full Measure: Civil War Photographs from the Liljenquist Family Collection (April 12, 2011—Aug. 13, 2011) marked the beginning of the Library’s sesquicentennial commemoration of the Civil War with a stunning array of Civil War-era ambrotype and tintype photographs. The exhibition featured portraits of 360 Union soldiers in uniform—one for every thousand who died—and 52 rare images of Confederate soldiers—one for every 5,000 killed. The names of most of those pictured have been lost over time. As it preserves their portraits, the Library is also using electronic media to recover as much information as possible about these individuals. A digital comment book at the end of the exhibition allowed visitors to post their thoughts about individual photos, reflect on the Civil War, and enlarge the images on view. Because of the incredible resolution of the 19th-century images, they could be magnified so that it was possible to see detail not visible to the naked eye.
The Last Full Measure was drawn from the Liljenquist Collection of more than 700 Civil War portraits donated to the Library by Washington area jeweler Tom Liljenquist and his sons Jason, Brandon, and Christian. Their donation, to which they continue to add, filled a void in the Library’s collections. The exhibition was made possible through the generous support of HISTORY®, the Liljenquist family, and Union Pacific Corporation. Exhibition attendance was boosted by a generous contribution of in-kind advertising opportunities and dollars from the Liljenquist family as well as tremendous interest from broadcast, print, and online media outlines. The Washington Post alone ran four stories related to the exhibition or collection. The total number of visitors was 303,503, a record for a Library of Congress exhibit of this duration.
A special preview opening on April 6, 2011, was attended by five members of the LC Caucus of the House of Representatives: Rep. John Larson (CT), Rep. Robert Aderholt (AL), Rep. Bob Goodlatte (VA), Rep. Jim Cooper (TN), and Rep. Bruce Braley (IA). Twenty congressional oversight and LC Caucus staff also attended the April 6 preview opening, and 39 LC Caucus staff attended tours on June 17, 2011. In addition, 19 members of Congress requested tours of the exhibition, which was also toured by President Drew Gilpin Faust of Harvard University, members of the National Endowment for the Humanities, faculty of The George Washington University Law School, and 80 other groups. The Library’s Interpretive Programs Office presented nine public programs related to the exhibition, including talks by donor Tom Liljenquist and Adam Goodheart, author of 1861: The Civil War Awakening (Alfred A. Knopf, 2011). Teacher Institutes for The Last Full Measure on April 29, 30 and May 2, 13, 14, 2011, were attended by 107 educators from 13 states and Washington, DC.
Library of Congress: Gateway to Knowledge. This traveling exhibition came to fruition at the close of fiscal 2010, with funding provided by the Abby and Emily Rapoport Foundation. Throughout fiscal 2011, the exhibition presented the Library’s riches to areas of the US, in particular rural communities, that might not be aware of their access to the institution’s resources. Following its debut at the 2010 National Book Festival, the tractor-trailer transporting the 1,000-square-foot Gateway to Knowledge exhibition space embarked upon a sixty-venue tour throughout the Midwest and the South. With Madison Council support, the tour was extended to ninety stops, reaching thirty-four states bordering on and east of the Mississippi River before concluding at the 2011 National Book Festival, Sept. 24-25, 2011. Generating extensive media coverage with an estimated earned media value of $2 million, the Gateway to Knowledge traveling exhibition was a highly visible advocate for the Library of Congress, and generated awareness and support for local and state libraries.
With Malice toward None: The Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Exhibition commemorated the 200th birthday of the 16th president. Items on display were drawn from the Abraham Lincoln Papers in the Library’s Manuscript Division and the Alfred Stern Collection of Lincolniana in its Rare Books and Special Collection Division, plus some materials on loan from public and private collections. 152,000 visitors viewed the exhibition while it was on display in the Thomas Jefferson Building. After closing at LC on May 10, 2009, the exhibition traveled to the California Museum, Sacramento, Calif., opening Sept. 2009; Newberry Library, Chicago, Ill., opening Oct. 10, 2009; Indiana State Museum, Indianapolis, Ind., opening Feb. 12, 2010; Atlanta History Center, Atlanta, Ga., opening Sept. 4, 2010; and Durham Museum, Omaha, Neb., Jan. 25-March 20, 2011.
Seven new online exhibits were added to the Library’s Website in 2011: The Red Book of Carl G. Jung; Coast to Coast: The Federal Theatre Project 1935–1939;The Last Full Measure: Civil War Photographs from the Liljenquist Family Collection;The Herblock Gallery; The Swann Gallery; I Love Lucy: An American Legend;and Earth as Art 3: A Landsat Perspective. The Hope for America online exhibition was updated with approximately 100 new objects. The online presentation NAACP: A Century in the Fight for Freedom 1909–2009 was completed with the addition of more than 150 items, spanning the period 1895 to 2010.
Office of Scholarly Programs
Philip Levine was appointed Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry for 2011-2012 on Aug. 10, 2011.
Veterans History Project of the American Folklife Center (VHP)
This congressionally mandated public outreach/collection development project continues to expand. In 2011, its eleventh year, more than 7,000 additional collections were donated and more are received weekly. Organizations nationwide, including many libraries, have joined the effort to help gather and submit oral histories and supporting items for the VHP collection. Descriptions of the over 78,000 collections can be searched at the VHP’s Website at URL <www.loc.gov/vets>. More than 11,100 selected narratives are digitized, of which 20 percent offer transcripts and are viewable at the project’s Website , along with a series of themed presentations under the title “Experiencing War.” All collections are served in LC’s American Folklife Center Reading Room.
The staff of the Veterans History Project collaborated with the University of Florida, the University of Central Florida, Florida State University, and the University of West Florida in fiscal 2011. Each university has an oral history program or oral history collections.
The Veterans History Project continues to rely on a nationwide network of volunteers and organizations to collect veterans’ interviews. Libraries are a valued resource in this effort, distributing information, coordinating VHP interviewing events, and making their facilities available to local VHP volunteers. For additional information, see the project Website at URL <www.loc.gov/vets>, or call 202-707-4916.
The Preservation Directorate (PD) in fiscal 2011 assessed, housed, stabilized, mass deacidified, bound, reformatted, or otherwise prepared for exhibits, scanning projects, and researchers more than seven million high-value, high-use, and/or at-risk items.
Special preservation highlights included a demonstration for NPR (National Public Radio) and other press of the IRENE technology (Image, Reconstruct, Erase Noise, Etc., a process developed with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 2003-04 and installed at the Library of Congress in 2006 and in 2008) to capture sound from never-before-heard recordings by Alexander Graham Bell and others, on experimental disks of emulsion on glass, as well as wax on cardboard or metal (see URL <www.loc.gov/today/pr/2011/11-237.html>).
Other highlights include:
The Conservation Division (CD) moved its entire documentation program from an analog to a digital workflow. The Division successfully completed its conversion from analog to digital treatment documentation through the integration of staff training, new equipment, software and procedures to enhance image capture, processing and file management while improving efficiency and consistency. CD laboratory upgrades included the final installment of improved lighting for workspaces; imaging software, hardware, and camera equipment; and a new suction table enabling humidification, and a new vacuum freeze drier to aid in emergency response work. CD staff taught a one day workshop for more than 40 Department of Defense and Homeland Security scientific and technical information professionals at the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) Repository on how to care for and preserve their high value paper records.
The Preservation Reformatting Division (PRD) acquired microfilm and microfiche scanning equipment. This equipment will enable PRD to develop operational requirements and image quality control standards, preserve microfilm collections requiring reformatting due to film-based deterioration, enhance image quality of poorly created microform, and start laying the foundation for a transition into digital workflows including the establishment of a hybrid microfilm system for the creation and processing of analog as well as computer output microfilm (COM). Staff began a pilot project to evaluate COM. The Division and Directorate also made significant contributions to more efficiently prepare microfilm master negative collections for storage at Ft. Meade, inventorying and boxing two major collections of master microfilm reels (from the Brittle Book collection and the Copy Flow collection) to enable Library Services to meet its fiscal 2011 target to move 72,000 “trackable items” to offsite storage at Ft. Meade, Md.
The Binding and Collections Care Division (BCCD) selected a new Web-based binding software for installation, and developed several pilot programs. One pilot collaborates with three overseas offices to test the efficacy of deferred binding of size-specific monographs. Another collaborates with the Internet Archive to improve workflow based on coordination with selection criteria for the Mass Deacidification Program, which BCCD now operates. A third involves a meta-analysis contract to systematically review a Mass Deacidification Annotated Bibliography 1990-2010 (posted online) to formulate next steps in research.
The Preservation Research and Testing Division (PRTD) organized a symposium on the Chemistry of Cultural Heritage Materials at the Annual American Chemical Society Middle Atlantic Regional Meeting (MARM) at the University of Maryland. PRTD staff initiated collaboration with UMD scientists to generate new research on iron gall ink. They also completed a pilot study on the effect of hand sanitizers on paper, advanced treatment options by identifying a coating causing degradation of a Ptolemy Atlas; identified unusually early examples of smalt and tin oxide pigments in a medieval Armenian Gospel manuscript; developed a ground-breaking non-destructive method to identify magnetic tape plagued by sticky shed (such tape must be baked before it can be played); and installed several new analytical instruments, including a Raman Microscopy, Microfadeometry, Reflective UV-Vis Spectroscopy, and Ion chromatography in order to increase speed and accuracy of analysis.
In partnership with Council on Library Information Resources/Mellon Fellow for Dissertation Research in Original Sources, PD hosted its first Digital Humanities scholar, Amy Brady from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. She is examining the Library's American Federal Theater Project collections with the Library’s scientists, to reveal obscured information using the Library’s advanced technological instrumentation (such as hyperspectral imaging, X-ray fluorescence, and other devices), tapping the Library’s rich primary source documents in ways never before possible. Individuals interested in applying for the fellowship can find information at URL <www.clir.org/fellowships/mellon/preservation.html >.
Three new preservation courses
In addition to a new preservation course for 22 library science and archives students for the University of Maryland, PD staff team-taught a week-long FLICC Summer Preservation Institute for federal libraries, attended by 18 librarians, covering preservation management, assessment planning, risk mitigation, handling, housing, treatment, storage, history and technology for all formats of collections, emergency response, environmental risk evaluation, exhibits, collections reformatting, and preservation research and testing including quality assurance for supplies, analytical studies, materials science research, and mass deacidification. Staff also developed and team-taught a three-day preservation course for 25 Russian museum and library specialists, with preservation information translated into Russian, in collaboration with the Library’s Open World Program.
Disaster preparedness and response initiatives
In response to the recent devastating earthquake and tsunami in Japan, PD staff developed and delivered on-site in Japan a special week-long series of workshops on emergency salvage for collections, in collaboration with the National Diet Library. In addition, the Directorate’s collections emergency response Website pages and the new emergency salvage contract was translated into Japanese (see URL <www.tokushu-papertrade.jp/digimon/mon-blog/2011/04/post-124.html >). The salvage contract covers on-site assessment of action plans for stabilization and recovery of collections; tracking collection material as it is repacked, transported, stabilized, treated and returned; boxing, bagging, and other supports and containers; environmentally controlled transportation; and recovery services including freezing, air drying, vacuum freeze drying, or single-item cleaning, repair, or conservation treatment.
To improve the Library’s collection emergency response capabilities and COOP (Continuity of Operations Plan) readiness, the Preservation Emergency Response Team underwent refresher training in emergency response and mitigation with Tom Clareson, an emergency management expert with LYRASIS (the library network formed by the merger of PALINET and SOLINET). He evaluated the team as highly successful. Staff also arranged to take a course on mold remediation.
Public Future Directions 3-Part Symposia
In October 2011, PD completed the last of a special 3-part symposium series on “Preservation Road Maps: Past, Present and Future” with The Road Ahead (or Where Do We Go Next?): Transitioning to a Digital Future. Heads of the National Archives, Smithsonian Institution, National Park Service, and Library of Congress spoke on preservation needs, priorities, and challenges in managing core collections of the federal government in the 21st century. Descriptions and videos of this and the earlier programs on The Journey (or How Did We Get to This Point?): Understanding the Physical Environment and The Crossroads (or Just Where Are We?): Assessing Options for Large Collections, can be found at URL <www.loc.gov/preservation/outreach/symposia/roadmaps.html>.
Public Topics in Preservation Series (TOPS) Programs
Five TOPS webinars in 2011 focused on training and on funding (videos to be available at URL <www.loc.gov/preservation/outreach/tops/>). The final program was held Nov. 15, 2011, on Conservation Training: Commemorating 30 years of the Library Conservation Training Program at Columbia University (1981-1992) and the 20th Anniversary of the University of Texas at Austin (1992-2009).
Preservation Directorate Websites on training and on emergency preparedness were revised to include additional information, to address fires in Cairo, Egypt, as well as earthquakes and flooding throughout Japan at URL <www.loc.gov/preservation>.
Interns, fellows and visiting scholars
During 2011, the PD hosted more than 20 visiting students and professionals in its divisions for Conservation (CD), Binding and Collections Care (BCCD), and Preservation Research and Testing (PRTD). Since the summer, 17 interns, volunteers and visiting scholars were hosted in the labs, working on many projects.
Staff honors, presentations and publications
In combination with their presentations for the three new (team-taught) preservation courses and various TOPS events, PD staff gave hundreds of lectures for a number of special events. Four PD staff contributed to talks for the Annual American Institute of Conservation (AIC) Conference and the Triennial International Council of Museums (ICOM) Conservation Committees Meeting; several staff spoke at the Library’s Future Directions Symposia; and several of the Library’s preservation scientists organized and spoke at the symposium on the Chemistry of Cultural Heritage Materials at the Annual American Chemical Society Middle Atlantic Regional Meeting (MARM) at the University of Maryland. Examples of topics presented at these and other venues included security, micro- and macro-climates and energy savings, early photographic techniques, and Ptolemy Maps.
Fenella France, now chief of the Preservation Research and Testing Division, was named a finalist for the prestigious Samuel J. Heyman “Service to America Medal” for 2011 in the science and environment category, for work advancing preservation science at the Library of Congress. She was featured in the Washington Post (see URL <www.washingtonpost.com/local/politics/2011-samuel-j-heyman-service-to-america-medal-awards-finalists/2011/05/05/AFXcwj6F_story.html >).
Technology Policy Directorate
Integrated Library System Program Office (ILSPO)
Integrated Library System
The LC Online Catalog is the primary access point for users of the Library=s collections and it is one of the most popular sites on the LC Website. As demand for access to the LC Online Catalog has continued to increase the ILS Program Office has continued towards its goal of unlimited access to this popular site. In fiscal 2011 the Library increased the number of simultaneous sessions again in order to eliminate any denials of service. In fiscal 2011 there were 140,664,657 total OPAC searches.
The Library is currently using Voyager 7.2.0. Staff and patrons are using the “Tomcat” OPAC, which is available in beta release on campus.
LCCN Permalink (see URL <lccn.loc.gov/>). LCCN Permalink is a web service that allows users to create permanent URL links to records in the Library's Online Catalog (see URL <catalog.loc.gov>), continues to be popular. Nearly 10,000 daily requests enable researchers to reference materials from the Library's collection in their blogs, reference guides, web pages, emails, bibliographies, databases, and more. LCCN Permalink is completely standards-based, leveraging widely used XML technologies, Z39.50/SRU, and metadata schemas.
In September 2011, LCCN Permalink, a web service that allows users to create permanent URL links to records in the LC Online Catalog, expanded to include name and subject authority records. Using the expanded capabilities of IndexData’s Metaproxy software, Permalink searches target copies of the Library’s authority files then direct users back the LC Authorities for fuller record access. LCCN Permalink is completely standards-based, leveraging widely used XML technologies, Z39.50/SRU, and metadata schemas. Nearly 15,000 daily requests enable researchers to reference materials from the Library's collection in their blogs, reference guides, web pages, emails, bibliographies, databases, and more.
LC Finding Aids
In 2011, Library Services Collections and Services divisions created 627 new EADs (Encoded Archival Description) Archival Finding Aids, bringing the total number of LC EAD finding aids to 1,574. Users can access 46.6 million archival items in LC's collections through these documents at URL <www.loc.gov/findingaids> or <findingaids.loc.gov>, which represents an increase of more than 15 million archival items in fiscal 2011.
LC Persistent Identifiers
Library staff registered more than 560,000 handles this year in order to persistently identify and manage LC-generated e-resources. As of December 2011, the Library's handle server contained 3,216,460 handles. Over the past year, LC handles were assigned, for example, to materials digitized in a number of LC cooperative projects (including content scanned for the Sloan project and sent to Internet Archive and HathiTrust), to US legislation searchable in Thomas, and to digital books created by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, and to items in the Library’s repository efforts. Work is underway to upgrade the handle server software in fiscal 2012.
Network Development and MARC Standards Office (NDMSO)
Bibliographic Framework Initiative
- see undero LIBRARY SERVICES
National Library Catalog - XML Data Store Project
Work continued on the beta version of the National Library Catalog, an XML-based system whose goal is to provide seamless access across all of the types of metadata that describe LC collections. It is currently released for internal LC access only. Holdings records for the OPAC files were added to the MarkLogic server, a native XML database that enables the building and deployment of next-generation applications, joining the more than 17 million OPAC records there. Several new datasets, including the Library of Congress Web Archive records (LCWA) and the Tibetan Oral History files (which include original text, transcripts and audio) are being added in the test environment. Work also began on adding the content of the Performing Arts Encyclopedia, a set of African maps with geo-encoding, slave narratives (full text), a North Korean Serials article index unique to LC, and a selection of the full text of books scanned under a Sloan grant. The system has a rich facet-driven interface, book cover images, other digital images, and will expand to include audio, video, and searchable text content.
Search Protocol Interface Improvement
An improved and augmented protocol interface to LC's Voyager databases, IndexData's product, MetaProxy, was launched in late 2010. This interface accepts SRU and Z39.50 protocol searches and conditions them for submittal to the limited Z39.50 implementation on the Library's Voyager system. This is important because currently approximately 60% of LC's Voyager OPAC searches come to LC via those protocols. Metaproxy also takes the MARC records retrieved from Voyager and converts them to the format specified in the original protocol search: MARC 21, MARCXML, or MODS.
MetaProxy now provides support for SRU and enhanced Z39.50 access to the Handbook of Latin American Studies Voyager database and to the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped Voyager database. Other LC databases, that support Z39.50, such as the Name Authority File and the Subject Authority File can also now be accessed (using either Z39.50 or SRU) through MetaProxy. The popular LCCN Permalink service was also switched to go through Metaproxy which helped solve some character set issues. Metaproxy enables Z39.50 and SRU protocol access to other LC databases such as the Name Authority File and the Subject Authority File from a database mounted outside of Voyager (as Voyager cannot process Z39.50 and SRU protocol searches of authority records).
This development work, which has been carried out along with the maintenance of the file synchronization system that is used for NACO, lost its chief technician in December with the death of Larry Dixson of NDMSO. Larry had expertly and cheerfully provided the NACO partners and others with valuable support for 25 years.
The 2011 updates of both the full and concise MARC formats were made available online in September 2011, the earliest date than the annual update has been published. In mid-2011 NDMSO surveyed the community and then announced that, due to decreasing demand, LC would no longer print and sell updates to the full versions of the MARC 21 Bibliographic, Authority, Holdings, Classification, and Community Information formats. The Office then developed a stylesheet that removes characteristics of an online page when it is printed from the MARC Website so that it resembles the print version formerly sold by Cataloging Distribution Service (CDS). CDS will continue to print and sell the MARC 21 Concise Format, which will consist of the Bibliographic, Authority, and Holdings specifications. All format versions are produced from the same XML files, improving consistency and efficiency in the publication processes. The updates of all MARC 21 documentation were provided to CDS to keep its Cataloger’s Desktop product in synch with the published MARC documentation.
The PREMIS Editorial Committee <www.loc.gov/premis> published version 2.1 and held 2 tutorials in the last 6 months--one at the Graz Digitale Bibliothek in Austria and one at Singapore iPRES. The Powerpoints for both of these tutorials are available from the PREMIS Website. The Committee also released a PREMIS RDF/OWL ontology that enables expression of the PREMIS information in RDF. With this alternative serialization, information can be more easily interconnected, especially between different repository databases. Information in RDF can be also easily and flexibly queried, which can be an interesting option for the data management function of a repository.
NDMSO staff completed an RDF (Resource Description Framework) version of MADS (Metadata Authority Description Schema) earlier in the year and implemented it in the ID system. This MADS/RDF provides the basis for work on a MODS (Metadata Object Description Schema) /RDF that NDMSO and the MODS/MADS Editorial Committee began in late 2011.
NDMSO began to host the Website and listserv for VRA Core in partnership with the Visual Resources Association. VRA Core is a metadata standard that is widely used for the description of works of visual culture as well as the images that document them. The new site is now a central place for information about this standard.
The widely used protocols for which LC led development by the community, Search and Retrieve via URL (SRU) and the Contextual Query Language (CQL), were submitted to the standards body OASIS for public review, a step in their official standardization in OASIS.
Vocabularies Service Project
The Authorities & Vocabularies (ID) service (see URL <id.loc.gov>) is used as a portal for developers–whether local or external to LC–to enable them to programmatically interact with vocabularies commonly found in standards promulgated by LC as “linked data.” In addition to a web interface, the system provides the vocabularies for individual record and bulk download as RDF/SKOS and now also the syntactically richer RDF/MADS to enable querying and accessibility for semantic Web projects that occur at the Library or in the community. In August 2011, the Name Authority File was added to the ID system--approximately 8,000,000 name records--joining LCSH, Thesaurus for Graphic Materials, MARC Relator codes and terms, three PREMIS-related controlled lists that support preservation of digital objects, MARC Language codes, MARC Country codes, and MARC Geographic Area Codes, along with related IS0's two- and three-character language codes (ISO 639-1 and 639-2) and the ISO codes for language groups (ISO 369-5). The LCSH file is updated monthly and the Names file weekly.
OFFICE OF STRATEGIC INITIATIVES
National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP)
The National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program supports the Library’s strategic goal to lead and work collaboratively with external communities to advance knowledge and creativity. By the end of fiscal 2011, through the leadership of NDIIPP more than 200 organizations internationally were taking stewardship responsibility for over 1,400 digital collections, many available to researchers on the Web. The program worked through the National Digital Stewardship Alliance (NDSA) to build a national digital collection, develop and adopt digital preservation standards, share tools and services, support innovation of practice and research, and promote national outreach for digital preservation. The entire partnership met in July with the largest attendance ever of 215 to present project results, share expertise and conduct working group meetings of the NDSA. Nationally, digital preservation action reached over 800 organizations through the 96 NDSA member organizations and consortia resulting in the contribution of over 2,800 hours of expertise to digital preservation projects.
In fiscal 2011, the NDIIPP team worked collaboratively with the Preservation Directorate to lead the Library’s annual objective to establish criteria for the preservation of digital materials. The working group assembled a wiki of over 200 documents evaluated as part of an inventory of best practices and standards that forms the foundation of policy and guidelines development to be completed in fiscal 2012 and 2013.
Long-term strategic action for saving at-risk digital content continued in 2011. The Program convened two expert sessions that averaged 40 attendees and addressed the changing information environment for citizen journalism and the appraisal of geospatial data. Stewards, researchers, and producers exchanged perspectives and developed strategies to preserve new forms of content. The convening sessions resulted in follow-on research and workshops to provide guidelines to the preservation community about news production and geospatial data stewardship.
Social media communication and outreach
Communication and transparency of practice are two essential tools for collaborative leadership. The program added to its social media presence during 2011 with the addition of a blog, “The Signal” at URL <blogs.loc.gov/digitalpreservation>. Since its May launch, the blog has featured more than 140 posts from staff and partners on a rich array of subjects relating to the Library’s collection of digital content, tools and services, and education and training. The blog has generated tens of thousands of page views as well as over 330 comments and questions, which demonstrates effective interaction with different communities interested in digital preservation. In recognition of its popular appeal, Federal Computer Week publicized “The Signal” as one of a few designated as “Best of the Federal Blogosphere.”
Another new tool implemented was a Twitter account, @ndiipp. The account is used to publicize all aspects of the program, as well as to convey the importance of digital preservation in general. Tweets from @ndiipp have enjoyed wide circulation, and the account has acquired more than 7,600 followers from around the world. Growth of followers has been steady at over 500 per month. Several individual tweets relating to program events, including video presentations from the annual NDIIPP partners meeting and specific kinds of digital preservation guidance, were circulated around the Internet thousands of times each.
The program’s Facebook page, launched in 2010, expanded its number of “likes” by over 150 percent during 2011 to more than 2,700 individuals and organizations. The page has been particularly effective in distributing information about events, new resources and targeted guidance for different aspects of digital preservation. A long-standing publication, the “Library of Congress Digital Preservation Newsletter,” grew to over 18,000 subscribers. Staff completed several new video productions, including a two-part series on “The K-12 Web Archiving Program” featuring students and staff at a Connecticut middle school. These videos are now part of the dozen NDIIPP-related titles available through the Library’s channel on YouTube.
NDIIPP hosted eight student interns during 2011—the most ever. Each worked on a variety of outreach projects intended to provide information to professional and public audiences. Intern projects also related to improving the digitalpreservation.gov Website, including a revamped digital preservation tools and services inventory. Staff and interns also had the opportunity to meet with a diverse range of visitors to the Library to discuss NDIIPP activities as well as digital preservation more broadly.
Personal archiving outreach
The NDIIPP program continued its groundbreaking efforts to help citizens address the challenge of saving personal digital files. Additional information on this topic has been added to the digitalpreservation.gov Website, and staff continued to provide presentations at conferences and participation in public outreach efforts. At the 2011 National Book Festival, NDIIPP staff spoke with hundreds of people about how to preserve personal digital collections of photos and audiovisual materials.
Continuing a multi-institutional collaboration effort started last year, the Library of Congress, through NDIIPP, was invited to participate in “Save Our African American Treasures,” a road show of preservation and conservation experts sponsored by the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture. Public programs in Dallas and Houston, Tex., provided advice about preserving personal collections, and NDIIPP presented information on preserving personal digital information.
Preserving State Government Information
The four projects making up the NDIIPP Preserving State Government Information initiative finished work at the end of calendar 2011. Working with a total of 35 states, these projects have built a geographically and thematically diverse body of important state government digital information. The projects also each developed an extended collaborative network. The strongest level of interest remains rooted in archives, libraries, and Chief Information Officers--the groups originally targeted at the start of the initiative.
The Geospatial Multistate Archive and Preservation Project (District of Columbia, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Maine, Montana, North Carolina, Utah, Texas, and Wyoming) is working to complete a model business plan template that aims to help all states justify the preservation of digital geospatial content.
The Model Technological and Social Architecture for the Preservation of State Government Digital Information Project (Arkansas, California, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, North Dakota, Tennessee, and Vermont) collaborated with the Uniform Law Commission to generate the Uniform Electronic Legal Material Act, which intends to assist states with the authentication, access and preservation of digital legal material, including laws and statutes.
The Multi-State Preservation Consortium (Alaska, Colorado, Idaho, Indiana, Louisiana, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington) has developed a cost model to enable ongoing sustainability of multistate use of the repository and is discussing the feasibility of the model with other states.
The Persistent Digital Archives and Library System project (Alabama, Arizona, Florida, New Mexico, New York, South Carolina, and Wisconsin) is hoping to continue on a self-sustaining basis with the ongoing involvement of several states after this year.
The 2011 Best Practices Exchange, as in 2010, brought together representatives of all the NDIIPP state projects along with staff from other state institutions. The meeting featured discussion about findings from the four NDIIPP projects and ideas for continuing the collaboration the Library enabled. There was also discussion of findings from an independent analysis of the four projects conducted by Dr. Cal Lee from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Infrastructure capacity improvements
New tools and services were released in 2011. California Digital Library, along with partners Portico and Stanford University, released the final version of JHOVE2, an open source next-generation application and framework for identifying digital formats placed under stewardship. The DuraSpace organization launched DuraCloud, a hosted service and open technology that makes it easy for organizations and end users to use commercial cloud services. The NDIIPP Program launched the open source code for a collaborative collection sharing interface, Recollection. The software is built upon open source tools that use semantic web technologies. It provides a means for partners to share their collections and provide visualizations such as maps, timelines, or tag clouds.
NDIIPP sponsored the Designing Storage Architectures for Digital Preservation meeting, held on Sept. 26-27, 2011, in Washington DC. The conference brought together over 100 technical industry experts, vendors, IT professionals, owners and managers of digital collections, government data specialists, and other practitioners of digital preservation. In its fifth year, the meeting provided a forum for participants to discuss and think about emerging technical developments for digital storage and the ongoing preservation practices and standards that rely on digital storage. All agreed that this annual exchange provides useful input into strategic planning and execution for both communities.
In 2011, the Library’s Web Archiving Team managed 22 web archive collections, which included over 6,300 nominated Websites. The total accumulation of web archives at the end of fiscal 2011 was 250 terabytes and over 5 billion web documents. A new Library Services Web Archiving Coordinator, who is tasked with evaluating the Library’s selection policies and collection scope. A number of ongoing Library Services web archives were also supported and managed by OSI during fiscal 2011, including Public Policy Topics, Civil War 150th Web Archive, Performing Arts Web Archive, Small Press Expo Comic and Comic Art Collection, Manuscript Division Archive of Organizational Websites, and an ongoing archive of “Single Sites”–Websites not related to a particular event or theme.
The team continues to work with the Library's Overseas Offices in Pakistan, Indonesia, and Brazil as they build web archives about topics and events in their regions of the world. In fiscal 2011, the following collections were supported by OSI: Brazilian Election, Burma/Myanmar Election, and Sri Lankan elections of 2010, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnamese elections of 2011, collections about the Maoist Movement in India, Pakistan Nationalisms, and the beginnings of Timor Leste as an independent country.
OSI also supported the Law Library's ongoing web archive collection of Legal Blawgs. The OSI, Library Services, and Law Library of Congress focused attention in fiscal 2011 on improving the quality of and access to the Library’s ongoing congressional and legislative branch web harvests. The OSI team provided metadata and technical assistance to support the Law Library as it prepared to make archived House, Senate, and Committee Websites available in 2012 via THOMAS.
The OSI team worked with the ABA Directorate to enable researcher access to more web archives, providing support for the release of the Election 2008 Web Archive, and metadata for the Indonesian Elections Web Archive, also made available to researchers in fiscal 2011. The team provided metadata for the following in-production collections: Public Policy Topics, Single Site, and Timor Leste, as well as helped cleanup data for Election 2000 and 2002 to bring them up to current standards for cataloging. The Web Archiving Team also provided data for an update of the Law Libary’s Legal Blawgs collection.
In fiscal 2011, the Library continued to be a leader in the International Internet Preservation Consortium (IIPC), with LC representatives serving on the Steering Committee and Access Working Group. The Library also provides the Communications Officer and a member of the OSI Web Archiving Team is co-leader of the Preservation Working Group. The Library has taken a lead on the Access Working Group’s Memento pilot project to enable more streamlined access for researchers to IIPC member archives.
The Library collaborated on selection of URLs for a number of archives sponsored by other cultural heritage organizations. The OSI team helped manage these activities on behalf of the Library for collections of sites related to the earthquake in Japan and the Arab Spring events in North Africa and the Middle East, especially the Jasmine Revolution of Tunisia. Partners on these collections included Internet Archive, the National Library of France, and Virginia Tech. The Library’s Web Archiving Team continued to collaborate on the End of Term archive project, which documents government Websites at the end of presidential administrations. In fiscal 2011, staff helped work on a public interface (to launch in December 2011) of the 2008 archive, and began work with partners on planning for the 2011-12 archive.
The Web Archiving Team continued to develop its in-house workflow management tool, the DigiBoard. Notable improvements this year included a significant update to quality review tools and a concomitant change to crawl scheduling for less-frequently-crawled URLs. These updates will result in fewer "spikes" in the number of crawled URLs from one monthly crawl to the next and improve the management of the budget and resources for web archiving. The team also developed a Dashboard that automatically tabulates the running total volume of documents and data that we have collected, for use by Library management.
After improving the technical infrastructure for crawling content in-house in the previous year, in fiscal 2011 the Web Archiving Team developed an efficient in-house crawling workflow, covering the entire lifecycle from capture to bit preservation storage. In-house crawling (a total of 8 terabytes) included independent projects, such as capture of Library Websites, research and test projects, and support of the contract with Internet Archive (for the majority of the Library’s large scale collections) by supplementing ongoing collections with gap-filling or special focus crawls onsite. The team also focused on improving communications about Web Archive activities with the public. The team refreshed content and updated its public Website (see URL <www.loc.gov/webarchiving>), with the assistance of OSI Web Services Division, and launched an RSS feed for announcements. To further share news and information about the Library’s web archiving program, team members contributed 11 posts to the NDIIPP blog, the Signal.
Common Federal Digitization Guidelines
In fiscal 2011 the Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI), an NDIIPP effort launched in 2007 for the purpose of establishing a common set of digitization best practices among federal agencies, added three new members to its ranks, bringing the total number of official participants to 18. A major redesign of its www.digitizationguidelines.gov Website made information of the highest interest more available. The two main working groups, for still image and audiovisual content, continued their work of developing broadly applicable guidelines and tools.
Within the Still Image group, a file format subgroup began its work on evaluating the relative advantages and disadvantages of various file formats for archival and other purposes. One of the formats receiving the most attention was JPEG 2000. A JPEG 2000 conference held at the Library in May had broad national and international attendance. The meeting marked the beginning of an effort to develop guidelines for appropriate levels of JPEG2000 compression for different types of materials. In the area of color accuracy, the Still Image group has been collaborating with international technical organizations to assess accuracy of color imaging and to provide guidance on improving color accuracy in production scanning projects. The study involves libraries, archives, and museums in the US and Europe. The group also continued to update the Digital Image Conformance Environment (DICE) software used for analyzing scanner performance and conformance to imaging specifications, as well as developed new targets for evaluating the imaging performance of automated document feed scanners and those for oversized materials.
The Audiovisual Working Group continued development of an MXF application specification for a video preservation format; though primarily intended to serve the reformatting of videotapes, it will be broad enough to contribute to the preservation packaging of born digital content. The specification will be a profile of the MXF standard maintained by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE). Successive drafts were published for comment in October 2010 and August 2011. The work has proceeded with informal consultation with the video specialists group within the International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA). The final steps in this effort will be carried out within a broadcast industry trade group, the Advanced Media Workflow Association (AMWA).
The AV group also continued development of a specification for Broadcast WAVE file (BWF) metadata. BWF is a widely used standard of the European Broadcast Union (EBU). It includes what amounts to a file header for audio files. The EBU extended the standard in a significant way in May 2011 and the WG is updating its 2009 recommendation, as well as its open source metadata tool (BWF MetaEdit) to keep pace.
Paralleling efforts by the Still Image group to develop metrics and methods for the performance testing of still image scanners and cameras, the Audiovisual Working Group has begun to explore issues pertaining to the performance testing of audio digitization systems, beginning with a report by an expert consultant to the group in March 2011.
Educational Outreach continues to expand both the breadth and depth of the national Teaching with Primary Sources (TPS) program, supports a wide range of Library initiatives, and continues to explore and implement a variety of tools for disseminating the TPS program.
In fiscal 2011, the TPS program served 19,448 teachers from 353 congressional districts, which represents 80 percent coverage of all congressional districts nationwide, with professional development focused on using the Library’s digitized primary sources to create instruction that builds students’ literacy, content knowledge, and critical thinking skills.
In fiscal 2011, Library staff delivered professional development to teachers from 115 districts. They conducted 109 institute, workshop and presentation sessions for 1,168 teachers held at the Library and 22 professional development sessions for 957 teachers in outside venues.
In fiscal 2011, Education Outreach collaborated with PBS Teacherline, the premier provider of high quality online professional development, to develop and launch a 45-hour online course entitled, “Teaching with Primary Sources from the Library of Congress.” Nearly 200 teachers from across the country have completed the course and it is quickly becoming a top requested program for PBS Teacherline.
For the first time, the Library’s Summer Teacher Institute expanded to a five-day program and became accredited by George Mason University for three graduate credits. The Library offered seven institutes in the summer of 2011—the most it has offered to date. The Library further refined the content of this program that focuses on using the Library’s digitized primary sources to create instruction that builds students literacy, content knowledge and critical thinking skills. Educators from a wide variety of educational settings–library/media specialists, classroom teachers, homeschoolers, museum educators, online instructors, school administrators, and curriculum developers–came to the Library to take part in the institutes. More than 500 educators applied for the institutes, and more than 150 were accepted, representing 31 states.
Educational Outreach works with institutional partners to reach teachers across the country. In fiscal 2011, the Library’s institutional partners delivered 1,717 professional development events that reached 17,323 teachers in 238 congressional districts. Twenty-eight universities, school districts and educational foundations, making up the TPS Educational Consortium, assist the Library in the design of the TPS program as well as its delivery in 17 states: California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, New York, Massachusetts, Montana, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming. Three members of the TPS Educational Consortium – Waynesburg University in Pennsylvania, Illinois State University, and the Metropolitan State College of Denver – coordinate regional TPS activity in the East, Midwest, and West. They identify and make small sub-grants to school districts, cultural institutions, library systems, universities, and other educational organizations to cover some of the costs associated with incorporating TPS content and methods into their ongoing programs for teachers. Through the regional program, 152 organizations have delivered TPS programming to teachers in 36 states and the District of Columbia.
Educational Outreach inducted two new members into the TPS Educational Consortium, in fiscal 2011, after competitive national searches: the Northwest Council for Computer Education (NCCE) expands the reach of the Consortium into Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington with a hybrid face-to-face, online training model appropriate for teachers who live great distances apart. The University of the Arts, in Philadelphia, Pa., brings to the Consortium strategies for infusing fine arts instruction using the Library’s digitized primary sources into subjects across the curriculum.
In fiscal 2011, Educational Outreach staff continued to consult with the TPS Advisory Mentor Group - 19 master teachers and librarians who are assisting in the development of the Teachers Network, an online platform for TPS program alumni to share ideas, seek advice and collaborate on using the Library’s digitized primary sources in their classrooms. Educational Outreach will conduct a beta test of the platform in 2012.
In fiscal 2011, Educational Outreach published eight new primary source sets on the following topics: The Industrial Revolution in the United States; the New Deal; the Harlem Renaissance; Maps from the World Digital Library; Political Cartoons in US History; Children's Lives at the Turn of the 20th Century; Washington, Jefferson, and Lincoln; and Symbols of the United States. (The last two sets were developed specifically for elementary teachers, an audience that Educational Outreach is targeting for expanded coverage.) Primary source sets are among the most used teacher resources offered by Educational Outreach; they make it easier for teachers to find primary sources on the most frequently taught topics and to integrate them into classroom teaching.
In November 2010, Educational Outreach launched Search by Standards functionality for its classroom materials. This simple tool, developed in collaboration with OSI Web Services, allows teachers to quickly find which Library of Congress classroom materials meet their state teaching standards. Statewide teaching standards govern many decisions in selecting materials for classroom teaching. Additionally, all of the teacher resources on the Library’s Website for teachers, loc.gov/teachers, became shareable using the Library’s sharing tool; and Educational Outreach also launched a new look and structure for its collection of more than 70 teacher lesson plans.
In February 2011, the Library’s Website for teachers, loc.gov/teachers, was named one of the top ten free resources sites for teachers by the education technology newspaper E-School New. In July 2011, the professional development section of loc.gov/teachers was named “Site of the Week” by E-School News.
The LOC Box (pronounced “Lock Box”) program is the Library of Congress’ new in-person educational offering for student groups in grades four to six. Students and their teachers/chaperones work in teams to explore the Library’s historic Thomas Jefferson Building. A “LOC Box” is a self-serve bag containing hands-on activities designed for use by a team of up to six students led by an adult chaperone. Each student also receives a Library of Congress Book of Secrets booklet for individual use during the program and as a take-home souvenir. In fiscal 2011, a total of 1,101 students from area school systems participated. The Library hosted an additional 38 children from congressional families as part of the swearing-in of the 112th Congress.
Web Services Division (WSD)
Web Services is the Library’s main Web team, creating and managing Websites and applications while providing strategic input across all aspects of the Library’s web program. Our team works to provide project management, requirements analysis, information architecture, visual design, development, integration, testing, and operational support to hundreds of Library Websites and applications, as well as managing the technical and policy aspects of the Library’s external social media and content distribution presence.
To facilitate unique cross-agency collaboration and provide a single location on the Web from which to access rich collections related to cultural heritage, OSI Web Services continued to work closely in fiscal 2011 with other federal agencies within the Digital Cultural Content Group. Collaborating with the National Archives and Records Administration, the National Endowment for the Humanities, The National Gallery of Art, the National Park Service, The Smithsonian Institution, and United States Holocaust Museum, OSI Web Services creates and manages multiple Websites that celebrate the contributions and accomplishments of cultural groups.
Sites developed and managed through this project include:
- African American Heritage - www.africanamericanhistorymonth.gov
- Women’s History Month - www.womenshistorymonth.gov
- Asian Pacific American Heritage - www.asianpacificheritage.gov
- Hispanic Heritage Month - www.hispanicheritagemonth.gov
- Native American Heritage Month - www.nativeamericanheritagemonth.gov
- Jewish American Heritage Month - www.jewishheritagemonth.gov
Following the Library’s Web Services-led and managed debut on multiple social media and content channels in 2009, Web Services continued to help the Library expand and manage these programs in fiscal 2011. Working with content owners and programs throughout the Library, we continued to support efforts to use these new channels for content delivery and communications, allowing our content to reach a wider audience and engage users in forums where strong communities of Library content consumers are already established. Over the last fiscal year, over 3500 new photos were uploaded to the Library’s Flickr account (see URL <www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress >) which included new sets of images from diverse Library collections on subjects such as the Civil War and World War I.The over 14,000Imagesinthe Library’s Flickr account have received over 29 million views since the 2008 launch.
The Library of Congress YouTube channel (see URL <www.youtube.com/libraryofcongress >) continued to grow with new video series including the 2011 National Book Festival, Music and Concerts, and Hidden Treasures of the Library of Congress. Since the site’s mid-2009 debut, the Library’s YouTube channel has provided more than 2.7 million video views to users around the world.
Web Services continues to work closely with Apple to provide content through the iTunes platform. The Library’s iTunes U site (see URL <deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/loc.gov >) continued to be a frequently featured site within the iTunes application, hosting audio, video, and educational content for the Library. Library content on iTunes is being downloaded and viewed at a rate of over 1 million items annually. New for 2011 are series on the 2011 National Book Festival, the Veterans History Project, and Civil War Sheet Music.
The social networking site Facebook now hosts a significant Library presence. In addition to the main Library of Congress Facebook site (see URL <www.facebook.com/libraryofcongress >), Web Services supports Facebook pages for the Law Library (see URL <www.facebook.com/lawlibraryofcongress >), American Folklife Center (see URL <www.facebook.com/americanfolklifecenter >), Global Legal information Network (see URL <www.facebook.com/glin.network >), and NDIIPP (see URL <www.facebook.com/digitalpreservation >). Facebook provides access to social networking and news functionality that helps connect LC to friends, fans, and customers.
Web Services continues to support the Library’s Twitter (see URL <www.twitter.com/librarycongress >) presence, working closely with the Office of Communications and the rest of the Library to keep their feeds up and running. New feeds for 2011 include Digital Preservation, World Digital Library, THOMAS, CRS4Congress, Maps, and Copyright.
Information Technology Services Directorate (ITS)
The mission of Information Technology Services (ITS) is to provide a full range of technical support to the Library of Congress. ITS has overall administrative and technical responsibility for IT within the Library: managing IT programs, systems, and services; advising the Chief Information Officer, Library officials and other government officials on IT issues; determining personnel and other resource requirements for the Library's and other legislative branch IT programs; and preparing budget estimates for review and submission by the Librarian of Congress for inclusion in the budget of the US government. Managers and staff in ITS work to satisfy customer requirements, provide outstanding customer service, and represent customer interests.
In support of the strategic goal to acquire, preserve, and provide access to a universal collection of knowledge and the record of America’s creativity, the Library’s internal scanning operations, contracted services, and collaborations with outside partners added significant amounts of newly digitized content to the Libraries collections. During fiscal 2011, four new collections were digitized, while 27 existing collections received substantial additions. Of the approximately 6.8 million new files added in 2011, almost 6 million were the result of participant contributions to the National Digital Newspaper Program (see under Library Services, Serial and Government Publications Division). The total number of files resulting from digitization projects now stands at almost 31.4 million.
In support of the goal to sustain an effective national copyright system, the Office of Strategic Initiatives worked with the Copyright Office, other OSI units, and the digitization contractor to meet the Library of Congress Strategic Plan annual objective to scan 10 million copyright catalog cards.
The Library of Congress and the Government Printing Office continued collaborative efforts in digitization, completing the second phase of the Congressional Record Scanning Project. This phase involved digitizing 556 volumes published between 1969 and 1986; 764,000 pages were scanned to common digitization standards.
The Digital Library Content Group (DLCG), comprising representatives from all the Library’s service units, continued to coordinate and prioritize digitization projects and initiatives.
- see also under COPYRIGHT OFFICE and under LIBRARY SERVICES/Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate
The Repository Development Center (RDC) participated closely in the planning for and management of the eDeposit program. The first content requested through a Copyright Demand was received in September 2010. The RDC development team created an eSerial Examination Viewer for use by the Copyright Office Copyright Acquisitions Division and by Library Services, to let staff determine if the files sent were those demanded, and assist in the cataloging of the titles and issues received. This work informed the development of the production Delivery Management Service (DMS) tool and production transfer and processing workflows in the Content Transfer Services (CTS).
In the first year of this program, 176 deliveries have arrived from 31 publishers, representing 82 titles. Thus far, 86, 310 files have been received; and, 294 issues of 128 journal volumes have been processed.
National Digital Newspaper Program
- see also under LIBRARY SERVICES/Collections and Services Directorate/Serial and Government Publications Division
In December 2010, Twitter identified the company Gnip as its agent for the transfer of tweets to the Library. From January to June, Gnip and the Library tested the packaging and transfer of files to the Library over Amazon S3, identifying the specifications, developing tools and processes, and benchmarking performance for proposed technologies and infrastructure.
In September 2011, the Library’s Twitter accessioning application went live in production, and tweets dating from December 2010 forward were transferred into the Library’s custodial care. Twenty-four billion tweets were transferred by the end of September. The real-time tweet collection grows at a rate of approximately 6 million tweets/hour, 10 gigabytes (GB)/hour, or 240 GB/day. The accessioning of real-time tweets is completely up to date. The historic archive has yet to be made available. A Library Services team delivered a report outlining proposed public services in February 2011. In September 2011, following the completion of benchmarking exercises, draft recommendations for the technologies needed to meet proposed delivery requirements were completed, and are currently under review.
In 2011, the ITS End User Computing Team built 100 new Dell 360 PCs for the LOC COOP (Continuity of Operations Plan). In support of Disaster Recovery for the Library of Congress, the End User Computing team submitted orders for racking and UPS equipment to accommodate the end user workstation configuration for the COOP location. To support Electronic Copyright registration, ITS set up an eCO disaster recovery environment at the Library’s Alternate Computing Facility (ACF) and performed two failover tests to the ACF.
On Aug. 23, 2011, the Washington, D.C., area for the first time in modern history experienced an earthquake. Staff were evacuated and emergency support processes were implemented. When the Madison Building was cleared for access, the Help Desk phones were forwarded and answered after hours as usual. The event was analyzed and lessons learned were captured to improve processes during an emergency event.
ITS Research and Development (R&D)
Several enhancement projects were undertaken to provide user improvements to THOMAS, which received numerous accolades in web blogs and on Facebook. Enhancements made for the 112th Congress included adding meta-tags to support library-wide Meta search and to improve Google search results, improving 508 accessibility to sections of the Congressional Record and adding the top three most recent THOMAS homepage tweets. Enhancements also included improved labels, sort options and navigation for searches. A new Help page was written to describe how to create a portable search box. The following modifications were added to cause THOMAS to be synchronized with LIS (Legislative Information System): A Downtime monitor was created to measure Website performance; all GPO document links throughout the Website were modified to use GPO’s new FDSys system in place of the retired GPO Access system.
Legislative Information System 1.0
Improvements to the Legislative Information System (LIS) in 2011 included the redesign of the LIS Home page. The homepage was reworked to display better on devices with lower screen resolutions like BlackBerrys and a social media box was added. Enhancements also included improved headers, labels and navigation for searches adjusting program logic to handle Government Printing Office (GPO) document links for use on GPO’s new FDSys system.
In fiscal 2011, the Library’s IT Security Program continued to allow the Library to develop and operate its IT systems at an acceptable level of risk. Fiscal 2011 was a year of continued incremental rather than evolutionary change, reflecting the maturity of the current program. Numerous processes were improved and communication was strengthened. The Security Operations Center increased its capability to protect the Library from malicious actors, handling and addressing 467 security events by moving to a 24X7X365 organization that provides real-time analysis of threats to the Library. In addition, the SOC has also deployed ArcSight, a security incident and event management tool. This allows both the SOC and the various Information System Security Officers at the Library to review system event logs in an efficient way that speeds detection of system issues.
Development continued for the Secure Software Development and Penetration Testing Program. This program is intended to provide the Library’s developer community with the knowledge necessary to remediate vulnerabilities uncovered by penetration testing. The Library’s “Project One” initiative will integrate the tools and techniques from this program into their development. This will allow for IT security to be implemented and verified throughout the development lifecycle and reduce the cost of retrofitting the application after the project has completed. The IT Security Group began conducting penetration testing to emulate how a real attacker would attempt to penetrate the Library’s networks. The initial phase centers on the Web-accessible systems the Library uses.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)/508 Accommodation and Compliance
In fiscal 2011, the Library strove to improve the ADA/508 compliance of Library public web pages as well as internal staff-only programs. Two ADA/508 compliance reviews (sign-offs) have been added to the system development lifecycle (SDLC), one at the early design stage and one at the late production test phase. Staff in ITS conduct the tests and sign-offs. Staff members with relevant disabilities are consulted about the ADA requirements or invited to participate in the testing.
The Information Technology Services Directorate maintains a stock of hardware and software products designed to provide ADA/508 reasonable accommodations. During 2011, iPhones, iPads and competitive devices were added to the list of base platforms, which could be tested with software to assist persons who are deaf, blind, or have other disabilities. ITS, the LC Office of Opportunity, Inclusiveness and Compliance (OIC), and the Library of Congress Organization of Employees with Disabilities (OED) co-sponsored a Technology Fair at which approximately 10 vendors gave presentations and demonstrations for LC staff and managers.