Deanna Marcum, Associate Librarian for Library Services Library of Congress
Service units, divisions, and offices within the Library have submitted the information in this briefing document for the attention and use of Library of Congress staff who will attend the American Library Association (ALA) Midwinter Meeting in San Diego, Calif., Jan. 7-11, 2011. The document covers initiatives undertaken at the Library of Congress since the ALA Annual Conference in Washington, D.C., in June 2010. Information in the printed document is valid as of Dec. 27, 2010. This document will be updated regularly until the close of the Midwinter Meeting.
Visit the Library of Congress Exhibit Booth #1751 at the San Diego Convention Center (111 West Harbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92101). The exhibit booth coordinator is Jane Gilchrist. Exhibit hours are:
- Friday, January 7, 5:30 -7:30 p.m.
- Saturday-Sunday, January 8 - 9, 9:00 a.m. -5:00 p.m.
- Monday, January 10, 9:00 a.m. - 2:00 p.m.; wrap-up celebration 2:15-3:30 pm
- The exhibits will not be open on Tuesday, January 11
Library of Congress staff making presentations in the booth theater include: Colleen Cahill, Rebecca Guenther, Patricia Hayward, Margaret Kruesi, Mary Lacy, Guy Lamolinara, Susan Morris, David Pachter, Laverne Page, Robert Patrick, John Sayers, Donna Scanlon, Teri Sierra, George Thuronyi, Peter Vankevich, Janis L. Young, and Helena Zinkham.
A complete schedule of booth theater presentations is available on the “Library of Congress at ALA” Web site, URL <http://www.loc.gov/ala>. Of special note are daily showings of the HISTORY Modern Marvels program featuring the Library of Congress that aired on June 10, 2010 (Friday at 5:30 pm; Saturday at 3:30 pm; Sunday at 9:00 am; and Monday at 1:00 pm), and two showings of the Webcast interview with Sir Paul McCartney on his acceptance of the 2010 Gershwin Prize (Friday at 6:30 pm and Saturday at 9:00 am).
Incentive give-away items at the booth include, from the Cataloging Distribution Service (CDS): LC Classification posters and single copies of the pocket-sized LC Classification system, Understanding MARC Bibliographic, Understanding MARC Authority Records, and What is FRBR? Attendees of the Cataloger’s Desktop and Class Web booth presentations will receive a CDS promotional tote bag. Visitors to the booth are encouraged to take a brief survey to help CDS better understand current professional interests, needs and uses of industry products and services.
Register of Copyrights Announces Intention to Retire
Register of Copyrights Marybeth Peters announced her intention to retire effective Dec. 31, 2010. Ms. Peters has served as Register of Copyrights since Aug. 7, 1994, a tenure longer than any other Register with the exception of Thorvald Solberg, the first Register. Her service to the nation began in the Library of Congress in October 1965, and she began working in the Copyright Office in 1966. During her 45-year career, she has held positions at all levels in the Office including acting general counsel, policy planning advisor, chief of the Examining Division, chief of the Information and Reference Division, attorney-advisor, and music examiner. She also served as a consultant on copyright law to the World Intellectual Property Organization in Geneva (1989-1990). For further information, go to the Copyright Office Web site at URL <www.copyright.gov/history/bios/peters.pdf [PDF, 32KB]>
The Library of Congress posted a vacancy announcement for the position of Register of Copyrights. The announcement closed on Oct. 19, 2010. Librarian of Congress James H. Billington is engaged in the process of interviewing and selecting the next Register of Copyrights, a process that will continue into 2011. The Librarian has named Maria Pallante as the acting Register until the next Register is appointed and assumes the duties of the position. Her previous experience in the Copyright Office includes service as associate register for policy and international affairs and as deputy general counsel.
Triennial Anticircumvention Rulemaking
On July 27, 2010, the Librarian of Congress issued regulations exempting particular classes of works from the prohibition on circumvention of technological protection measures that protect access to copyrighted works. These exemptions permit circumvention with respect to particular classes of works in which technological access protections have been demonstrated to adversely affect noninfringing uses by users of copyrighted works. The exemptions are:
(1) Motion pictures on DVDs that are lawfully made and acquired and that are protected by the Content Scrambling System when circumvention is accomplished solely in order to accomplish the incorporation of short portions of motion pictures into new works for the purpose of criticism or comment, and where the person engaging in circumvention believes and has reasonable grounds for believing that circumvention is necessary to fulfill the purpose of the use in the following instances:
(i) Educational uses by college and university professors and by college and university film and media studies students;
(ii) Documentary filmmaking;
(iii) Noncommercial videos.
(2) Computer programs that enable wireless telephone handsets to execute software applications, where circumvention is accomplished for the sole purpose of enabling interoperability of such applications, when they have been lawfully obtained, with computer programs on the telephone handset.
(3) Computer programs, in the form of firmware or software, that enable used wireless telephone handsets to connect to a wireless telecommunications network, when circumvention is initiated by the owner of the copy of the computer program solely in order to connect to a wireless telecommunications network and access to the network is authorized by the operator of the network.
(4) Video games accessible on personal computers and protected by technological protection measures that control access to lawfully obtained works, when circumvention is accomplished solely for the purpose of good faith testing for, investigating, or correcting security flaws or vulnerabilities, if:
(i) The information derived from the security testing is used primarily to promote the security of the owner or operator of a computer, computer system, or computer network; and
(ii) The information derived from the security testing is used or maintained in a manner that does not facilitate copyright infringement or a violation of applicable law.
(5) Computer programs protected by dongles that prevent access due to malfunction or damage and which are obsolete. A dongle shall be considered obsolete if it is no longer manufactured or if a replacement or repair is no longer reasonably available in the commercial marketplace; and
(6) Literary works distributed in ebook format when all existing ebook editions of the work (including digital text editions made available by authorized entities) contain access controls that prevent the enabling either of the book’s read-aloud function or of screen readers that render the text into a specialized format.
Study on Federalization of Pre-1972 Sound Recordings
Congress has directed the Copyright Office to conduct a study on the desirability and means of bringing sound recordings fixed before Feb. 15, 1972, under federal jurisdiction. Copyright in sound recordings inheres in the fixation of sounds in material objects, such as records or compact discs, and not in the underlying musical or literary work itself. Where rights in a musical work tend to be owned by the composer, rights in a sound recording tend to be owned by the record company, producer, musicians, or some combination thereof. Sound recordings became the subject of federal copyright law on Feb. 15, 1972, and works fixed on or after that date are protected under the Copyright Act. Earlier sound recordings, however, remain protected under a patchwork of state statutory and common laws from their date of creation until 2067 at which time such sound recordings will enter the public domain.
There are many differences between federal copyright protection and state law protection, including the duration of the term of protection and the availability of exemptions. There are also several differences among the states in terms of the scope of sound recording protection and applicable exemptions. Faced with the inconsistent array of State laws that cover pre-1972 recordings, libraries, archives and educational institutions have voiced serious concerns about their legal ability to preserve pre-1972 recordings, and to provide access to them to researchers and scholars. A 2005 study concluded that copyright owners had, on average, made available on CD only 14 percent of the sound recordings they control that were released from 1890 through 1964. Reissues of recordings from before World War II are particularly scarce. Copies of many recordings from these eras reside in libraries and archives. Their custodians, however, are concerned that without the certainty of Federal copyright exceptions, the third-party reproduction and distribution activities necessary to preserve and provide access to these recordings will lack clear legal bases. As a result, some have urged that consideration be given to bringing pre-1972 sound recordings under Federal copyright law in order to provide uniformity in the protection of sound recordings.
In October the Office published a notice of inquiry in the Federal Register seeking comments on the likely effect of federal protection upon preservation and public access, and the effect upon the economic interests of rights holders. The Office is also seeking comments on how the incorporation of pre-1972 sound recordings into federal law might best be achieved. Initial responses to the notice are due by Jan. 31, and reply comments are due by March 2.
Gap in the Termination Provisions of the Copyright Act
Following consultations with songwriters and other stakeholders, and some Congressional offices, the Copyright Office published a Notice of Inquiry in the Federal Register requesting comments on the applicability of the termination provisions in Title 17 to certain grants of transfers and licenses of copyrights made prospectively by authors, specifically those entered into before Jan. 1, 1978 for works that were not created until Jan. 1, 1978 or later (so-called “Gap Grants”). After considerable research and analysis, the Office arrived at the conclusion that Gap Grants are terminable under section 203 as currently codified, because as a matter of law the date of execution of the grant will be on or after Jan. 1, 1978. Until there is a work of authorship, there is no copyright interest, no transfer of that interest, and no author for whom exclusive rights (not to mention termination rights) can vest. 17 U.S.C. §§ 101, 102(a), 106 and 203. Nonetheless, the Copyright Office agrees with many stakeholders that it would be beneficial for Congress to clarify the statute, to ensure greater certainty in the marketplace for the benefit of authors and licensees with respect to the accuracy of copyright ownership. The analysis and recommendation of the Office can be found on the Web site.
The Copyright Office is also conducting a rulemaking regarding the regulations and practices that affect the recordation of section 203 termination notices. As an office of public record, the Copyright Office is aware that section 203 notices will become effective for the first time in 2013. Because recordation with the Copyright Office is a condition of termination under Title 17, the Office seeks to provide maximum guidance to the authors and their heirs, including with respect to timeliness. The rulemaking is designed, in part, to clarify that the Office will accept "gap grants" for recordation under section 203—that is, a notice of termination of a grant agreed to before Jan. 1, 1978, as long as the work that is the subject of the grant was not created before 1978.
Revision of Mandatory Deposit Requirements to Assist the Library of Congress in Acquiring Online-Only Works
On Jan. 25, 2010, the Copyright Office issued an interim regulation regarding the mandatory deposit of online-only works <http://www.copyright.gov/fedreg/2010/75fr3863.pdf [PDF, 203KB]>. The regulation clarifies that electronic works published in the United States and available only online (e.g., with no print version) are exempt from the mandatory deposit provision, but makes such works subject to a demand for deposit of copies or phonorecords issued by the Copyright Office. Under the new rule, demands will initially be limited to electronic serials; other categories of online-only works may be added by subsequent regulatory changes pursuant to the Library’s collection needs. The regulation also specifies that a complete copy of an online-only work must include metadata and formatting codes.and establishes new best edition criteria for electronic serials available only online.
The Library has identified 100 titles from 38 publishers to be included in the initial demands for electronic deposits for eSerials. The demands are part of a larger effort by the Library of Congress to build its collection of electronic works, starting with online journals that have no print counterparts. The Copyright Office issued its first mandatory deposit notice to acquire an electronic serial published only online on Sept. 1, 2010. By the beginning of December, it had issued 12 demands for an additional 43 titles. Electronic deposits have been received from three publishers and several others are ready to be deposited. Publishers are asked to provide article and issue level files in both XML and .PDF file formats. So far, publishers have expressed a great willingness to work with the Library in providing the requested digital content; in many instances they have been eager to deposit more content than requested. Many technical issues remain to be resolved. Thus far, the technology and basic file structure used by each publisher, those who have successfully submitted their eDeposits and the others who are ready to submit, have been substantially different, each requiring individual attention.
The eDeposits initiative, although led by the Copyright Office, is a Library-wide effort with representatives from Law Library, Congressional Research Service, Library Services, Office of Strategic Initiatives and the Copyright Office working collaboratively together in developing policy and system requirements for acquiring, storing, preserving and rendering the digital files of online-only works at the Library of Congress.
After gaining additional experience with this process, the Copyright Office will invite public comment on the operation of the new demand-based system, after which it will finalize the regulation. Each time the Library identifies a new category of work to be subject to demand, the Office will seek public comment and revise the regulations accordingly.
Digitization of Pre-1978 Registration Records
The project to digitize pre-1978 copyright records is proceeding. These records reflect the copyright status and ownership of millions of works and are of vital importance not only to the public, but also to the copyright industries that make up a significant part of the U.S. economy. The digitization project aims to preserve the records and make them publicly available online. The first phase of the project, started in February, involves scanning approximately 2.3 million assignment cards, which serve as indexes to documents recorded in the Copyright Office going back to 1870, and scanning all 660 volumes of the Catalog of Copyright Entries (CCE), an index of U.S. copyright registrations and assignments published from 1891 to 1982. The second phase of the project, which will commence in Fiscal 2011, will involve scanning approximately 9 million registration index cards covering the period 1971-1977.
Reduction of Registration Backlog
In December 2009, the Copyright Office initiated a concerted effort to reduce the number of backlogged claims in process. The Office focused on reducing the number of backlogged claims filed on paper applications, which are relatively more labor-intensive to process compared to claims filed online, and the effort was bolstered by the Librarian of Congress, who authorized short-term details of 51 Library of Congress employees to the Copyright Office to assist the Office in backlog reduction.
By concentrating staff throughout the Copyright Office on the project, and with the short-term help of the additional, Library staff, the Office cleared over 200,000 claims during the first three months of 2010, thereby accomplishing the effort’s goal of reducing the total number of backlogged claims in process by 100,000 by April 1, 2010. The Office is currently approximately 90,000 claims behind its normal operating levels. Efforts to further reduce the backlog of claims in process are continuing.
Office Upgrades Electronic System
The Copyright Office completed an upgrade in August 2010 to its electronic registration system, called the electronic Copyright Office (eCO). The project, started in September 2009, involved moving to a new suite of hardware and to a more current version of the software application on which eCO was built.
The Office undertook the upgrade to improve the way eCO functions for staff and public users. Staff from the Copyright Technology Office (CTO) worked closely with contractors, Library of Congress information technology specialists, and staff from divisions throughout the Copyright Office over many months to accomplish the upgrade. At each phase of the project, extensive testing took place to ensure that the system would function as anticipated when it was released publicly.
Even though eCO’s infrastructure has improved substantially, the look and feel of the system remain mostly the same to users at this point. The most noticeable change involves more system stability. The copyright database was moved to its own environment, and an additional server was introduced to achieve system redundancy. If one server is down, the other server will take over, and problems can be fixed in the background. Now that the basic upgrade has been accomplished, the Office will begin to introduce new system functionality through subsequent releases. These enhancements will be more evident to staff and the public, facilitating eCO use.
Costco Wholesale Corp. v. Omega, S.A.
Omega is a watch company that produces its watches in Switzerland and exports them globally. The back of certain Omega watches includes a tiny engraving of a design that has been registered with the Copyright Office. The watches at issue in this case were first sold by Omega outside the U.S. The watches were then sold to other parties, and eventually were purchased by Costco, which sold them to consumers in California. Omega did not authorize the importation of the watches into or their subsequent sale within the U.S.
Omega filed this lawsuit claiming that Costco has infringed its rights of importation and distribution under sections 602(a) and 106(3) of the Copyright Act. Costco argued that those rights had been exhausted by the application of the first sale doctrine codified in section 109(a) of the Copyright Act. The U.S. District Court for the Central District of California granted Costco’s motion for summary judgment without discussion.
The Ninth Circuit reversed, holding that section 109(a) “is unavailable as a defense to the claims under §§ 106(3) and 602(a)” because the watches were manufactured outside the U.S., and thus outside the reach of section 109(a).
Costco petitioned the Supreme Court for certiorari. The Court asked the Solicitor General for her views. The Solicitor, in consultation with the Copyright Office, Patents and Trademarks Office, and other agencies, advised the Court that the Ninth Circuit decision was correct in light of the Supreme Court’s 1998 ruling in Quality King Distribs., Inc. v. L’Anza Research Int’l, Inc. and thus that certiorari should be denied.
otwithstanding the Solicitor’s recommendation, the Court decided to hear the case.
Oral arguments took place before the Court on Nov. 8, 2010. On Dec. 13, 2010, an equally divided Court affirmed the decision of the Ninth Circuit without an opinion. Although an equal division of the Justices results in an affirmance of the decision, the precedential effect is limited to the Ninth Circuit.
Bean v. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Muench v. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, and Alaska Stock v. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Recently, several courts have addressed when collective work registrations also encompass individual works included within the registered collective works. These cases run counter to the Office’s longstanding practice of recognizing that a collective work registration can also cover the collective work’s component parts if the claimant owns those component parts, regardless of whether the registration specifically identifies these component parts. In Bean v. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Co., 2010 WL 3168624, No. CV10-8034-PCT-DGC (Aug. 10, 2010), photographer Tom Bean sued Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Co. for copyright infringement, alleging that Houghton made more copies of Bean’s photographs than allowed in a license agreement. To bring the lawsuit pursuant to the Copyright Act, Bean had to identify a copyright registration covering his works. Bean relied on copyright registrations for automated databases registered by Corbis as the claimant that included Bean’s photographs. Bean, however, was not named as an author on all of these registrations, and none of the registrations included the titles of Bean’s photographs. Instead, these registrations included the name of the author of the collective work and the title of the automated database.
Houghton moved to dismiss Bean’s lawsuit, claiming that the registrations only covered the collective work, i.e., the selection and arrangement of the component works – not Bean’s works individually – because Bean’s works were not specifically identified in the registration. The district court agreed with Houghton and dismissed the case. Specifically, the court found that Section 409 of the Copyright Act requires applicants to include the author and title of each work in order for these component works to be covered by the registration, and that the registrations Bean relied on did not include such information. The court also rejected Bean’s argument that Section 411 of the Copyright Act, which protects certain registrations with inaccurate information, allowed Bean to move forward. Bean has appealed this decision to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, and the Department of Justice has filed a brief on behalf of the United States Government supporting Bean’s position.
Additionally, two other courts recently decided similar cases. In Muench Photography, Inc. v. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publ’g Co., 712 F.Supp.2d 84 (S.D.N.Y. 2010), another photographer sued Houghton for copyright infringement for using photographs beyond the scope of a licensing agreement. This photographer also relied on a collective work registration for an automated database of photographs that contained the plaintiff’s works, even though the registration did not identify the photographer’s name or title of his works. As in Bean, the court granted Houghton’s motion to dismiss, holding that Section 409 of the Copyright Act requires inclusion of the name of the author of the plaintiff’s component work in the collective work registration if that work is intended to be covered by the registration. Similarly, in Alaska Stock, LLC v. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publ’g Co., 2010 WL 3785720, Case No. 3:09-cv-0061-HRH (Sept. 21, 2010), a stock photography agency obtained copyright registrations for compilations of photographs created by numerous authors. These registrations did not provide the titles for the underlying photographs. The agency attempted to rely on these compilation registrations to sue for infringement of some of the underlying photographs, but the court granted Houghton’s motion to dismiss because the agency did not provide the title and author information for the underlying photographs at issue in the lawsuit. Moreover, the court also concluded that section 103(a) precludes a compilation author from including works authored by others in a registration for the compilation. The court also rejected plaintiff’s argument that the registrations could be saved by Section 411 because the court viewed the registrations as incomplete, not inaccurate.
Vernor v. Autodesk, MDY v. Blizzard, and UMG v. Augusto
The Vernor case was one of three cases appealed to the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit that involved the question of whether a “copy” of a work was owned or licensed. The question is significant because two sections of the Copyright Act -- §109 and §117 – are applicable only when a particular copy of a work is owned by, and not merely licensed to, the person who possesses it. Section 109 encompasses the First Sale Doctrine that allows the owner of a copy lawfully made under title 17 to dispose of that copy, including by rental, lease or lending. The limitations on the exclusive rights of the owners of computer programs contained in section 117 allow the owner of a copy of a computer program to make another copy for archival purposes or to adapt that copy if it is an essential step in the utilization of the copy. Neither exemption applies to licensees of a copy of a work.
The Ninth Circuit decision in Vernor established a test for determining whether a copy is owned or licensed. It stated: “First, we consider whether the copyright owner specifies that a user is granted a license. Second, we consider whether the copyright owner significantly restricts the user's ability to transfer the software. Finally, we consider whether the copyright owner imposes notable use restrictions.” It found that Vernor was a licensee of the computer program it possessed, not an owner of the copy.
On Dec. 14, 2010, the Ninth Circuit issued a decision in the Blizzard appeal. Relying on the test established in Vernor, the court found that MDY was a licensee and therefore could not rely on the section 117 exemption that is available only to owners. However, the Ninth Circuit also analyzed the significance of a violation of a licensing agreement. Specifically, the court distinguished between contractual conditions and contractual covenants. The court held that copyright infringement is implicated by a breach of contract only when the licensee’s action (1) exceeds the license’s scope (2) in a manner that implicates one of the licensor’s exclusive statutory rights. In the Blizzard case, the court found that MDY’s software, which permits users of Blizzard’s video games to advance quickly and, in Blizzard’s view, unfairly through the game and to amass
additional game assets, did not implicate one of Blizzard’s exclusive rights under copyright and thus MDY was not secondarily liable for copyright infringement.
The Copyright Office will continue to monitor the developments on this important intersection between copyright and contract law. The Augusto case, involving promotional CDs of sound recordings has yet to be decided. As a greater variety of copies of works are distributed digitally and accompanied by contractual language, the significance of these issues increases.
David S. Mao was appointed deputy law librarian of Congress in May 2010.
Robert R. Newlen was appointed assistant law librarian for collections, outreach, and services, a new position in the Law Library, in mid-August 2010.
CONGRESSIONAL RELATIONS OFFICE
Preparation for 112th Congress
The new Congress will be sworn in on Wednesday, Jan. 5, 2011. The Congressional Relations Office has already met most of the members of the incoming freshman class in the House; Reps. Steny Hoyer (D-MD) and Eric Cantor (R-VA) hosted events soon after the election in the Jefferson Building and members on both sides of the aisle came to socialize and see the Main Reading Room, Jefferson’s Library and the exhibits.
CRO will be working on meeting the new members’ staff early in the 112th Congress to acquaint them with the Library’s collections and programs. The 112th Congress will establish a new political environment on the Hill. There are a total of 94 new Representatives and 16 new Senators (several in both chambers have served previously as members, and a number were Hill staff). The House of Representatives has 239 Republicans and 190 Democrats; the Senate has 53 Democrats and 46 Republicans.
The Library can expect a difficult FY2012 budget process with pressures to significantly reduce funding of federal agencies. Many new Members were elected on largely anti-Washington themes, and want to cut federal spending significantly, extend the Bush tax cuts, and repeal the recent health care reform legislation. Several indicators of the tight economic environment are already in place; a two-year freeze on increases in federal pay has been instituted, and agencies are asked to develop budget scenarios for various levels of spending cuts.
CRO is also working with the staff of Reps. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) and Robert Aderholt (R-AL), upcoming co-chairs of the Congressional Library of Congress Caucus, on possible events in the next year for current and new Caucus members.
Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2011
While both chambers worked on FY2011 appropriations bills with differing results, it appears that there will be no spending bill that takes the federal government through FY2011. As of the week before the Christmas Day holiday, both parties had reached an agreement to keep the government operating under a continuing resolution into March 2011, keeping spending levels at FY2010 until that time. The Library anticipates that by March there may be appropriations legislation for the duration of the fiscal year that specifies some level of spending cuts for most if not all agencies.
Library of Congress Administrative Operations Improvements
H.R. 5681, introduced on July 28, 2010, would authorize the Library to use proceeds from the sale of surplus Library property for similar procurements, and would make a modification to the funding available to the Library for payment of Workers Compensation claims. The bill passed the House and was still pending before the Senate as of Dec. 20, 2010.
Collaboration with GPO
At the request of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration and the Committee on House Administration, CRO worked with the Law Library and the Information Technology Services Directorate to provide briefings on the Library’s collaborative efforts with the Government Printing Office (GPO) to retrospectively digitize federal legislative content to make this information available to the public. The Library staff explained how the two agencies are drawing on their respective skills and the collections to digitize of the Statutes at Large and Congressional Record, and prepared a Memorandum of Understanding between the agencies to generally govern the collaborative effort and lead to other digitization projects of mutual interest, including a continuously updated public version of the Constitution Annotated.
Appointment of Public Printer
On April 19, 2010, President Obama nominated William J. Boarman, of Maryland, to be Public Printer, to replace Robert Tapella. Mr. Boarman’s appointment was still pending as of Dec. 20, 2010; his reappointment next year will be necessary if the Senate does not confirm him before the 111th Congress adjourns.
Legislative Issues likely to come up in the 112th Congress
Law Library of Congress Private/Public Financing: H.R. 2728
Early in the 111th Congress, Rep. Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) introduced H.R. 2728, the William Orton Law Library Improvement and Modernization Act providing separate budget treatment for the Law Library of Congress. The bill also authorizes $3.5 million for Law Library operations, and creates a new private, nonprofit foundation (the “AWilliam Orton Program”) to provide supplemental funding for the general operation of the Law Library. The House Administration Committee adopted an amendment offered by Rep. Lofgren to re-designate the Law Library as the “National Law Library.” The bill did not pass the Senate before the end of the 111th Congress. Some of these initiatives may be reintroduced in the 112th Congress.
Access to federal government information
Several bills were introduced during the 111th Congress that will not likely be enacted but could be reintroduced in the 112th Congress. These include:
Public Online Information Act: H.R. 4858. The bill, introduced by Rep. Steve Israel (D-NY), would create a 19-member Public Online Information Advisory Committee empowered to issue nonbinding government-wide guidelines on making public information available on the Internet. Six members would be Congressional appointees, but the Committee is intended to comprise not more than 6 government employees. The bill expresses the sense of Congress that publicly available information held by the legislative and judicial branches should be available on the Internet.
Improving Access to Government Information: H.R. 4983. With other provisions relating to changes in ethics and lobbying disclosures, the bill calls for the creation of a centralized database where all earmarks are available in an easy-to-access searchable format, free to the public. Committees would be required to post recorded votes, schedules, and amendments online promptly, and legislation must be publicly available 72 hours before consideration. The House Clerk would publish recorded votes of all Members online; and certain CRS information, paid for with taxpayer dollars, would be available online free of charge to the public.
OFFICE OF SECURITY AND EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS (OSEP)
The Office of Security and Emergency Preparedness continued developing the Library’s security and emergency programs, with a focus on enhancing the emergency preparedness program, updating Continuity of Operations (COOP) plans, enhancing electronic and security controls protecting collections and assets, conducting additional Site Assistance Visits, and planning new collections-security-awareness initiatives.
The Office of Emergency Preparedness conducted successful building evacuation and shelter-in-place drills. The drills were enhanced by improved on-scene communications among the U.S. Capitol Police, Fire Department officials, and the Library’s emergency response personnel and also by streamlined response procedures for disabled and hearing-impaired staff members. The office continued to coordinate revision and updating of Continuity of Operations Plans (COOP) across the Library. Remote-access capabilities for staff working from home were improved as well, necessary for the continuation of support to Congress and the national essential functions in the event of an emergency. During September’s celebration of National Preparedness Month, the office hosted several events for Library staff, including a lecture by Amanda Ripley, author of The Unthinkable: Who Survives When Disaster Strikes – and Why, and a Town Hall Meeting concerning emergency preparedness, security, preventive medicine, and workplace safety.
The Protective Services Office continued enhancing electronic and physical security controls to protect collections and assets in all Library buildings on Capitol Hill. Important security projects were also completed at the Library’s off-site facilities, including Modules 3 and 4 at Fort Meade, Maryland; Landover Center Annex; and Packard Campus in Culpeper, Virginia. The office conducted additional Site Assistance Visits in collaboration with senior librarians/collections management specialists to ensure that divisions continued meeting minimum standards established in the Library’s Strategic Plan for Safeguarding the Collections. Innovative collections-security-awareness initiatives are now being planned by the Collections Security Oversight Committee to highlight preservation, inventory management, and physical security challenges and accomplishments.
- Helena Zinkham was appointed permanent chief of the Prints and Photographs Division, effective Sept. 26.
- Beth Davis-Brown was appointed program coordinator in the Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division, effective July 4.
- Josephus Nelson was appointed Executive Secretariat for Library Services, effective Dec. 5.
- Myron Chace, chief of the Preservation Reformatting Division, retired Dec. 31.
- Kenneth Harris, Preservation Projects Officer for mass deacidification, retired Dec. 31.
- Judith Mansfield, chief of the US/Anglo Division, retired Dec. 31. Allene Hayes is acting chief of the division.
- Dennis McGovern, former chief of the Decimal Classification Division, retired Dec. 31.
- Peter Young, chief of the Asian Division, retired Dec. 31.
Collection Development Office Initiative
For the past fifteen years, the Library has not had a central collections development coordinating office. Under the direction of the Associate Librarian for Library Services, work is underway to re-establish such a unit, to be called the Collection Development Office (CDO). In August 2010, Library Services issued a document, Authorities and Responsibilities of the New Collection Development Office. Currently, administrative steps are being taken to officially establish the Office as an independent entity within Library Services, with a target for completion early in calendar year 2011.
Specific responsibilities for the CDO will include the following: coordinate collection development activities for all formats, subjects, languages, custodial units, and sources of acquisition; prepare annual acquisitions plans, budgets, and targets; maintain all collections policy documents; coordinate and/or conduct collection assessments; manage collection development agreements between Library Services and external entities; manage contracts and licenses for electronic materials; coordinate training for all staff directly involved in collection development; provide guidance to Recommending Officers (librarians with collection development responsibilities); provide analytical reports and data about the Library’s collections; and coordinate all acquisitions travel in Library Services.
The Collection Development Office will be established initially with a staff of five, including the Collection Development Officer, a statistician, and three collection development specialists. Long range, CDO staffing may grow to nine, with the addition of an administrative Officer, budget and performance management analyst, information technology specialist, and an additional collection development specialist.
Hathi Trust Agreement
The Library of Congress has signed an agreement with the University of Michigan to become a member of the Hathi Trust, a partnership of major research institutions and libraries working to ensure that the cultural record is preserved and accessible long into the future. Since Hathi focuses on preserving digitized books and journals, it is a complement to LC’s digital preservation program in the born-digital arena.
National Book Festival
Associate Librarian for Library Services Deanna Marcum now has ongoing responsibility for the management of the National Book Festival. The 2010 Festival on Sept. 25 attracted 150,000 book-lovers with the theme “A Decade of Words and Wonder.” With the assurance of long-term funding from the donation announced May 6, 2010, of $1 million per year for the next five years from David M. Rubenstein, co-founder and managing director of The Carlyle Group, the Library will now be able to expand the one-day festival into a fully integrated program that emphasizes books, reading, and the library as a place of discovery and learning.
West Africa Project
The Library of Congress is developing an acquisitions pilot with the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC), the West African Research Association (WARA), and the West African Research Center (WARC) in Dakar, Senegal. This collaborative effort with the U.S. research community will attempt to survey publishing output in the region and to collect materials that are available either through purchase, exchange, or gift sources. The work is experimental and no long-term commitment or decisions about the future of the Library's acquisitions in West Africa have been made. The project is limited at this time to acquisitions for the Library of Congress.
Library of Congress Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control
The Library continues to pursue several projects in response to the recommendations of the LC Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control in its report On the Record. Library Services is working with the National Library of Medicine and National Agricultural Library to test the proposed cataloging standard, Resource Description and Access, for feasibility, compatibility with existing metadata, cost-effectiveness, and user satisfaction before decisions are made regarding implementation of the new standard. The testing began with a 3-month learning period from July through September 2010, followed by the formal test record creation period from October through December. The three national libraries will host two open meetings, for vendors and for the general community, at the San Diego Convention Center on Sunday, Jan. 9, in conjunction with the ALA Midwinter Meeting. The vendors’ meeting will be from 8:00-9:00 am. The general-interest meeting will be from 10:30 am to 12:00 pm. The U.S. National Libraries RDA Test Steering Committee is co-chaired by Christopher Cole (National Agricultural Library) and Beacher Wiggins (Library of Congress).
On the Record, Section 1.1, Eliminate Redundancies, made several recommendations for using externally available bibliographic data and for further automating the Cataloging in Publication (CIP) process. The Library has followed up by piloting a method to generate MARC 21 records from publishers’ ONIX data, as described under Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate in this document.
Associate Librarian for Library Services Deanna Marcum convened the Working Group in November 2006 to address how the Library of Congress and the library community should address the popularity of the Internet, advances in search-engine technology, and the influx of electronic information resources. The Working Group's final report and recommendations, published in January 2008 as On the Record, are available at URL <www.loc.gov/bibliographic-future/>. Also available on the Web site is Dr. Marcum’s response, dated June 1, 2008, to the Working Group.
ACQUISITIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC ACCESS DIRECTORATE (ABA)
Asian and Middle Eastern Division
The Asian and Middle Eastern Division plans to move to temporary quarters in February 2011 while its workspace is reconfigured to accommodate acquisitions and cataloging functions. The division office, Middle Eastern and Southeast/South Asian Sections will go to the third floor of the Madison Building, while the China, Northeast Asia and Israel & Judaica Sections will move to another location on the fifth floor of the building. It is estimated that the moves will take place over a two-week period. The division is scheduled to reoccupy its reconfigured workspace in August.
BIBCO Standard Record
The Library implemented the BIBCO standard record as its default level of cataloging for textual materials in October 2010. This BSR replaces the BIBCO Core Level Standard for Books that had been LC’s base level of cataloging since 1997. Additional standards for non-textual materials are being developed and some will be implemented at LC when they are approved.
The BSR Metadata Application Profile represents a “floor” record that promotes an essential set of elements to support user tasks to find, identify, select, and obtain needed resources. Emphasis is given to access points, not to extensive descriptive data. The BSR includes elements that are mandatory (M) for all records, and those that are mandatory where applicable (A). It avoids requiring unessential and redundant elements. Although records following the BSR are considered to be as full as is necessary for user tasks, the BSR also emphasizes cataloger judgment to provide elements above the “floor” if the additional information is warranted based on cataloger judgment, awareness of additional local user needs, local business factors, local system or program needs, etc. The Library of Congress has also supplemented the MAP with a few additional mandatory and mandatory if applicable elements.
With the implementation of the BSR, all LC records for textual materials are once again coded with the value "pcc" in MARC field 042. The Ldr/17 (Encoding level) in completed records will be '8' (for CIP titles at the prepublication stage) or blank (for all other titles). At the Initial Bibliographic Control (IBC) stage, non-CIP records will continue to be identified as being "in-process" with encoding level 5.
Cataloging Distribution Service – see under PARTNERSHIPS AND OUTREACH PROGRAMS DIRECTORATE/BUSINESS ENTERPRISES
Cataloging in Publication (CIP)
Karl Debus-López, chief of the US General Division and acting chief of the US and Publisher Liaison Division, is currently responsible for the Cataloging in Publication program.
The CIP Advisory Group will not meet at Midwinter. A meeting is planned for ALA Annual Conference in New Orleans, June 2011.
The ECIP Cataloging Partners Program gained three new member libraries since ALA Annual Conference. The University of Pennsylvania joined the program and went into production on July 8, 2010. Queens Public Library and the Frick Art Reference Library joined the program in late autumn. Queens will handle all CIP submissions for children’s books from the publishers Charlesbridge and Chronicle. Queens will not handle any young adult titles. Training at Queens began in November 2010.
Northwestern University Libraries, a longtime ECIP Cataloging Partner, expressed interest in cataloging African studies in the program. The USPL Division with Northwestern developed a two-stage plan to implement routing ECIPs on subject areas under the umbrella of African studies to Northwestern for cataloging.
The ECIP cataloging partners collectively cataloged 4,365 titles in fiscal 2010.
Addition of AMS headings to ECIP Records. American Mathematical Society subject terms are included in ECIP records in addition to, not in place of, Library of Congress Subject Headings. AMS subject terms appear in MARC 21 field 650 with the second indicator value “7” and the subfield 2 code “msc,” the source code for the Mathematics Subject Classification. In addition, a pilot began mid-August to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating the AMS classification schemes in bibliographic records through an automated subject heading generation process.
BISAC Codes/Automated MARC 21 Records from ONIX. The US and Publisher Liaison Division continued to enhance its ONIX/MARC converter program to generate bibliographic descriptions that can be edited by librarians. During fiscal 2010 a total of 2,810 bibliographic records were produced by the ONIX/MARC converter. A recent enhancement to ONIX records is the BISAC (Book Industry Subject and Content) codes that the publisher supplies. These codes are used in the book industry supply chain and in book stores to group similar publications together, e.g. drama, history, cooking, etc. At the request of publishers, LC has started including these BISAC codes in the MARC 084 field and also converting these codes into their textual equivalents, which are given in the 650 field with the second indicator value set to "7" (Source specified in subfield $2) and "bisacsh" in subfield $2. There are usually one code and one subject string. These codes and subject headings provide greater subject access for users.
New CIP Security Requirements. In accordance with the Library's security requirements, the CIP Program implemented new security and password measures. Beginning Oct. 14th, 2010, all ECIP/EPCN participants are required to change their passwords every 60 days. With the new security in place, CIP publisher liaisons are no longer able to view or supply existing passwords on requests as before. However, they will be able to reset passwords for publishers.
Collaboration with the University of Florida. Permission has now been granted to make available to the University of Florida via FTP the 23,870 records for the pre-1976 congressional hearings that have been reclassified into the KF schedule. The University of Florida will use these records to place under bibliographic control its own collection of hearings. In the process, it will enhance the records with SUDOC numbers and possibly other data, and then share these enhancements with the Library of Congress.
Cataloging Policy – see Policy and Standards
Children’s and Young Adults’ Cataloging Program
As of September 2010 the Annotated Card Program is officially renamed the Children’s and Young Adults’ Cataloging Program. The Library of Congress initiated the Annotated Card Program in the fall of 1965. Though renamed, the program will continue to provide the same services. The new name that now contains the word “cataloging” better defines the activity of the program. The inclusion of “children” and “young adult” in the name specifically identifies the audience for the types of materials handled by the program. The Children’s Literature Section of the U.S. and Publisher Liaison Division is responsible for the Children’s and Young Adults’ Cataloging Program. It catalogs the wide range of fiction material published for children and young adults. The records created, which include objective and succinct summaries of the books, are primarily used by publishers, school libraries, and public libraries. The section also develops new children’s subject headings, proposes changes to existing headings, monitors the policies and practices of children’s cataloging, keeps abreast of trends in children’s publishing, and responds to queries related to the cataloging of children’s and young adults’ material. The Children’s Literature Section actively participates in the American Library Association Committee on Cataloging of Children’s Materials and solicits its advice and feedback when developing policy for children’s cataloging.
Cooperative Cataloging Programs/Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division
The Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division provides the secretariat for the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) and its component programs, BIBCO (monograph bibliographic record contributions), CONSER (cooperative serials cataloging), NACO (name authority cooperative program) and SACO (subject and classification authority program). The current chair of the PCC is John Riemer, University of California at Los Angeles.
The Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) recognizes the importance of establishing and maintaining a clear, consistent branding application of PCC visual identity in members’ communication and marketing efforts. In December 2010, the PCC issued a new logo and accompanying design manual that sets out the basic principles behind our visual brand identity and provides guidelines on its application. The manual along with all the PCC brand identity assets in many different file formats will be available from the PCC Web site after ALA Midwinter Meeting.
Despite financial pressures and staffing reductions at many member institutions, the PCC added 63 members in 2010, an increase of ten percent. The BIBCO program produced 76,079 monograph records in fiscal 2010, compared to 74,412 in 2009. CONSER participants created 29,131 new serial records, compared to 32,508 in 2009. NACO members contributed 233,420 new name authority records to the National Authority File, compared to 221,555 in 2009. Members of SACO proposed 3,930 new Library of Congress Subject Headings, a slight increase over the 3,739 subject heading proposals in 2009. Training sponsored by the PCC included 37 sessions for 304 staff from 104 PCC institutions.
Two new associate level CONSER members were added: American University in Cairo and University of Colorado at Boulder. Five new members joined a new CONSER American Theological Library Association funnel: Harvard Divinity School, St. Paul School of Theology, Golden Gate Baptist Theological Seminary, Concordia Theological Seminary, Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Drew University.
The SACO program reached a milestone in FY2010: the 50,000th SACO proposal, “Pug in art”, was approved and added to LCSH. The SACO program welcomed two new subject funnels in FY 2010: the Slavic Subject Funnel Project and the SACO Music Funnel. The Slavic Subject Funnel Project, under the coordination of Joanna Epstein, Harvard University, was launched in August 2010 with four charter institutional members: Holy Trinity Seminary Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of Chicago, and Harvard University. The funnel anticipates contributing SACO proposals for all subject areas in Slavic-related disciplines. The Music Funnel was organized in June 2010 under the coordination of Michael Colby, University of California—Davis. Historically, SACO proposals for music-related headings were submitted via the NACO Music Funnel. The creation of the SACO Music Funnel should streamline the contributions through the coordination of review and submission by the funnel coordinator. In addition, the SACO Music Funnel will be heavily involved in the LCSH Genre/Form Initiatives, in anticipation of the incorporation of music genre/form headings contributed through the SACO Program.
The PCC Participants Discussion Group Meeting will be Sunday, Jan. 9, 2011, from 4:00-5:30 pm, in the San Diego Convention Center, Room 26. The program will feature a panel of speakers on “PCC and RDA: Breaking the Silence.” Beacher Wiggins will speak, as co-chair of the U.S. RDA National Test Coordinating Committee. Other panelists will discuss their experiences in the national test of the new cataloging instructions, Resource Description and Access.
NUCMC (National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections). In conjunction with the upcoming commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the Civil War, NUCMC staff are developing plans to highlight unknown related materials in repositories.
EZB (Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek/Electronic Journal Library). In fiscal 2010 the Library of Congress reevaluated its continued membership in the Electronic Journal Library (EZB). This was precipitated by a change in the University of Regensburg’s enrollment requirements that shifted the cooperative database of 51,000 electronic journal resources to a system with an annual fee of 500 euros. After consideration, experts at the Library of Congress concluded that there was justification to continue with the fee-based resource. Several problem areas surfaced that will be addressed during 2011.
A major reason for LC to participate had been the opportunity to gain free access to approximately 25,000 full-text peer-reviewed e-journals through one database. Our assumption was that the majority of these titles (80%) were not otherwise available to LC. We also assumed that EZB titles were automatically refreshed through bi-annual shipments of metadata from the Zeitschriftendatenbank (ZDB) in Berlin.
Other priorities prevented the incorporation of the metadata to Library of Congress Electronic Resources Management System as anticipated. As a result, aggregator titles in the EZB were not updated. Also, because of the Library’s ongoing negotiations with Serials Solutions, Inc., many of the electronic titles provided through the EZB could, in theory, be accessible through our aggregators if the proper packages containing those titles were turned on. While questions remain as to how that should be accomplished through Serials Solutions, the LC membership in the EZB was continued.
Since June 2010, the EZB has created a new administrative function that allows aggregator packages to be turned on by the EZB administrator in each participating institution. This will allow the Library of Congress to efficiently update the large number of aggregator titles indicated on our EZB Web pages and provide a channel through which we can add additional packages not available to other member libraries.
International Exchange Service. In order to sustain the free flow of national government information, the Library of Congress (LC) has undertaken a project to transform the U.S. International Exchange Service (IES) program. The transformation effort expects to embrace the analog and digital publishing environment; to achieve a flexibility sufficient to meet individual country needs in terms of the format of the content delivered to them; to recommend or identify tools to ingest, archive, preserve, and provide access to digital content received by the Library under the IES; and to meet the Library's continuing collection development needs. The Library of Congress, the Chilean Library of Congress, the National Library of Australia, the National Library of France, the National Library of Korea, and the Russian State Library have agreed to work together to develop models for “exchange” in the digital publishing environment. Gaining access in a systematic way to the government publications of other countries will benefit the Library’s user communities that avail themselves of the LC online catalogs and research facilities. Initial work for the Library of Congress was led by Judith Mansfield. Technical work will be managed by digital project coordinators Allene Hayes (ABA) and Megan Caverly (ILS Program Office).
ISSN (International Standard Serial Number). The ISSN is a unique, standardized number that identifies a serial title worldwide, regardless of language or place of publication. The Library of Congress US and Publisher Liaison Division houses the ISSN Center for the U.S., a part of the international ISSN Network. The Center manages the U.S. ISSN program, creates ISSN catalog records, and coordinates with OCLC, Inc., and standards organizations on issues related to the ISSN.
The ISSN Network completed an informal test of Resource Description and Access (RDA) coordinated by François-Xavier Pelegrin, Head of the Bibliographic Section at the ISSN International Centre, and Regina Romano Reynolds, ISSN Coordinator and member of the U.S. RDA Test Coordinating Committee. Network testers created records using both RDA and the rules in the ISSN Manual and provided input for the ISSN Network comments that will be submitted to the RDA Testing Coordinating Committee. Test results were also communicated to directors of ISSN centers.
Regina Romano Reynolds was appointed by the National Information Standards Organization to the International Standards Organization’s working group to revise ISO 8, “Documentation: Presentation of Periodicals” (ISO 8:1977). This standard outlines what information about the publication should be present in journals and how that information should be presented. Ms. Reynolds will serve as convener or co-convener.
LOCKSS/IEX Project. The IEX/LOCKSS Project will continue for a period of another two years and was formalized in a new cooperative agreement during FY2010. The LOCKSS Steering Committee headed by Linda Stubbs, Germanic and Slavic Division chief, and Donald Panzera, consultant to the project, worked for months to evaluate the results of our project strategy, and to develop proposals for the next phase. In October they traveled to Munich, Germany for a one day meeting hosted by the Bavarian State Library and also attended by participants from the State Library of Berlin. The results of the meeting were agreements to streamline the project working with a new management plan. As a result, a new cooperative agreement was developed and sent to the Bavarian State Library, the German National Library, the State Library of Berlin, and the University Library of Regensburg; each of the libraries have returned signed copies of the agreement.
During fiscal 2010 major efforts were made to improve our communications with project partners through the establishment of a contacts list and an IEX/LOCKSS listserv. Responsibilities were clearly assigned to individuals at each institution who were provided with information about the project by our technical advisor, Andrew Lisowski, Integrated Library System Program Office, through a Listserv.
Members of the committee met with Klaus Kempf of the Bavarian State Library, and Rafael Ball and Evelinde Hutzler of the University Library of Regensburg at the Library late in June. Methods and procedures to improve the project’s ability to harvest content were discussed with an emphasis on insuring that participating institutions would acquire the skills necessary to develop in-house expertise.
LC has proposed to provide content to the project by attempting to harvest LCIB or a similarly library-owned electronic journal once permissions have been obtained; the Bavarian State Library already has cached content into its LOCKSS box, and Regensburg has agreed to the configuration of a LOCKSS box and will also contribute institutionally owned, peer-reviewed content.
Policy and Standards
Dept./Department. The Library of Congress will not undertake changing headings with the abbreviation “Dept.” to the fuller form at this time. Between Aug. 20-Oct. 1, 2010, the Library requested comments from the library community on changing “Dept.” to “Department” to follow the longstanding AACR2 provision (which is also incorporated into RDA: Resource Description and Access) of not abbreviating "department" in headings unless it is abbreviated by the body on the resource from which the name has been taken. The few comments received by the Policy and Standards Division, Library of Congress via email showed a clear preference for making this change but the limited response did not constitute a mandate. In addition those opposed to the change had solid reasons for not undertaking the change at this time. Consequently, the Library’s Policy and Standards Division will NOT proceed with implementing the change now. Questions may be sent to the Policy and Standards Division, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Updating Cookery access points. In the largest project ever undertaken to change specific vocabulary in the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), in 2010 the Library of Congress Policy and Standards Division (PSD) completed the change of “Cookery” headings to “Cooking” and introduced the term “Cookbooks.” To accomplish the change, 788 proposals for new, deleted, or changed subject headings were required. Approximately 100,000 associated bibliographic records required changes in subject access points, of which more than 40,000 were revised by the end of September. Of the remaining 50,000 to 60,000, each will have a MARC field 655 containing the genre/form term “Cookbooks” added, manually, record by record. As is customary when the Library of Congress is considering a large-scale change to LCSH, the Policy and Standards Division publicized the planned change widely and invited comments from the community. The 98 comments received showed that the library community would welcome the change in general, and the comments helped PSD decide among alternatives for particular changes. The change of the Cookery subject headings also allowed PSD to authorize the use of the genre/form heading Cookbooks and to apply it. The application of this particular heading offers an opportunity for an intimate glimpse into the cultural record.
Authorities & Vocabularies Service update. The vision for the Authorities & Vocabularies service http://id.loc.gov , which went live in April 2009, is focused on the automatic generation of metadata for digital documents, digital tables of contents, and digital summaries. The service provides code lists, subject headings, and other terminologies, which can be used to automatically provide codes, suggest subject headings and alternate terminology from various lists, and enrich searching. The Authorities & Vocabularies service is free and open to the public for searching, downloading, and linking to any of the data contained in the service.
By October 2010, the Authorities and Vocabularies Web site contained the Library of Congress Subject Headings (containing more than 400,000 subject headings)and the Thesaurus for Graphic Materials, along with several other lists of controlled terms used with MARC 21; two lists of preservation terms; and cryptographic hash marks. These registered, controlled vocabularies are expressed in SKOS format (Simple Knowledge Organization Schema). People can submit comments, suggestions, corrections, etc., to the data found in the registered vocabularies. In 2010, the Library of Congress implemented the “Terminology Suggestion” feature in LCSH, from which we have received 16 suggestions for updated or new terminology. New applications developed using LCSH/SKOS data include: the HIVE (Helping Interdisciplinary Vocabulary Engineering) project (Metadata Research Center, University of North Carolina) that is exploring automatic application of LCSH terminology to bibliographic information; Library of Congress Subject Headings (ZVON.org)--robust LCSH searching geared toward human users; EUROVOC (European Union), that is supporting a developing, interoperable union list of vocabularies in the EU; STW Web Services (German National Library of Economics); TELplus WP3.1 (The European Library), a full-text search engine prototype using LCSH vocabulary; Browsing LCSH (Universitätsbibliothek Braunschweig ); LC Subjects.org, a mirror site to id.loc.gov that allows institutions to create their own URIs and do experiments with LCSH data; and a project at the National Diet Library (Japan) using LCSH in both English and Japanese headings.
Library of Congress Subject Headings concepts within the Authorities & Vocabularies service include links to associated French concepts from the RAMEAU service of the Bibliothèque nationale de France. To provide portions of LCSH in additional languages within Authorities & Vocabularies, LC is working with the Université Laval, Canada, for its French-Canadian subject heading system, Répertoire des vedettes- matière, based on LCSH, and with the national libraries of Chile and Spain for their respective Spanish subsets of LCSH. In 2010, LC began exploring possibilities with the Bibliotheca Alexandrina for Arabic.
Genre/form update. The genre/form project has added two new vocabularies since the middle of 2010, and two other projects are proceeding. PSD is also preparing to cancel and reissue all of the genre/form authority records to accommodate revisions to their MARC coding.
Cartography project. On May 19, 2010 approximately 60 genre/form headings for cartographic resources were approved, and the accompanying changes to cartographic form subdivisions were approved on Aug. 18. Shortly thereafter, on Sept. 1, LC’s Geography and Map Division implemented both the revised subdivisions and new genre/form headings. As of late December 2010, PSD is accepting SACO proposals for cartographic genre/form headings.
Law project. The American Association of Law Libraries’ Classification and Subject Cataloging Policy Advisory Working Group started developing a list of genre/form terms for law in 2007. The working group and LC’s Cataloging Policy and Support Office (CPSO, now the Policy and Standards Division) soon agreed that they should team up to develop the terms, which would be incorporated into Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials (LCGFT).
In October 2009 the AALL Cataloging and Classification Committee approved its thesaurus of terms and the working group presented it to PSD. Working group members and LC staff then worked together to ensure that each term fits into the structure of LCGFT. The law genre/form terms were approved on Nov. 3, 2010. The Library of Congress plans to implement the terms in new cataloging in early 2011; an announcement will be made when the specific date has been determined.
Religion project. The American Theological Library Association (ATLA) and PSD have partnered to develop the genre/form terms in the area of religion, and ATLA is also coordinating the participation of smaller library organizations organized around religion, such as the Catholic Library Association. ATLA has created a wiki for interested parties to suggest terms and discuss issues related to them.
Music project. The Music Library Association (MLA) has partnered with PSD to develop genre/form terms in the area of music. They have agreed to a list of more than 800 genre/form terms to date, and are also developing a list of mediums of performance and discussing where the mediums should be coded within the MARC record.
Authority records to be reissued. No earlier than March 1, 2011, PSD will revise the LCCNs and MARC 21 coding of the genre/form authority records. To accomplish this, all of the approximately 700 LCGFT authority records with an “sh” prefix in the LC Control Number (LCCN) will be cancelled and replacement records for them will be issued with new LCCNs with a “gf” prefix. The then-deprecated LCCNs beginning “sh” will be retained in subfield $z of the MARC 010 field. The new MARC coding for these genre/form records will be an 008/11 value of “z” (Other) and an 040 subfield $f value of “lcgft.” PSD plans to cancel all of the existing records and issue new ones simultaneously. A firm date will be announced when it is available. More information on these changes can be found at http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/gf_lccn.html.
Further information on LC’s genre/form projects, including an extensive FAQ, timeline, discussion papers and announcements, is available at URL <http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/genreformgeneral.html>.
New System for Creating LCSH Subject Heading Proposals. In late January the Policy and Standards Division will implement a new system for creating online subject proposals in Minaret, similar to the classification proposal system and using the same login and password currently used for classification proposals. The new system will streamline the process for proposing new and revised subject headings.
LCSH Validation Records. The creation of validation records continued at a steady pace during 2010, with 33,200 records created by program, a very substantial increase over last year’s production of 8,500. To date there are over 80,000 validation records in the LCSH master file. These records were generated from LCSH subject heading strings used in bibliographic records, for which no authority records had previously been created. The addition of validation records facilitates machine validation of subject access points for all cataloging agencies that use LCSH.
Pilot Project to Test Addition of 072 Subject Coding to Subject Authority Records. In 2006 the Library of Congress’ Director of Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access (ABA) requested a review of the pros and cons of pre- versus post-coordination of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). The Cataloging Policy and Support Office (CPSO, now the Policy and Standards Division, or PSD) responded in 2007 with the report entitled, “Library of Congress Subject Headings: Pre- vs. Post-Coordination and Related Issues.” As reported in May 2010, the PSD continues initiatives to improve LCSH. One of the action items (see section 3(f) of the “Pre- vs. post-coordination…” paper) was to “Continue to develop automated authority record generation and validation to simplify the cataloger’s effort and to improve accuracy for new subject headings assigned.” PSD will launch a pilot project in 2011 to add MARC field 072, Subject Category Code, to a subset of LCSH authority records. This project will add the Subject Headings Manual instruction sheet number, for example “H 1150,” to the subject authority records for applicable topical subjects.
072 $a H 1180
150 Orchids [sh 85095334]
The presence of this number will indicate that the heading falls into the specific category covered by the guidelines in that instruction sheet, and that the free-floating subdivisions listed in that instruction sheet are valid for use under the heading. The idea is that machines could be used to recognize whether an individual subdivision is appropriate for use with an individual heading. Machines also could then use that data to automatically validate a new subject string when no existing subject heading string is available for matching. Currently, “heading control” functions such as OCLC’s can determine only whether a particular subdivision exists, not whether it is applied appropriately. Subdivision records have included the corresponding 073 codes for the Subject Headings Manual instruction sheet numbers, and this process would complete the connections. Results of this pilot project will be reported before any decision is made to expand the effort. SACO libraries should not use the 072 field yet. Because of the experimental nature of the project, the Library of Congress' Policy and Standards Division will be the only institution adding data in the 072 field. Expansion of the use of the field will be announced as the experiment progresses.
Cataloger’s Desktop and Classification Web. (See also PARTNERSHIPS AND OUTREACH PROGRAMS DIRECTORATE/Business Enterprises/Cataloging Distribution Service) In 2010, the Library of Congress launched Cataloger’s Desktop 3.0, a major modernization of its popular Web-based subscription service of important cataloging and metadata resources. Desktop now provides access to more than 300 electronic manuals, cataloging and classification standards, procedures, and resources. Version 3.0 added operational enhancements that greatly expanded its search and information-discovery features: cutting-edge searching and navigation techniques, including fuzzy matching; finding/excluding similar resources; dynamic drill-downs; contextual analysis; search relevancy; remembering search histories; query federation; faceted search drill-downs; and a search engine that adapts to a user’s search behavior.
Classification Web, the online version of the Library of Congress Classification scheme (LCC), saw a number of enhancements that began to be tested at the end of August 2010. The enhancements included the addition of the LC/NACO authority file (personal and corporate names), expansion of the correlations feature to provide correlations between the National Library of Medicine classification and LCC, a new design layout, better navigation tools, and an updated Help file. These enhancements were achieved while preserving users’ familiarity with the former system. At the same time, there were also upgrades of the internal system to ensure continuous operation and better performance. The LCC now contains more than 629,000 classification records.
Romanization Tables. The romanization table for the Liberian language Vai was approved by the ALA Committee on Cataloging: Asian & African Materials (CC:AAM) and will be available online at the ALA-LC Romanization Tables Web page at URL http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/roman.html as well as in issue number 128 of Cataloging Service Bulletin. The proposals for the revision of the Thai Romanization table also appear in issue number 128 of CSB and comments are welcome by March 31, 2011.
Program for Cooperative Cataloging – see Cooperative Cataloging Programs
|Bibliographic Records Completed||FY10||FY09||FY08|
|Minimal level cataloging||15,088||12,834||29,307|
|Total records completed||272,422||243,884||313,313|
|Total volumes cataloged||365,725||313,182||350,631|
|New name authority records||103,525||111,727||91,016|
|New Library of Congress Subject Headings||53,900||22,344||35,748*|
|New LC Classification Numbers||2,674||2,800||1,818|
|Total authority records created||160,099||109,686||136,871|
*Includes subject-subdivision strings to support automated validation.
AFC reference staff members provide extensive services to researchers by phone, e-mail, and in person. For more information and webcasts of symposia, concerts, and lectures, see the American Folklife Center Web site, www.loc.gov/folklife or call 202-707-5510.
Veterans History Project of the American Folklife Center (VHP)
This congressionally mandated public outreach/collection development project continues to expand. In 2010, its tenth year, more than 6,000 additional collections were donated and more are received weekly. Organizations nationwide, including many libraries, have joined the effort to help gather and submit oral histories and supporting items for the VHP collection. Descriptions of the more than 70,000 collections can be searched at the VHP’s Web site at URL <www.loc.gov/vets>. More than 9,000 selected narratives are digitized, of which 20 percent offer transcripts and are viewable at the project’s Web site, along with a series of themed presentations under the title “Experiencing War.” All collections are served in the Library’s American Folklife Center Reading Room.
The Veterans History Project relies on a nationwide network of volunteers and organizations to collect veterans’ interviews. Libraries are a valued resource in this effort, distributing information, coordinating VHP interviewing events, and making their facilities available to local VHP volunteers. For additional information, see the project Web site at URL <www.loc.gov/vets>, or phone 202-707-4916.
COLLECTIONS AND SERVICES DIRECTORATE
Federal Research Division
FRD Military Legal Resources Web site. Continued funding from the Army Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School has allowed FRD to significantly increase the size of the Military Legal Resources Web site at URL <http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/military-legal-resources-home.html>. It now has 1,540 documents (276,154 full-text, searchable document pages) relevant to U.S. military law (including rare historical documents). Among the significant additions to the site since June 2009 are the Selected Papers of Edmund M. Morgan, Jr. on the drafting of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (digitized from the Harvard University Law School Library Manuscripts Collection); Rule of Law Handbook, 2009; Official Records of the Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts (from the Geneva Conventions); Handling Prisoners of War; Operational Law Handbook, 2010; Deploying Justice: A Handbook for the Chief of Military Justice; Detainee Review Boards in Afghanistan: From Strategic Liability to Legitimacy; Customary International Humanitarian Law, 2005 (from the International Committee of the Red Cross); and Guide for Summary Courts-Martial Trial Procedure. These documents were previously unavailable to a wide audience. The Morgan Papers are of special importance because Harvard University Law School joined with the Library to digitize these manuscript holdings and make them available on the FRD’s site.
FRD Country Studies. One book, Colombia, was published in September 2010. Two books are under way (Indonesia and Sudan) and in various stages of completion. We expect Indonesia to be published in January. Funded by the Department of Defense, the new books are no longer Army publications but publications of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The recently published books include Iranand North Korea.
FRD POW/MIA Database. This congressionally mandated effort, ongoing since 1993, is current with the most recently released documents on unaccounted-for Americans from the War in Southeast Asia. Previously microfilmed documents are almost all inked to image files for online retrieval. The complete linking to 151,883 indexed documents was completed in FY2010 and the completed linking to all 157,432 documents is expected during fiscal 2011.
Other digital initiatives. During fiscal 2010, FRD was funded to digitize the eight-volume Chemical Encyclopedia of North Korea (Pangyok chonso) and the collected works of North Korean leader Kim Jong-il. Both sets of printed materials came from the Library’s holdings, and the digitized files were made available to the Asian Division for public access.
Geography and Map Division
The Geography and Map Division (G&M) has remained active in developing its cartographic holdings, in making known those holdings, and in providing service to its patrons. The Division holds more than 5.5 million maps; 80,000 atlases; 500 globes and globe gores; 3000 raised relief images; and more than 20,000 digital files. In fiscal 2010 G&M increased access to its hidden collections, through the African Set map project funded by the Council on Library and Information Resources, the collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency to scan and to inventory its 32,000+ Coast and Geodetic Survey chart holdings, and the continuing inventory of its foreign nautical chart holdings. To date more than 130,000 sheets from the three projects are now inventoried and in the Library’s catalog database. The Division is pleased at the completion of the Congressional Geospatial Data System, through which basic Geographic Information Systems functions are provided to Library staff including the Congressional Research Service, and eventually to Congressional staff.
The Division continued to collect both contemporary and retrospective items for its collection, which is the largest map collection in the world. Fiscal 2010 saw a substantial reduction in the amount of geospatial materials acquired through Copyright deposit or Federal mapping agency deposits. The items acquired numbered 26,823 in FY2010 as compared to 35,000 in FY2009. The G&M Division collected both contemporarily relevant geospatial items, as well as, historical items to fill in gaps in its collection, using appropriated funds, the special allotment from the Phillips Society, and the Foreign Map Procurement Program at the Department of State, for which the Library pays an annual fee. The G&M Division expanded its outstanding collection of U.S. county atlases and maps and panoramic maps of American cities. It also added a 1:50,000 topographic set and complete nautical chart coverage of Iran produced by the Iranian National Cartographic Center; the Cormac McConnell Map and Economic Survey Collection, 290+ maps and related economic surveys covering the economic development of Southern California from the 1920s-1970s; the manuscript archive from the U.S.-Great Britain dispute over the Canadian border (1802) from one of the three commissioners, Egbert Benson; and the Geographers on Film Archive of the Association of American Geographers with more than 380 hours of video interviews of noted 20th century geographers.
The Division oversaw the completion of the 5 year rehousing of its U.S. map collections, with more than 185,000 items rehoused.
The division had a 16 percent increase in the number of items cataloged in fiscal 2010: 7,437 items cataloged with some 66% non-English language items as we maintain and enhance our global holdings. Through its African Set Map Project, G&M has created records for more than 70,000 sheets of multi-sheet maps sets on Africa; some 4,000 of its more than 32,000 Coast and Geodetic Survey Charts have been scanned. The Division’s scanning team produced more than 5,890 scanned maps in fiscal 2010, for a total of more than 30,000 maps on its American Memory Web site. The division also posted the Sanborn Fire Insurance Map holdings list online, listing more than 700,000 individual map sheets related to coverage of U.S. cities; in addition, the data base is used to point to digital images of Sanborn map sheets prepared by the G&M Digital Team. During fiscal 2010 we added 5,897 scanned images to our web site and added some 57,000 newly cataloged (7,437) and inventoried (50,000) items.
The Congressional Cartography Program completed the release of the Congressional Geospatial Data System, a Geographic Information Systems program for Congressional use. This year the program completed more than 200 maps in response to Congressional request, including day-by-day tracking of the Gulf Oil Spill in the spring and summer of 2010.
An increase in researcher usage of more than 60 percent was noted with some 17,740 researchers using the G&M Research Room. The Division hosted 27 public programs, including the May 21-22, 2010, Portolan map conference with Phillips Society support. These programs included midday map talks and the evening Washington Map Society programs.
The G&M staff remained active in the work of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names and the Federal Geospatial Data Committee, helping to develop Federal policies in both areas.
One of the most important efforts and challenges that the Division faces is the integration of digital cartography with the traditional paper cartography in our collections in order to create a seamless body of data over the history of the field. We have been approached by both institutional and commercial bodies who wish to work with us or assist us to capture portions of our historical map collection in digital form. As examples of these projects are those with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency regarding the scanning of Coast survey and Lake survey charts and the project to inventory African set maps funded through a grant from the Council on Library and Information Resources. For some time we have had an agreement with Readex who is involved in a project to capture the colored maps in the U.S. Congressional Serial Set. At this moment, approximately 9,000 colored maps in that Set have been scanned in the G&M Division.
Humanities and Social Sciences Division (HSS)
Only a Driver’s License (photo identification) is required to register to use Library’s Reading Rooms!
Outreach: Connecting Users with LC’s Collections. HSS staff taught a total of 217 research orientation classes to 3,175 researchers in both regularly scheduled programs offered by MRR and LH&G as well as special request subject orientations.
Almost all HSS librarians gave subject orientations in their field to a wide variety of university and institutional research groups, including directors of the Model United Nations Conference; librarians from the National Gallery of Art; Director of Library and Institutional Technology, Otis College of Art and Design, Los Angeles, CA; Howard University; New England Historic and Genealogical Society; Heritage Foundation; United States Naval Academy, and George Mason University. HSS staff provided tours, orientations, and occasional reference services to Members of Congress, and to their staff and families. Sheridan Harvey spoke at the New York Library Association’s annual conference in Saratoga Springs featuring materials on New York women in the Library of Congress’s collections, especially the online collections.
On Columbus Day, Oct. 11, 2010, HSS staff welcomed 3,472 visitors into the Main Reading Room for an open house between 10 a.m. and 3:15 p.m.--an average of 670 people per hour or 11 people per minute. Large screens displayed excerpts from National Treasure: Book of Secrets and the History Channel's Modern Marvels episode on LC. Computer workstations were used to demonstrate the LC Online Catalog and the Library’s Web site.
Online Video Research Orientations. African American Genealogical Research at the Library of Congress, presented by Ahmed Johnson (29 minutes), and Pursuing your Family History in the Library of Congress, presented by James Sweany (48 minutes).
Web Presence. The updated indexes to the Local History & Genealogy Section vertical files, Vertical File Subject Index and Family and Regional Newsletters, are now available on the Local History & Genealogy Web site. Researching French Local History and Genealogy at the Library of Congress, an online guide by Anne Toohey is also accessible there.
Web Archiving. HSS librarians participated in recommending and archiving Web sites for two new projects: Election 2010 and Single Site; and continued an ongoing project titled Public Policy Topics that collects materials produced by domestic and foreign political groups, community and religious associations, and advocacy groups and government sites based on current events. In the Single Site Project, each HSS recommending officer (a Library of Congress employee with collection development responsibilities) nominated 10 to 15 Web sites in their subject specialty for web archiving. More than 300 Web sites were recommended by HSS librarians. The first phase of the project ended in August, 2010.
Election 2010 Web Archive began with intensity in March, 2010 with the Library’s Office of Strategic Initiatives preparing a new DigiBoard Candidate Module and with HSS staff downloading the information on each candidate from the Federal Election Commission. Staff began entering data as soon as a primary was completed. The project will continue into fiscal 2011.
Collection Development and Acquisitions
Growth of the Microform Custodial Collections. After the receipt of 210,657 items in FY2010, the Microform Reading Room custodial collection grew to an estimated 8,398,776 items. This increase was a result of 155,000 Phonefiche. MMRC sent 1,317 items on interlibrary loan and served almost 32,000 items.
Growth of the Machine-Readable Custodial Collections. During FY2010, the Machine-Readable custodial collections received 4,345 items, of which 2,800 were printed monographs and serials with disks and 1,545 were computer file CD-ROMs. The MRC collection at the end of FY2010 totaled 87,370 items. MMRC received 883 requests for MRC items.
During fiscal 2010, HSS received 529 gift books and periodicals including Esperanto publications, local histories and genealogies, and catalogs from Ginsburg LLC (costumes & textiles). Staff recommended acquisitions of the following electronic databases: State Papers Online (UK) 1509-1714; ShipIndex.org; Short Story Index Retrospective; Century of Social Sciences-Social Sciences Citation Index (new backfile 1898-1955); Readex's African American Newspapers, 1827-1998; American Periodicals from the Center for Research Libraries; Library Literature & Information Science Retrospective 1905-1983; and JSTOR, complements V and VIII.
National Audio-Visual Center/Packard Campus
The Library opened a 200-seat theater in the state-of-the-art Packard Campus of the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center on Mount Pony, near Culpeper, Va., on Sept. 4, 2008. The theater is one of only five in the U.S. equipped to show original classic film prints on nitrate film stock as they would have been screened in theaters prior to 1950. The Mount Pony theater also features a custom-made organ that can rise from a pit in the stage. The theater is located on the ground floor of the Packard Campus of the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center, 19053 Mount Pony Rd., Culpeper, Va.
All Packard Campus programs are free and open to the public. For reservation information, call (540) 827-1079 extension 79994 or (202) 707-9994 during business hours beginning one week before any given screening. For further information on the theater and film series, visit URL <www.loc.gov/avconservation/theater/>.
On Dec. 28, 2010, Librarian of Congress James H. Billington named 25 motion pictures to the National Film Registry of the Library of Congress. The motion pictures are: Airplane (1980); All the President’s Men (1976); The Bargain (1914); Cry of Jazz (1959); Electronic Labyrinth: THX 1138 4EB (1967); The Empire Strikes Back (1980); The Exorcist (1973); The Front Page (1931); Grey Gardens (1976); I Am Joaquin (1969); It’s a Gift (1934); Let There Be Light (1946); Lonesome (1928); Make Way For Tomorrow (1937); Malcolm X (1992); McCabe and Mrs. Miller (1971); Newark Athlete (1891 [sic]); Our Lady of the Sphere (1969); The Pink Panther (1964); Preservation of the Sign Language (1913); Saturday Night Fever (1977); Study of a River (1996); Tarantella (1940); A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (1945); and A Trip Down Market Street (1906).
Annual selections to the registry are finalized by the Librarian after reviewing hundreds of titles nominated by the public (this year 2,112 films were nominated) and having extensive discussions with the distinguished members of the National Film Preservation Board, as well as the Library’s motion-picture staff. For each title named to the registry, the Library of Congress Packard Campus for Audio Visual Conservation works to ensure that the film is preserved for future generations, either through the Library’s massive motion-picture preservation program or through collaborative ventures with other archives, motion-picture studios and independent filmmakers. The Librarian urges the public to make nominations for next year’s registry at the Film Board’s Web site at URL <www. loc.gov/film>.
These Amazing Shadows, a documentary on the National Film Registry independently produced by Gravitas Docufilms, will premiere at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2011. More information can be found at URL <www.theseamazingshadows.com/ >.
Prints and Photographs Division (P&P)
The Prints and Photographs Division offers many services at URL <http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/>. For ongoing information about newly available collections and recent and upcoming activities, see "What's New" at URL <http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/whatsnew.html>.
Prints & Photographs Online Catalog <www.loc.gov/pictures>. Easy-to-use features for searching, browsing, and sharing are now available. The visually inviting design and improved indexing resulted from a rapid rescue project to replace 15-year old software.
Serial and Government Publications Division (SER)
Collection Activities. The division continued a project begun in late 2009 to create publicly available holdings statements in the LC-ILS for all United States newspaper microfilm held in the division, converting a manual card file dating back to the division’s first newspaper filming efforts of the mid-twentieth century. We expect to complete this effort in the spring of 2011. In the fall of 2010, we began a similar project for the United States newspaper portfolio collection which contains original print issues from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
The division relocated its Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) archival microfiche collection to the Ft. Meade collection storage facility in the fall of 2010. We began the transfer of the U.S. bound newspaper collection to Ft. Meade in late December 2010. Both collections will benefit from the Library’s best long-term storage environment.
National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP – Chronicling America). The National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP), a partnership between the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the Library of Congress (LC), is a long-term effort to develop an Internet-based, searchable resource for U.S. newspaper bibliographic information and selected digitized historic content through the Chronicling America Web site at URL <chroniclingamerica.loc.gov>. This site is hosted by the Library of Congress and made freely available to the general public. This rich digital resource will eventually include content contributed by all U.S. states and territories.
Chronicling America currently provides access to more than 3.1 million newspaper pages, digitized by 22 states and the Library of Congress. These historic newspapers include over 410 titles published between 1860 and 1922 in Arizona, California, the District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Virginia, and Washington. The site also includes an extensive Newspaper Directory of U.S. newspaper titles published between 1690 and the present (approximately 140,000 bibliographic records) as well as associated library holdings information, and linked to digitized pages, when available. Features of the site include full-text search with visual interface to search results, a downloadable "See All" list of available digitized page content, as well as more than 250 contextual essays regarding the historical significance of each digitized newspaper. To encourage a wide range of potential uses, Chronicling America provides content through open protocols and an API that enable external use of the data. Chronicling America also provides a weekly notification service, via RSS (Real Simple Syndication) feed or Email subscription, that highlights interesting content in the site, when new newspapers are added and program updates (see URL <http://www.loc.gov/rss/ndnp/ndnp.xml>). The site is updated every 3 months with new content received from program awardee and LC collections. By the end of 2011, the site will include more than 4 million pages, published between 1836 and 1922 from 25 states and the District of Columbia.
Additional information about the program is available from the NDNP Web site at URL <http://www.loc.gov/ndnp> describing the program, current awardees, selection guidelines, technical conversion specifications for historic newspapers, and sustainable development plans. In addition, the site provides access to the program and technical guidelines for the annual NEH program competition currently underway. In June, NEH announced new 2010 awardees in New Mexico, Tennessee and Vermont, converting content published between 1836 and 1922.
Veterans History Project see American Folklife Center/Veterans History Project
Business Enterprises (see also LIBRARY OF CONGRESS EXHIBIT BOOTH)
The Office of Business Enterprises was created to merge and manage three of Library Services’ fee-based services: Cataloging Distribution Service, The Library Shop, and Duplication Services. All three business units that make up the Office of Business Enterprises (BE) were represented for the first time at the LC booth at ALA Annual Conference in Washington, DC, in June 2010.
The Library Shop features both Library of Congress-related items and other items of interest to Library visitors. Visit the Library Shop online at URL <www.loc.gov/shop> or visit the shop in the Thomas Jefferson Building, ground floor, just inside the main entrance. Duplication Services provides expanded access to the collections of the Library of Congress through a wide variety of high quality reproduction services. These services are designed to meet the needs of scholars, publishers, libraries, institutions, researchers, and the general public for photocopies, photographs, microfilm, or digital copies of materials in the Library (see URL <www.loc.gov/duplicationservices>).
Cataloging Distribution Service. The Cataloging Distribution Service (CDS) packages, publishes, and distributes the Library’s cataloging records and cataloging-related publications, tools, and resources for catalogers within the Library and for libraries around the world.
The CDS web site at URL <http://www.loc.gov/cds/> has been completely revised, to make it easier to find products and services.
Visitors to the LC exhibit booth in San Diego are encouraged to take a brief survey to help CDS better understand current professional interests, needs and uses of industry products and services.
Cataloger’s Desktop. This web-based subscription service provides cataloging and metadata documentation. With more than 300 resources and multi-language interfaces, Desktop incorporates the most up-to-date searching and navigation and is updated quarterly. Extensive, free online learning aids and practical tips are available. Visit URL <www.loc.gov/cds/desktop> for the latest news or for a free 30-day trial. Product demonstrations can be seen throughout the day at the LC exhibit booth on a walk-in basis and at scheduled LC booth theater presentations. A new Desktop booth theater presentation is titled: “Getting the most out of RDA with Cataloger’s Desktop.”
Classification Web. CDS’s best selling web-based subscription service features LC Classification schedules and tables that are updated daily. Records display non-latin captions where applicable. For a free 30-day trial subscription, visit URL <www.loc.gov/cds/classweb/CWorder_files/ClassWebOrderForm.pdf [PDF, 568KB]>. Product demonstrations can be seen throughout the day at the booth on a walk-in basis and at scheduled LC booth theater presentations (check Cognotes for theater times).
Library of Congress Classification Schedules. New and recently published 2010 class schedules now available: E-F: History, American…T: Technology…M: Music…N: Fine Arts…PN: Literature (General)…P-PZ Tables (Language and Literature Tables. A new edition of Library of Congress Classification, JZ and KZ: Historical Notes and Introduction to Application, last published in 1997, should be available in time for the 2011 ALA Annual Conference in New Orleans, La. Visit URL <www.loc.gov/cds/products/lcClass.php> for the latest information.
FREE PDF Versions of Selected Publications. All back issues of Cataloging Service Bulletin (Nos. 1-127) are available at URL <www.loc.gov/cds/products/freeDloads.php>. At the same site find the latest updates as they are published to the following: Library of Congress Rule Interpretations, Subject Headings Manual, CONSER Cataloging Manual, Descriptive Cataloging Manual, and MARC 21 format documentation.
Classification and Shelflisting, Update No. 1 (2010) and MARC 21 Concise Formats (2009/2010 edition) were published just after ALA 2010 Annual Conference. MARC 21 Update No. 10 & 11 (2009) was published just after ALA Annual 2010 as a single update, physically. Subject Headings Manual, Update No. 2 (2010) is also now available.
Center for the Book
Young Readers Center. As part of the Library’s increased interest in sharing its resources with young people, the Center for the Book now oversees and operates the Young Readers Center (YRC) in the Thomas Jefferson Building. The YRC opened in October 2009 and plays a leading role in the Library’s promotion of books, reading, literacy and learning to a K-12 audience. Young people, their parents, care-givers, teachers and librarians participate in the YRC’s programs and activities. An expansion in April 2010 nearly doubled the YRC’s space. In addition to its regular Monday-Friday hours, the YRC was open on selected Saturdays in October, November, and December 2010. The YRC program officer is Jane Gilchrist.
National Ambassador for Young People’s Literature. In January 2010, noted young people’s author Katherine Paterson succeeded Jon Scieszka as the National Ambassador for Young People's Literature, a project co-sponsored by the Center for the Book and the Children's Book Council, one of the center’s national reading promotion partners. Paterson has always been an extraordinary advocate for the importance of reading in young people’s lives, and she chose “Read for Your Life!” as her platform theme. Paterson is also one of the authors of “The Exquisite Corpse Adventure,” an episodic story available on the Center for the Book Web site at URL <www.Read.gov> and from the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped as an audio book. Paterson concluded the story by reading her episode at the National Book Festival on Sept. 25, 2010.
Letters About Literature. The Center once again co-sponsored with Target the Letters About Literature contest for children in grades 4 though 12, encouraging them to write a letter to an author (living or dead) explaining how that writer’s work affected them. Winners and their schools receive cash awards at the state and national levels. Approximately 70,000 letters were received for 2009-2010, significantly more than the 54,000 letters entered in the 2008-2009 contest. For more information, go to URL <www.lettersaboutliterature.org/ >.
Federal Library and Information Center Commttee (FLICC)/FEDLINK
Blane K. Dessy has been named executive director of the Federal Library and Information Center Committee (FLICC) and the Federal Library and Information Network (FEDLINK) at the Library of Congress, effective June 20, 2010.
FLICC fosters excellence in federal library and information services through interagency cooperation. Created in 1965 and headquartered at the Library of Congress, FLICC also makes recommendations on federal library and information policies, programs and procedures to federal agencies and to others concerned with libraries and information centers. FLICC provides guidance and direction to FEDLINK, which serves federal libraries and information centers as their purchasing, training and resource-sharing consortium.
The FEDLINK fall membership meeting was held at the Library of Congress on Oct. 6, 2010. At this meeting the FLICC Awards for 2009 were presented.
The Federal Library/Information Large Library/Information Center of the Year (with a staff of 11 or more federal and/or contract employees) is the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Library, Bethesda, Md., recognized for its leadership role in the "green" initiative at NIH.
In the category of Small Library/Information Centers (with a staff of 10 or fewer federal and/or contract employees), the Gorgas Memorial Library, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and the Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, Md., was recognized for its implementation in 2009 of a citation database and citation management system for its Silver Spring Lab and six overseas labs.
The 2009 Federal Librarian of the Year is Eleanor S. Uhlinger, University Librarian, Naval Postgraduate School/Dudley Knox Library, Monterey, Calif., for a wealth of accomplishments.
The 2009 Federal Library Technician of the Year is Gary B. Baker, Library Technician, Army Counterintelligence Center, Ft. Meade, Md., who operates the center’s library, managing and cataloging its collections remotely as a result of a 2006 facility fire, and laying the groundwork for a physical map collection.
National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped
More than 200,000 patrons of the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS) were enjoying easy-to-use digital talking-book machines (DTBMs) and digital talking books (DBs), which offer high-quality sound, multi-level navigation, and variable-speed controls, at the end of Fiscal Year 2010. Since August 2009, 20,000 DTBMs and 108,113 copies of DBs have been produced and shipped monthly to the network of cooperating libraries. By the end of December 2009, network libraries reported that almost all registered veterans had received a DTBM and their first DBs—in compliance with Public Law 89-522, which requires that veterans be served first. Remaining patrons then began receiving their players. In addition, the Braille and Audio Reading Download (BARD), which reached its one-millionth download in March 2010, offers nearly 20,000 digital titles, has more than 25,000 registered patrons, and delivers an average of 100,000 copies of audiobooks and magazines over the Internet monthly. To assist network library staff with responding to queries about the digital talking-book system and BARD, NLS established an online training program.
Two hundred librarians and staff celebrated the rollout of the digital talking-book system under the theme “We All Did It! The Digital Future Is Now” at the National Conference of Librarians Serving Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals in Des Moines, Iowa, May 15–20, 2010. Libraries from Washington and Virginia each received a certificate and $1,000 at the Network Library of the Year Awards ceremony, held in the Whittall Pavilion of the Library of Congress’s Thomas Jefferson Building on June 18, 2010. NLS curated the LC exhibit Louis Braille: His Legacy and Influence, which was held in the Madison Building Nov. 5, 2009, through Jan. 30, 2010, remains available online, and is on permanent display at NLS. The booklet Talking Rooms: Walking through History at the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped Headquarters received an APEX 2010 Award of Excellence in July. NLS held a reception on Aug. 25, 2010, to celebrate the Blinded Veterans Association’s 65th anniversary, that was attended by 200 guests—veterans from World War II through the Afghanistan conflict and their families and friends. Last year, the TelecomPioneers, a national service organization of telecommunication employees and retirees, celebrated 50 years of repairing talking-book machines, saving U.S. taxpayers an estimated $216 million.
Looking to the future, NLS developed a plan for its 2011–2012 public education campaign, which focuses on the NLS 80th anniversary, to increase readership and to promote the new digital talking-book system. NLS commissioned a study on alternatives for future operations of the Books for the Blind Program, which will analyze current NLS and network functions and provide recommendations, given technological advances and resources.
In FY2010, the Preservation Directorate (PD) was directly responsible for over 6,284,000 books, serials, prints, photographs and other items or works being treated by binding, conservation, mass deacidification, and reformatting. (Note: if reformatting is measured by pages of paper documents and feet of motion picture film, the total number is 9,249,270). More than 359,750 manuscripts, maps, photographs and other items were housed. More than 43,770 items were labeled, and more than 489,690 were surveyed.
To underscore the importance of working with primary materials, Dr. Charles Henry, executive director of the Council on Library Information Resources, recently announced that his organization would award a special Mellon Fellowship for Dissertation Research in Original Sources to work with the Library's collections and its Preservation Research and Testing Division (PRTD).
Diane Vogt-O’Connor received a Society of American Archivists (SAA) President’s Award at the SAA Annual Meeting in Washington, DC, in August 2010 in recognition of her three years’ service on the SAA Council (Board).
Space Updates/Science Lab Launches
The Directorate’s three science labs and the Center for the Library’s Analytical Science Samples (CLASS) officially opened in FY2010 and are described online in the IFLA PAC IPN article “The Science-Based Fight Against Inherent Vice” (see URL <www.ifla.org/files/pac/ipn/50-may-2010.pdf [PDF, 2.2MB] >). “The New Optical Lab Brings LOC into 21st Century” noted that PRTD’s Optical Properties Laboratory (Op Lab) contains a hyperspectral imaging system revealing important scholarly details hidden in primary source materials, an environmental scanning electron microscope that can show real-time damage to AV images and recordings from changing environments, equipment for optical disc quality testing, and a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy system to detect chemical markers for sticky-shed in magnetic media (see URL <blogs.loc.gov/loc/2010/02/new-optical-lab-brings-loc-into-21st-century/>). The Op Lab also now houses the Image, Reconstruct, Erase, Noise, Etc. (IRENE) prototypes for capturing sound from damaged grooved recordings.
The 3,240-square-foot remodeled and renovated Chemical and Physical Properties Laboratories include state-of-the-art mass spectrometers, gas chromatographs, a gel permeation chromatograph, headspace sampler, pyrolyzer, thermogravimetric analyzer and differential scanning calorimeter, automatic titrator and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The physical testing lab’s environmental chamber has a tensile tester, four MIT fold testers, tabor abrator, burst strength tester and bending resistance tester. A Weather-O-Meter with low temperature artificial aging capabilities became operational. These instruments give the Library of Congress a unique ability to understand the chemical and physical changes that occur in materials so that we can develop solutions to mitigate such changes and better preserve the Library’s collection for future generations.
Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Planning
The Directorate advanced its collection emergency initiatives by developing and conducting emergency telephone drills with processing and custodial units. Two additional developments include:
- A collections recovery room, which serves as a model set-up for preservation training, drills and activities in collections salvage and recovery work related to the Library's Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP), described and illustrated at URL <www.loc.gov/preserv/recoveryrm/>.
- A contract for hiring large-scale collection salvage (over 500 books or the equivalent) was developed and implemented, and a generic version of this contract will be available on our Web site soon.
New University Course
For the first time, PD staff collaborated with the University of Maryland to develop and teach a graduate level “Introduction to Library and Archival Preservation” course during the Fall Quarter, 2010, for 25 students. The course featured lectures, tours, demonstrations, practica, and hands on activities about preservation management, assessment planning, risk mitigation, handling, housing, treatment, storage, standards, guidelines, history and technology for all formats of collections. The course additionally covered building management and renovation; emergency response work; environmental risk evaluation and response work; custom and commercial housing, creation and selection; preservation for exhibits including case analysis and monitoring; general circulating collections binding and care; AV materials, obsolescence, duplication and restoration; collections reformatting and best practices for microfilming, photocopying, and digitization; digital preservation including types of digital domains, current frameworks and concepts, current tools and services, best practices, and personal digital archiving; and preservation research and testing including quality assurance for supplies, analytical studies, materials science research, and mass deacidification.
Future Directions Programs
For 2011, the Library of Congress has launched the first of a special 3-part Future Directions Symposia series to frame and address preservation and access quandaries facing libraries, archives, and other collecting institutions as they transition to fiscal and stewardship realities of the 21st century. The series will aid decision-making for managers faced with the dual challenges of restrained resources and expanding demands in the digital age. This series is free and open to the public and is described below and at URL <www.loc.gov/preserv/symposia/schedule.html>.
Oct. 20, 2010: The Journey (or How Did We Get to This Point?) - Understanding the Physical Environment. Preservation leader James Reilly and others reviewed 25 years of research by the Image Permanence Institute that produced resources and recommendations now widely used to preserve a broad range of media. Application and findings in pilot projects at the Library of Congress pilot (as well as others) were discussed. Achievements include characterization of deterioration mechanisms in photographic, magnetic, and optical media; tools for assessing the condition and needs of these media; and environmental remediations both modeled and tested. This set the context of the current state of knowledge for type collections across a variety of institutions. Please see URL <www.loc.gov/preserv/symposia/ipi.html>.
March 15, 2011: The Crossroads (or Just Where Are We?) - Assessing Options for Large Collections. Discussion will center on realities of needs estimates, cost-benefit estimates, collection size and types, institutional resources, and competing priorities. Factors of value, use and risk will be framed in comparison to relative costs of lifecycle management requirements for selection, ingest, quality assurance, and monitoring and of infrastructure of facilities, maintenance, equipment, security and expertise. Registration is required and will begin Jan. 15, 2011.
Oct. 20, 2011: The Road Ahead (or Where Do We Go Next?) - Transitioning to a Digital Future. A critical focus will be the anticipated role of “legacy collections” and their relationship to digital resources. Case studies will feature challenges and options for audiovisual and other time-based media, as found in indigenous language or other collections facing immediate risk of loss.
In FY2010, for general and professional audiences, the PD hosted 7 free Topics in Preservation Series (TOPS) webinar programs. Over a dozen webcasts are now available at URL <www.loc.gov/preserv/tops/schedule.html>. For FY2011, a new series of TOPS webinars will focus on conservation training centers and funding, starting with the 50th anniversary of the oldest degree-granting program at NYU. Upcoming public lectures include:
Jan. 13, 2011: Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (FAIC): Strategic Planning for the Future by Eryl P. Wentworth, Executive Director of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works
February 10, 2011: Library Conservation and Scholarly Communications by Donald J. Waters, Program Officer for Scholarly Communications and Information Technology, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
April 14, 2011: The Marriage of Preservation and Access by Nadina Gardner, Director of National Endowment for the Humanities' Division of Preservation and Access
May 26, 2011: Preservation Training Needs by Debra Hess Norris, Director or the Winterthur/ University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation
The Preservation Directorate also organized, sponsored and presented a webinar on Parchment Preservation, covering the history of research and treatment of parchment at LC and noting partnerships with dozens of regional and international experts who attending in person or remotely, including representatives from Israel, Italy, Demark, Czechoslovakia, Belgium and the UK (British Library, National Archives, and the University College of London in England, as well as representatives in Scotland and Wales).
Various media featured a story about the Library’s use of a custom-designed hyperspectral imaging system to examine Thomas Jefferson's Rough Draft of the Declaration of Independence. The Library's scientists were able to confirm that Jefferson at first wrote ...our fellow subjects... before remembering that, in declaring our independence, we were to become a nation of citizens (see URL <http://bit.ly/9XWQ1L > and URL <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/21/opinion/21iht-edwidmer.html >).
The Directorate hired a new Preservation Education Specialist, Mary Oey, and a new Chemist for special media, Eric Breitung, in 2010. The Directorate also hosted a dozen interns and volunteers this year in the divisions for Conservation (CD), Binding and Collections Care (BCCD), and Preservation Research and Testing (PRTD), mostly from graduate conservation and science programs.
Web Site Updates
To keep the preservation field up to date on preservation developments, the PD uploaded several new Web sites, including updates on research, analysis, and quality assurance. Of particular note, the Preservation Directorate has developed and described on its Research Update page new projects with photographs, vellum, and time-based media (see URL <www.loc.gov/preserv/rt/projects/index.html>). The site also describes a framework for research advancing the care of human record, based on a National Preservation Research Agenda developed in consultation with leading scientific laboratories. The Library has compiled a matrix [MS Excel] showing preservation science projects posed or undertaken by libraries, archives and museums worldwide. Staff also developed new sites for Analytical and Quality Assurance Projects, which include Library of Congress Specifications. For publications by Library staff on other projects, such as the effects of solvents on paper, treatment of mold, definitions of artifactual value, energy sustainability, and hundreds of other areas of past research, a new Staff Publications page was designed and launched.
At the request of the Department of State, a CD staffer presented a five-day Library and Archival preservation program on the island nation of Mauritius. The program included site visits to three major Mauritanian repositories with follow up assessments; presentations to senior librarians and librarians at government and agencies and academic repositories; presentations to graduate students and faculty at the University of Mauritius School of Library and Information Science; two days of hands-on practical training for a group of ten professional staff from the libraries and archives of Mauritius; as well as consultations with senior cultural affairs ministers on necessary next steps to improve the preservation of cultural heritage and knowledge in Mauritius. CD staff also traveled to consult with institutions in Turkmenistan and Uganda. CD staff consulted with the Smithsonian Institution National Air and Space Museum (NASM) on how to triage and treat framed works on paper damaged in a roof collapse at NASM’s Garber Facility in Suitland, Md.
Collaborations With Other Institutions
The Preservation Directorate has several on-going collaborations with other institutions, including the IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) Preservation and Conservation North American Network, which increased from a dozen to 15 members during the year (see URL <www.loc.gov/preserv/iflacore.html>); other libraries, universities and forensic and heritage science labs; standards committees and other boards; and institutions abroad. Specifically, Directorate staff served: IFLA PAC NAN members involved in ongoing discussions with Harvard University regarding science projects and mold remediation research; the Lawrence Berkeley National Labs on development of technology to capture sound from damaged cylinders and similar vertically grooved materials; the steering committee for the newly developed Heritage Science Masters Program for the University College of London; and committees or boards for IFLA PAC, ALA, SAA, AIC, ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials), and Heritage Preservation.
TECHNOLOGY POLICY DIRECTORATE
The Technology Policy Directorate consists of the Automation Planning and Liaison Office (APLO), the Network Development and MARC Standards Office (NDMSO), and the Integrated Library System Program Office (ILSPO). The three offices work closely together and with the staff of the Information Technology Services Directorate in the Office of Strategic Initiatives.
Integrated Library System Program Office (ILSPO)
The Library upgraded its integrated library system, the LC ILS, to the Voyager 7.2.0 release in November 2010, without significant disruption in service to Online Catalog users. The cataloging and acquisitions modules were unavailable to staff for approximately one week during the upgrade.
LC EAD (Encoded Archival Description) Archival Finding Aids. In 2010, LS Collections and Services divisions created nearly 500 new EAD archival finding aids, bringing the total number of LC EAD finding aids to 1,173. Users can access 33.3 million archival items in LC=s collections through these documents, an increase of nearly 9 million archival items in the past year. In September 2010, the Library released a completely redesigned finding aids search application, located at URL <www.loc.gov/findingaids/ or findingaids.loc.gov/>. The new finding aids search application wraps the EAD XML documents into METS objects, then stores, indexes, and displays these objects from a native XML data store platform using a search language called XQuery. As METS objects, finding aids can be easily ingested into the new National Library Catalog/XML data store, as well as into external systems like OCLC’s ArchiveGrid that indexes finding aids and metadata from institutions around the world.
Electronic Resources Online Catalog. On Sept. 30, 2010, the new Electronic Resources Online Catalog was made available to the public on the Library of Congress Web site (see URL <http://eresources.loc.gov/>). Our ER Pilot Team, ER Stakeholders Group, and Technology Policy staff cooperated to make this catalog a reality. With this new catalog you can browse our subscription databases alphabetically or by subject area. You can search for journals by title, subject, keyword or browse alphabetically and see the coverage dates available as well as which of our subscription resources hold the title. There are a number of freely accessible Web sites recommended by staff and a selection of e-books, both subscription and free public access.
While free public access resources are available anywhere, our subscription resources are available only on-site within one of our reading rooms at the Library of Congress. However, the new ER Online Catalog will help remote users plan their visit to the Library to ensure the best use of resources and time; discover titles within a database to which their local library may subscribe; identify resources that may be requested via Inter-Library Loan (ILL); and discover a wide variety of vetted “free” resources useful for research.
Network Development and MARC Standards Office (NDMSO)
National Library Catalog - XML Data Store Project. Work progressed on implementation of an XML data store whose goal is to provide “seamless access” across all of the types of metadata that describe LC collections. The MarkLogic server, which is a native XML database that enables the building and deployment of next-generation applications, was loaded with over 17 million OPAC records, and the performance of the server was studied and tuned. The beta implementation, which will be internal to LC, is targeted for January 2011. It will focus on the OPAC data, although during the beta period the Library's Encoded Archival Descriptions (EADs) and Performing Arts Encyclopedia digital collections will be tested for integration into the system. Besides “one box” searching the system will have multiple faceted search capabilities.
Digital Portal Projects. The Performing Arts Encyclopedia (PAE), Veterans History, and other portal projects continue to enable the Office to investigate new approaches to digital site creation and delivery to end users. Recent releases in the Performing Arts Encyclopedia (see URL <www.loc.gov/performingarts>) are the Dayton C. Miller Musical Iconography Collection, a selection of about 120 prints dating from the fifteenth to twentieth centuries; Photographs from the Golden Age of Jazz: The William P. Gottlieb Collection at the Library of Congress, over sixteen hundred photographs of celebrated jazz artists that document the jazz scene from 1938 to 1948; and the addition of bows to the Stringed Instruments presentation. The Veteran’s History Project (VHP) (see URL <www.loc.gov/vets>) added new releases highlighting the Women Airforce Service Pilots and the service of American Indians in the military, Experiencing War about the VHP's first 10 years, and a podcast We Were Pirates: A Torpedoman's Pacific War.
NDMSO staff continue to assist the Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Division in efforts to put more than 10,000 audio recordings from classic 78s online. These recordings are from stock sets owned now by SONY. As part of the project, this content will go into the Performing Arts Encyclopedia (PAE) but will additionally be served through a dedicated “jukebox” interface with the ability to stream the audio content. OSI is currently testing the new player with added functionality.
SRU /OASIS Standards Project. During the past six months there has been a public comment period on the documents for standardizing SRU 2.0 (Search/Retrieve via URL), CQL (Contextual Query Language), and a related Scan specification. The OASIS committee then addressed comments and is preparing new drafts, which will be submitted for formal public review in January.
Metaproxy Installation. An improved and augmented protocol interface to LC's Voyager databases, Metaproxy, was launched in late June 2010. This interface accepts SRU and Z39.50 protocol searches and conditions them for submittal to the limited Z39.50 implementation on the Library's Voyager system. It then takes the MARC records retrieved from Voyager and converts them to the format specified in the original search: MARC 21, MARCXML, or MODS. The software also manages error messaging about the request in a manner that is helpful to the searcher system, which Voyager cannot do.
The Library's Voyager files that are accessible through Metaproxy using either Z39.50 or SRU, include the LC Online Catalog, the Handbook of Latin American Studies, and the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped Online Catalog. The new Metaproxy also enables Z39.50 and SRU protocol access to name and subject authorities from a database mounted outside Voyager, as Voyager cannot process Z39.50 and SRU protocol searches of authority records. Name and subject authorities have been copied to a Zebra database where they are also kept up-to-date weekly. Metaproxy and the Zebra database software are open source products from IndexData. Metaproxy replaces the current Indexdata Yaz protocol interface to Voyager that has been very valuable in enabling Z39.50 and SRU for the last six years.
Standards Projects. The PREMIS Editorial Committee (see URL <www.loc.gov/premis>) hosted a tutorial and an “implementation fair” during the International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects (iPres 2010) in Vienna in September 2010. Participants shared information about their implementations, which will benefit the preservation metadata community. The PREMIS-EC established two working groups to carry forward work that was under discussion. A subgroup on the PREMIS ontology is working on developing an RDF/OWL ontology for preservation metadata, using work done by Sam Coppens in Belgium. A second group is analyzing controlled vocabularies to be used with PREMIS elements.
Additional possible changes to the MARC formats were submitted to the Office from LC's RDA testing project (see LIBRARY SERVICES/Library of Congress Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control) and several discussion papers were prepared for the January ALA MARBI meetings. They are available from NDMSO directly or via the agenda for the MARBI meetings at URL <www.loc.gov/marc/marbi/mw2011_age.html>.
After completion of the MODS 3.4 (see URL <www.loc.gov/mods>) schema changes by the MODS Editorial Board in June 2010, they were published on the MODS Web site. Since June the MODS Guidelines have been updated to incorporate the 3.4 changes and the mapping of MARC to MODS 3.4 was published on the MODS Web site. In December 2010 an XSLT style sheet for conversion of MARC 21 to MODS 3.4 was made available for download.
Vocabularies Service Project (see also under ACQUISITIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC ACCESS DIRECTORATE/Policy and Standards). NDMSO staff expanded the Authorities & Vocabularies (ID) service (see URL <id.loc.gov>) in December 2010, by adding the MARC Language codes, MARC Country codes, and MARC Geographic Area Codes, along with related IS0 639's two and three character language codes (ISO 639-1 and 639-2) and the ISO codes for language groups (ISO 369-5). The service is used as a portal for developers – whether local or external to LC – to enable them to programmatically interact with vocabularies commonly found in standards promulgated by LC as “linked data.” The system provides the vocabularies as RDF/SKOS to enable querying and accessibility for semantic web projects that occur at the Library or in the community. First implemented in April 2009 with LCSH, it was expanded in May 2010 to include additional vocabularies: Thesaurus for Graphic Materials, MARC Relator codes, and three PREMIS-related controlled lists that support preservation of digital objects (preservation events, preservation roles, and cryptographic hash functions). Update of the LCSH file takes place weekly.
The Office had heard from a number of users about suggested improvements for the service. Some of these were implemented, but several could not be implemented with the RDF/SKOS because it supports only a core subset of the MARC data. The Office therefore developed a MADS/RDF ontology based on MADS/XML that carries over much more of the MARC information. It was published for public review in November 2010. MADS/RDF is highly compatible with SKOS, but using the more detailed MADS ontology in the system will enable ID to offer both SKOS and MADS RDF for LCSH and other vocabularies in the future.
Metadata for Digital Content. This project has the goal to recommend for LC a common set of metadata elements to support discovery needs of users for digital media based on use cases developed by the Library. It involves analyzing existing descriptive metadata and recommending how descriptive metadata might be created for future digital projects to improve access for users. Based on the MODS schema, the group developed a master metadata element list and then documented metadata in existing digital library initiatives by developing profiles based on the master list that were posted on the project web site (see URL <www.loc.gov/standards/mdc>). New work includes a recommendation for providing metadata in HTML meta tags for LC's dynamically-created Web and a recommendation for populating the METS header for digital objects that LC distributes electronically.
VRA Core. The Library began hosting the main Web site and listserv for the VRA Core metadata standard, a data standard for the description of works of visual culture as well as the images that document them, at URL <www.loc.gov/standards/vracore>. The site is hosted by NDMSO in partnership with the Visual Resources Association, a multi-disciplinary organization dedicated to furthering research and education in the field of image management within the educational, cultural heritage, and commercial environments.
OFFICE OF STRATEGIC INITIATIVES
The Memento Project, led by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Digital Library Research and Prototyping Team and Old Dominion University Dept. of Computer Science, has won the Digital Preservation Award 2010 . The award, given by the Institute for Conservation and the Digital Preservation Coalition, and supported by Sir Paul McCartney, celebrates the highest standards worldwide in the field of digital preservation. Memento proposes a technical framework aimed at better integrating the current and the past Web. The project has a solution that lets users enable a "time-travel" mode to find content that is date-and-time specific by entering the content’s known Uniform Resource Identifier into an Internet browser and specifying the desired date. The Los Alamos Memento team includes Herbert van de Sompel, Luydmilla Balakireva, Robert Sanderson and Harihar Shankar. The Old Dominion team includes Nelson along with Scott Ainsworth. The project is sponsored by the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP), which the Library has administered since 2000.
Release of Sustainable Economics for a Digital Planet: Ensuring Long-Term Access to Digital Information [PDF, 3.91MB] capped the work of a group brought together by eight major funders and cultural heritage organizations. The report reflected two years of work by economists, computer scientists, librarians and archivists to consider how best to ensure that digital preservation efforts receive adequate resources. The related symposium “A National Conversation on the Economic Sustainability of Digital Information,” was held at the Smithsonian Institution immediately after issuance of the report in April 2010.
Digital Preservation Outreach and Education (DPOE) Initiative
The DPOE initiative is dedicated to establishing and sustaining a national outreach and education program to encourage individuals and organizations to actively preserve their digital content, building on a collaborative network of instructors, contributors, and institutional partners. DPOE has brought together leadership representing libraries, universities and other cultural heritage organizations to develop a comprehensive calendar consolidating currently available digital preservation education opportunities, and to develop additional curricula implemented through train-the-trainer regional nodes and other delivery options. DPOE will also create a funding model to support these efforts based on public-private partnerships.
The Library of Congress is now accepting applications for its 2011 Summer Teacher Institutes in Washington, D.C. The seven five-day institutes from May 23 through Aug. 12 will provide educators with the tools and resources to effectively integrate primary sources into classroom teaching. In the institutes, Library of Congress education specialists will instruct participants in the best practices for using primary sources in the K-12 classroom, while helping them explore some of the millions of digitized primary sources available on the Library’s Web site. All sessions will expose participants to a wide variety of primary sources from the Library’s collections. Session 4, July 11-15, 2011, will focus specifically on the use of Civil War primary sources. Participants will be able to work with teachers from around the country to explore methods for effectively integrating primary sources into classroom activities. The deadline for applications is Feb. 4, 2011. Please apply online at URL <www.loc.gov/teachers/professionaldevelopment/teacherinstitute/apply/>
Geospatial Data Preservation Clearinghouse
With support from NDIIPP announced in May 2010, the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) at Columbia University’s Earth Institute launched the Geospatial Data Preservation Resource Center, a Web-based clearinghouse (see URL <www.geopreservation.org> ), in autumn 2010. A related meeting at the Library of experts from universities and federal agencies, Nov. 17 and 18, 2010, considered issues associated with geospatial data appraisal and selection. Digital maps, satellite images and other forms of geospatial data are critically important for responding to disasters, protecting the environment and a host of other matters.
National Digital Stewardship Alliance
On Aug. 3, 2010, the Library announced the formation of the National Digital Stewardship Alliance (NDSA), a partnership of institutions and organizations dedicated to preserving and providing access to selected databases, web pages, video, audio and other digital content with enduring value. The alliance is an outgrowth of NDIIPP. The NDSA will focus on several goals. It will develop improved preservation standards and practices; work with experts to identify categories of digital information that are most worthy of preservation; and take steps to incorporate content into a national collection. It will provide national leadership for digital-preservation education and training. The new organization will also provide communication and outreach for all aspects of digital preservation.
OSI Internship Programs
OSI hosts numerous internship programs bringing in talent drawn nationwide to support mission critical activities. Through the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) National Internship Program alone, OSI has hosted a total of 45 interns and co-ops since the program’s inception at the Library. OSI continues to expand its internships in partnership with major academic institutions, including the planned launch of a fellowship in advanced digital technologies.