Update for 2013 ALA Annual Conference & Exhibition: January-May 2013
Roberta I. Shaffer, Associate Librarian for Library Services
Service units, divisions, and offices within the Library have submitted the information in this briefing document for the attention and use of Library of Congress staff who will attend the American Library Association (ALA) 2013 Annual Conference in Chicago, Ill., June 27-July 2, 2013. The document covers initiatives undertaken at the Library of Congress since the ALA 2013 Midwinter Meeting in Seattle, Wash., in January 2013. This document will be updated regularly until the close of the Annual Conference. Information in the printed document is valid as of June 14, 2013.
Visit the Library of Congress Exhibit Booth #631 at McCormick Place (2301 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60616). The Library of Congress’s booth manager is Isabella Marqués de Castilla.
Exhibit hours are (view schedule of presentations):
- Friday, June 28: 5:30-7:00 pm; ribbon-cutting ceremony at 5:15 pm
- Saturday, June 29: 9:00 am - 5:00 pm
- Sunday, June 30: 9:00 am - 5:00 pm
- Monday, July 1: 9:00 am - 2:00 pm
Library staff making presentations in the booth theater include Colleen Cahill, Judith Cannan, Pamela Davenport, Blane K. Dessy, Jeanne Drewes, Kevin Ford, Paul Frank, Ahmed Johnson, Margaret Kruesi, Guy Lamolinara, Everette Larson, Barby Morland, Laverne Page, Steve Prine, Dave Reser, Regina Romano Reynolds, Donna Scanlon, Teresa Sierra, Candice Townsend, Camilla Williams, Tak-Yee (Tammy) Wong, and Min Zhang. Information technology support will be provided by Thomas Odom and Rodney McKinley.
A complete schedule of booth theater presentations is available on this Web site. In addition, demonstrations of Cataloging Distribution Service products are available on a walk-in basis.
Promotions at the Booth: The Cataloging Distribution Service is running daily ads in Cognotes inviting attendees to one-on-one demonstrations of Classification Web and Cataloger’s Desktop. The ads prominently feature the LC booth number.
A pocket-size reference brochure and a large, handsome poster of the LC Classification are available free to booth visitors while supplies last. Also available to all visitors: two attractive bookmarks, one listing all LC Classification schedules and one advertising free 30-day trials of Classification Web and Cataloger’s Desktop.
U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE
Robert Kasunic, formerly the Office’s Deputy General Counsel, was named Associate Register of Copyrights and Director of Policy and Practices on April 16.
Karyn Temple Claggett, formerly Senior Counsel for Policy and International Affairs, was named Associate Register of Copyrights and Director of Policy and International affairs on Jan. 30.
House Holds Hearings On State of Copyright Law
The House Judiciary Committee’s Subcommittee on the Courts, Intellectual Property and the Internet held the first in a series of hearings on copyright law revision on May 16.
Rep. Bob Goodlatte, chair of the Judiciary Committee, announced his intention to undertake a comprehensive review of U.S. copyright law in a speech on April 24, World Intellectual Property Day. His announcement followed testimony on March 20 before the Judiciary Committee by Maria A. Pallante, Register of Copyrights and Director of the U.S. Copyright Office, in which she suggested that Congress update U.S. copyright law to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Pallante first called for comprehensive revision during a March 2012 lecture at Columbia Law School entitled The Next Great Copyright Act. “A general revision effort would offer everyone the opportunity to step back and consider issues both large and small,” said Pallante, “as well as the relationship of these issues to the larger statute and the importance or unimportance of international developments.” She also noted that the Copyright Office has already prepared in-depth studies of many of the pending issues, and that Congress had already deliberated many of them.
The May 16 hearing was titled “A Case Study for Consensus Building: The Copyright Principles Project,” and featured five witnesses, each of whom had participated in the project: Jon Baumgarten, a former Copyright Office General Counsel; Laura Gasaway of the University of North Carolina Law School; Daniel Gervais of Vanderbilt Law School; Pamela Samuelson of the University of California, Berkeley, Law School; and Jule Sigall, Assistant General Counsel of Microsoft and former Associate Register for Policy and International Affairs at the U.S. Copyright Office. The principles project, convened by Samuelson in 2007, involved 20 copyright lawyers from firms, industry, and academia to exchange ideas about aspects of U.S. copyright law in need of revision.
Goodlatte noted that the while the Committee does not endorse the CPP’s report, the project serves as a model of “how people with divergent views on copyright law can productively debate a range of copyright issues.” The witnesses addressed a range of issues in their prepared statements, including orphan works, mass digitization, statutory damages, registration, and recordation. Several of them applauded the ongoing work of the Copyright Office in convening roundtables and preparing reports. During the hearing, Members asked a number of questions, including questions about the need to update the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and about the impact of new technologies on authors and creators and how the law may need to be updated to accommodate them.
Goodlatte said the Judiciary Committee intends ultimately to hear from “everyone interested in copyright law” but wanted to start by exploring “important fundamentals.”
Rep. Howard Coble, chair of the subcommittee, commended Rep. Goodlatte and the Register of Copyrights for proposing a thorough review of the law, remarking on its historical role in producing a “level of creativity that is the envy of the world.”
Register of Copyrights Maria A. Pallante announced a two-year plan in October 2011 detailing policy and administrative initiatives and 10 special projects to update and improve the Copyright Office’s services in the 21st century. Priorities and Special Projects of the United States Copyright Office 2011–2013 is available at URL <http://www.copyright.gov/docs/priorities.pdf [PDF, 429 KB]>; a one-year progress report is available at URL <http://www.copyright.gov/docs/priorities_oneyear.pdf [PDF, 146 KB]>.
The Office continues to seek stakeholder feedback about relevant issues and has invited public comment on several initiatives recently. The Office will draw on project findings to develop a new five-year strategic plan to commence in October 2013.
Developments since the ALA 2013 Midwinter Meeting include the following:
Section 108 reform
The Copyright Office cosponsored a daylong symposium in February on reform of section 108 of the copyright law with the Kernochan Center for Law, Media and the Arts of Columbia University. Section 108 reform is among the priorities the Register announced in the October 2011 two-year plan. Held in New York City, the symposium was part of the Office’s continuing effort to obtain comments from interested parties. Their views will inform the recommendations for legislative change the Office is preparing for Congress.
Section 108 sets forth exceptions to copyright law to permit libraries and archives to make and distribute copies of copyrighted materials in their collections under certain conditions. The exceptions are meant to help preserve works and ensure their availability over time. An independent study group cosponsored by the Office and the Library of Congress reported in 2008 that section 108, enacted in 1976, fails to meet the needs of libraries and archives dealing with born-digital works, digital preservation, and uses and lending of digital copies of works.
“As the Copyright Office formulates legislative proposals on section 108 reform, it is likely we will adopt and recommend many of the conclusions of study group. But we will also address issues that were left unsolved by that group,” the Register stated at the symposium.
The Office will hold additional stakeholder meetings in coming months to explore outstanding issues. For details, go to URL <http://www.copyright.gov/docs/section108>.
In April, the Office held a public roundtable to explore a federal resale royalty right for visual artists. An artist resale royalty, or droit de suite as it is called in Europe, allows artists to benefit from the increased value of their works over time by granting them a percentage of the proceeds from the resale of their original works of art. The roundtable will inform a study the Office is conducting at the request of Congress. The Office last studied in the issue in 1992; since that time, many countries have adopted the practice. For details, go to URL <http://www.copyright.gov/docs/resaleroyalty>.
Electronic administration of statutory licenses
The Office continues to meet with stakeholders and consultants as it develops an electronic system to streamline the filing, searching, and archiving of cable, satellite, and digital audio recording technology statements of account received under statutory licenses in the copyright law. The new system will replace paper-based filings; among other improvements, it will allow for bulk submissions of statements of account and other records.
Technical upgrades to Electronic Registration System
As part of a project to improve the information technology platforms that support the Office’s registration and recordation functions, the Office published a Federal Register announcement in March inviting comments on how stakeholders use the Office’s current online system for registering copyright claims and recording documents. The inquiry also seeks details about how the system meets user expectations and how users would like to interact with the Office electronically in the future, that is, what online services they would like to have. The comments received are now being evaluated. Also in support of the project, staff recently conducted targeted meetings with business and information technology experts in the copyright industries. For more information, go to URL <http://www.copyright.gov/docs/technical_upgrades>.
Public access to historical records
The Office continues to move forward with a multiyear effort to digitize its entire inventory of copyright records for works registered between 1870 and 1977. It has imaged more than 27 million catalog cards out of a total of 40 million. In addition, all 667 volumes of the Catalog of Copyright Entries, an index to copyright registrations and renewals published from 1891 to 1977, have been digitized and made available on the Internet Archive Website at URL <http://www.archive.org/details/copyrightrecords>.
The Office is now exploring how best to make digitized records available to the public online. As an interim solution, it is investigating options for creating an online virtual card catalog with images of cards arranged hierarchically as in a physical card catalog. Ultimately, the Office aims to make all copyright records fully searchable online.
For more details, visit the Office’s digitization blog at URL <http://blogs.loc.gov/copyrightdigitization>.
Compendium of Copyright Office Practices
Work continues on revision of the Compendium of Copyright Office Practices. The compendium is the official source of Copyright Office registration and recordation practices. The updated version will be published on the Office’s Website by the end of October.
Section 115 reform
The Office is investigating reform of the section 115 license, which permits third parties to make cover copies of musical works to distribute on phonorecords, such as MP3 files or compact discs, after copyright owners distribute the works to the public. Right now, individuals can use the license only on a song-by-song basis. This system no longer meets the needs of users such as digital music services, which seek to clear rights to entire catalogs of music. The Office is therefore exploring a blanket-style license that would cover a universe of musical works. Last year, the Office amended its regulations to allow electronic filing of section 115 notices with the Copyright Office; a pilot project to test online filing is ongoing. For more information, see URL <http://www.copyright.gov/fedreg/2012/77fr71101.pdf [PDF, 246 KB]>.
OFFICE OF THE LIBRARIAN / CONGRESSIONAL RELATIONS OFFICE (CRO)
The Library continues to operate under a long-term fiscal 2013 Continuing Resolution (CR) funding the government through Sept. 30, 2013. Concurrently, effective March 1, a mandatory sequestration took place affecting all discretionary funding, including the Library’s appropriations. The CR under which we are operating funds most agencies at fiscal 2012 levels, less $85 billion in cuts due to the mandatory budget sequestration. The net impact on the Library, based on fiscal 2012 levels and taking into account the sequestration and other changes, is a reduction of $30.8 million.
As a result of the budget sequestration, Library management notified staff of the need to take three furlough days between April 7 and Sept. 7, 2013. Additionally, a number of other actions are being taken to operate under the reduced funding levels, including limiting new hires to critical vacancies; reducing overtime to a minimum and limiting it to performance of critical functions; freezing or reducing cash awards, as determined by each service unit; limiting travel and meeting expenses to those most critical to the Library's mission; limiting contracts and consultants to those most critical to the Library's mission; and granting liberalized leave without pay.
Librarian of Congress James H. Billington testified in support of the Library’s fiscal 2014 budget request before the House Legislative Branch Subcommittee on Feb. 27 and the Senate Subcommittee on May 7, 2013. The Library’s priority requests are for:
- funding for the offsite Collection Storage Module 5, Phase I ($5 million, included in the Architect of the Capitol’s budget request)
- A 2.5% appropriations increase overall. This funding includes no program increases, only mandatory pay-related and price level increases. This level of funding would be the minimum needed to enable the Library to sustain acquisitions, avoid adverse impact on the Copyright Registration and Recordation Systems, and retain needed Congressional Research Service (CRS) expertise. The Librarian noted that current CRS staff is at the lowest level in more than three decades, and analysts’ portfolios have had to be expanded to cover expertise gaps. Overall, the Library has 1,300 fewer staff now than 20 years ago, before existence of our programs for putting our best collections online.
The Library is expecting a difficult fiscal 2014 budget process, with continued congressional interest in reducing funding of federal agencies. Indicators of the tight economic environment of particular interest to federal employees are already in place -- a two-year freeze on increases in federal pay was extended through calendar year 2013, and Congress continues to consider raising federal employee retirement contributions.
Key Committees in the 113th Congress
The Joint Committee on the Library of Congress (JCL) held its organizing meeting on May 7, 2013, and elected Rep. Gregg Harper (R-MS) Chairman, with Sen. Charles Schumer moving to the position of Vice Chairman. Other JCL members for the 113th Congress are: Reps. Candice Miller (R-MI), Rodney Alexander (R-LA), Robert Brady (D-PA) and Zoe Lofgren (D-CA); and Sens. Charles Schumer (D-NY), Richard Durbin (D-IL), Patrick Leahy (D-VT), Pat Roberts (R-KN) and Roy Blunt (R-MO).
In the House, the Committee on House Administration (CHA) is chaired by Rep. Candice Miller (R-MI), who previously served on the Committee in the 109th Congress. Rep. Robert Brady (D-PA) continues as ranking member. Chairman Miller has been personally interested in the Library’s collections and programs, and has attended several Library-sponsored events here. She has been working with the Congressional Relations Office to find Library photographs of Michigan’s 10th District and obtain facsimiles to display on her personal and Committee office walls, and she taped a segment on the Library’s Civil War exhibit for her local cable access programming.
The House Appropriations Committee Chairman Harold Rogers (R-KY) returns, with Rep. Nita Lowey (D-NY) moving up to Ranking Member. The Legislative Branch Subcommittee is now chaired by Rep. Rodney Alexander (R-LA), and Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz returns to the Subcommittee as Ranking Member. The House Judiciary Committee is chaired by Rep. Bob Goodlatte (R-VA), with Rep. John Conyers (D-MI) continuing as Ranking Member.
Sen. Charles Schumer (D-NY) returns as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration. Sen. Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) chairs the Senate Appropriations Committee, and Sen. Richard Shelby (R-AL) serves as Ranking Member. The Legislative Branch Subcommittee is chaired by Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH), and Sen. John Hoeven (R-ND) returns as Ranking Member. The Senate Judiciary Committee is Chaired by Sen. Pat Leahy (D-VT), and the Ranking Member is Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-IA).
Library Events Attended by Members of Congress
CRO is working with the staff of Reps. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) and Robert Aderholt (R-AL), co-chairs of the Congressional Library of Congress Caucus, to coordinate Caucus events at the Library. Our first event for the 113th Congress, held Feb. 27, 2013, was a very successful evening reception and reading featuring the Poet Laureate/Consultant in Poetry Natasha Trethewey and the Library’s Civil War exhibit.
The 113th Congress has presented a number of other opportunities to acquaint Members and staff about the Library’s collections and programs. Sen. Tim Kaine (D-VA) sponsored a Library event for all new Senate members on Feb. 13, providing the majority of Freshman Senators an evening to socialize, meet Library staff and learn about the institution. Library curators provided an extensive exhibit of treasures from the collections, and Library management provided a brief program about Library programs and services to Members and their constituents.
The Committee on House Administration and the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration asked the Library to provide a briefing for staff in Hill personal offices about Library constituent services, with a focus on spring/summer activities at the Library.
Members and key staff attended the concerts featuring artists from the Country Music Association and the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP), and the Gershwin Award luncheon and concert honoring singer-songwriter Carole King on May 21.
In advance of a visit by House Judiciary Chairman Goodlatte to the Packard Campus, House Judiciary majority and minority counsel toured that facility in Culpeper, Va., on April 19 and received briefings about the scope of the collections and how items are processed, reformatted, preserved, and stored and many of the challenges associated with the sheer quantities and obsolescence of sound and film formats.
Library staff provided a Veterans History Project briefing for congressional staff on May 10, including ways for congressional offices to get involved over the Memorial Day holiday.
Legislative Branch Information Transparency
In the House Appropriations Committee markup of the fiscal 2013 appropriations for the Legislative Branch [H.R. 5882], the Committee included report language directing the Library, CRS, the Government Printing Office (GPO), the House Clerk and other congressional offices to convene a task force to explore various issues and questions regarding bulk data downloads of legislative information in XML format, and to develop a projected timeline and budgetary analysis for system development and implementation. While the Task Force report to the Committee has not been made publicly available, the House Clerk and the Government Printing Office have announced the availability of House floor summaries and House bill text data in bulk downloadable format. The Task Force continues to meet and discuss legislative information transparency and ensure the House and its support agencies can coordinate to streamline processes for data sharing.
The Committee on House Administration sponsored its 2nd annual Legislative Data Standards Conference on May 22, 2013. The Library participated along with other House support offices and outside organizations, providing an overview of beta.Congress.gov’s development, functionality and upcoming enhancements.
OFFICE OF THE LIBRARIAN / OFFICE OF SECURITY AND EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS (OSEP)
The Office of Security and Emergency Preparedness (OSEP) continued developing the Library’s security and emergency programs, with a focus on enhancing the emergency preparedness program, updating Continuity of Operations (COOP) plans, enhancing electronic and security controls protecting special-format collections and other assets, and beginning the fifth round of Site Assistance Visits (SAVs).The Emergency Preparedness Office recently completed functional drills that tested how employees would respond to a shelter-in-place (SIP) emergency. Feedback from stakeholders and drill planners was exceptionally positive, and all training objectives were successfully met. During this period, focused effort continued on developing and sustaining flexible workplace capabilities and off-site continuity training in support of the Library’s Continuity of Operations (COOP) program. Emergency personnel continued to work closely with the Library’s Information Technology Services to integrate remote access and data backup capabilities into COOP plans and COOP training scenarios.
The Protective Services Office completed Phase I of the Library identification (ID) re-badging initiative at the end of December 2012. Under Phase II, staff requiring access to congressional offices were issued new 113th Congress ID cards. Phase II concluded in February 2013, completing the Library’s re-badging initiative. The revamped ID badge incorporates unique security features that will provide added assurances. In January 2013, Protective Services launched its fifth round of SAVs to all the Library’s divisions, using a revamped SAV checklist.
Isabella Marqués de Castilla, was appointed deputy director of the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped effective April 22, 2013. She previously was head of the Middle East Section of the Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate. She continues to manage the LC Exhibit Booth at ALA conferences.
Elmer Eusman was appointed Chief of the Conservation Division effective Feb. 25, 2013. He succeeds Diane Vogt-O’Connor, who retired at the end of February. In nearly 28 years of training and experience in the conservation and preservation fields, Eusman has published on varying conservation treatment issues and holds an advanced degree in book and paper conservation from the Opleiding Restauratoren (National school for conservation in Amsterdam, the Netherlands).
Center of Knowledge
The Library has embarked on a multi-faceted plan to become a new-generation, knowledge-based institution representing the Center of Knowledge for the 21st Century. This effort will take a high-level approach not only to the Bibliographic Framework Initiative, but also to a number of other efforts, including developing staff as knowledge navigators, ingesting and converting digital resources (including data sets, social media and all manner of other non-traditional sources), and enhancing and expanding participation in multi-partner, global programs. By developing staff as knowledge navigators, combined with human-capital planning and new approaches to the use of physical space and management of physical collections, the Library plans to strategically serve onsite and virtual researchers equally. The Library aims to emerge as an institution that readily anticipates and educates all about imperatives for authority, authenticity, and comprehensiveness in the research process. The Center for Knowledge will be a place where the possibilities of future innovation and breakthroughs will occur through the discovery of the past, and where expert staff will manage existing collections and build new ones, all in an environment that promotes peer learning and formal and informal knowledge sharing.
Reduced Acquisitions Budget
The Library is fortunate to have several modes of acquisition - Copyright Office deposit, Cataloging-in-Publication receipt, government transfer, exchange, gift, and purchase. Acquisitions by purchase account for approximately 25 percent of the Library’s annual receipts. The purchase mode is funded primarily by the Books for the General Collections (GENPAC) appropriation which supports the acquisition of books and serial publications, online content, special formats and domestic and foreign materials of legislative and research value. Congress appropriates funds for GENPAC to support purchase acquisitions for all of the Library’s collections except for those of the Law Library, which are supported by a different appropriation.
The last increase to GENPAC was four budget cycles ago, fiscal 2010, when it rose to $16.2 million and remained at that level for fiscal 2011. The fund was decreased in fiscal 2012 to $14.5 million. The Library absorbed those reductions and was able to avoid reducing allocations for subscriptions, approval plans, and firm orders. In the current fiscal year, 2013, the GENPAC fund was reduced further to $13.75 million. To address the reduction in this current year, the Library decreased firm order allocations (mainly for non-current items and special collections materials) by 21.2 percent and approval plan allocations by 17.8 percent, with some exceptions, from the fiscal 2012 levels.
The Library is expecting an austere budget again in fiscal 2014, which begins Oct.1, 2013. (See the Library of Congress 2014 Budget Justification at URL <http://www.loc.gov/about/reports/budget/fy2014.pdf [PDF, 1.68 MB]>.) Assuming that the GENPAC fund will continue to be stressed, the Library will not be able to sustain all of its current serials purchases. Because allocations for serials currently account for nearly half of the GENPAC budget, all recommending divisions/areas have been asked to identify twenty percent of their GENPAC subscriptions for cancellation in a process that will continue through the summer.
In the coming months, the Library plans to chart its digital collecting future and expand upon its digital content efforts during the past decade. Now that some of those efforts have matured, the Library can plan this initiative holistically. In addition, proposed revisions to the Copyright Best Edition Statement, which outlines the Library’s preferred formats for materials to be acquired for the collections via copyright deposit, will also facilitate digital collections planning and implementation.
While the adoption of a revised statement moves through a regulatory process, the Library will closely examine the entire digital content landscape to identify which formats and categories are most appropriate to be acquired and preserved for posterity. The Library will also continue to build its digital repository services framework for the purpose of exploring and establishing the best practices for digitization, online presentation, access and digital preservation of historical materials.
Third party digitization
In order to respond to increasing expectations for collections materials and related items to be made available on its Website, the Library is seeking to supplement its existing digitization programs by entering into no-cost contracts for the scanning or digitization of collections materials for the mutual benefit of the digitizing entity and the Library.
In March, the Library issued an ongoing Request for Proposals process for third party digitization projects. The initial response date was April 30, and the first proposals are now under review. Future response deadlines are to occur every six months, with the next being Oct.31. All digitization projects must comply with the principles noted at URL <http://www.loc.gov/about/business/thirdpartydig/principles.html>.
Collection Development Office
In March 2012, the Library re-established its Collection Development Officer (CDO) position, which directly supports the Library’s goal to acquire and maintain a universal collection of knowledge and a record of America’s creativity in order to meet the needs of Congress, researchers and the American public. The CDO also ensures that the Library’s analog and digital collections reflect the breadth and depth of knowledge published in all media, languages, and regions of the world. Now, a full-fledged Collection Development Office in a start-up phase, with staffing needs identified. The CDO and those future staff will monitor and guide all aspects of collection development, including policies, collection assessments, and training of recommending officers.
Agriculture Collection Policy
In mid-2012, the National Agricultural Library (NAL) announced a change in its collecting practices. NAL planned to collect almost exclusively in digital formats and would no longer purchase print monographs beginning Oct.1. (See URL <http://www.nal.usda.gov/national-agricultural-library-shifting-toward-digital-collections>.)
The Agriculture Collection Policy Working Group was then formed within the Library of Congress to evaluate the situation from LC’s perspective. The working group examined three relevant LC Collections Policy Statements:
- Biotechnology (joint statement with NAL and the National Library of Medicine)
- Human Nutrition and Food (joint statement with NAL and the National Library of Medicine)
The group assessed the projected impact on the Library and considered whether changes in the collections policy in the affected fields might be needed to ensure that the Library maintained its collections and services at current levels. In addition, the group visited NAL.
The group determined that the current iterations of the three Collections Policy Statements mandate highly robust collecting in those areas. Since it would be problematic and time-consuming for the Library to identify and obtain those print monographs not purchased by NAL, and since they may already be coming to LC through a variety of acquisition sources, the group’s position was to take a “wait and see approach” to the evolving change in format emphasis at NAL. This is a position also held by the National Library of Medicine. With these considerations in mind, the Working Group recommended that no changes be made, at this time, to any of the related Collections Policy Statements. This situation will be evaluated again in one year.
The eDeposit program has proven successful in enabling the Library of Congress to request, receive, ingest and process serials published in electronic form only from a wide range of publishers subject to the US copyright law. The Library has currently accessioned in excess of 2,500 individual issues from 180 online journals. This content is being received from publishers (both small and multinational), academic institutions, and professional organizations, and new content arrives every month over the course of the month. Currently the Library is working on software development and new business processes that will allow the program to expand dramatically in the coming year.
The latest e-deposit serials list has been reviewed by a selection officer within Library Services. The list contained e-only serial titles primarily from two publishers: Springer and BioMed Central. The list totaled 543 titles, and was an addition/continuation to a previous list, with 370 new unselected titles added. Seventy-seven of the 370 unselected titles were rejected for the collection. Most of the titles that were rejected were clinical medical with content that is intended for physicians. Those clinical titles that contain content directed (at least in part) at the broader scientific audience, or that fall into areas that LC collects, such as molecular, nano, and translational medicine, genetics, sports and cosmetic medicine, were retained for the collections.
In related efforts, the Library has embarked on an e-Books project for the Cataloging in Publication program (see also ACQUISITIONS and BIBLIOGRAPHIC ACCESS (ABA)/Cataloging in Publication (CIP) Program in this document); the Library's Digital Life Cycle Framework has been revised and updated; and system development has continued, improving integration of the eDeposit Delivery Management System with the Library's Integrated Library System.
National Book Festival
The 13th annual Library of Congress National Book Festival will be held on the National Mall, between 9th and 14th Streets, on Saturday and Sunday, Sept. 21-22, 2013. The event is free and open to the public. The 2013 Festival will be made possible through the support of National Book Festival Board Co-Chair David M. Rubenstein; Target; The Washington Post; Wells Fargo; the Institute of Museum and Library Services; and many other generous supporters.
National Ambassador for Young People's Literature Walter Dean Myers is in the second year of a two-year term with the platform “Reading is not optional.” Myers will take part in the 13th annual Library of Congress National Book Festival. More than 100 additional authors will speak at the Book Festival. More information is available at the Book Festival Website, URL <http://www.loc.gov/bookfest/>.
Don DeLillo, author of such critically acclaimed novels as Underworld, Mao II and the National Book Award-winning White Noise, will receive the first annual Library of Congress Prize for American Fiction during the 2013 National Book Festival. The Prize is meant to honor an American literary writer whose body of work is distinguished not only for its mastery of the art but for its originality of thought and imagination. The award seeks to commend strong, unique, enduring voices that—throughout long, consistently accomplished careers—have told us something about the American experience. This inaugural award was inspired by a prior award the Library made for lifetime achievement in the writing of fiction, presented to Pulitzer Prize winner Herman Wouk in 2008. DeLillo follows in the path of four subsequent winners of the Library of Congress Creative Achievement Award for fiction in connection with the Library’s National Book Festival: John Grisham (2009), Isabel Allende (2010), Toni Morrison (2011) and Philip Roth (2012).
Bibliographic Framework Initiative (BIBFRAME)
The Library of Congress published on the Web in November 2012 a high level model for BIBFRAME: “Bibliographic Framework as a Web of Data: Linked Data Model and Supporting Services” at URL <http://www.loc.gov/bibframe/news/bibframe-112112.html>. A major focus of BIBFRAME is an effective migration plan for the community to make a transition from the MARC format to a new framework based on a Linked Data (LD) model while retaining as much as possible the robust and beneficial aspects of our library environment. The model was developed under contract by a Zepheira LLC team led by Eric Miller.
The Library also worked with a small group of “Early Experimenters” from October to December, 2012, to experiment with the BIBFRAME model, looking at various types of material and various data content models. They included George Washington University, National Library of Medicine, Princeton University, OCLC, British Library, and Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, in addition to LC.
LC also made available for download two software code sets that convert current MARCXML records to BIBFRAME. The Library now also offers a demonstration area at URL <http://bibframe.org/demos/> including sample collections from the early experimenters, translated via the BIBFRAME pipeline.
Two discussion papers, on BIBFRAME Authority and the BIBFRAME Annotation Model, were issued in May 2013 and are available at URL <http://bibframe.org/>.
Interested colleagues may subscribe to the BIBFRAME electronic discussion list from the Website at URL <http://www.loc.gov/bibframe/>.
The Library of Congress New Bibliographic Framework Update Forum will take place in Chicago on Sunday, June 30, 2013 (10:30am-12:00pm, in the McCormick Place Convention Center, Room E352).
ACQUISITIONS and BIBLIOGRAPHIC ACCESS (ABA)
New Divisions in ABA
On June 2, 2013, the U.S. General (USGEN) and U.S. and Publisher Liaison (USPL) divisions within the Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate at the Library of Congress were reorganized into two new divisions, the U.S. Arts, Sciences, and Humanities (USASH) and the U.S. Programs, Law, and Literature (USPRLL) divisions. The USPRLL Division will focus principally on support of the following programs: Cataloging in Publication/Electronic Preassigned Control Number; Children’s and Young Adults’ Cataloging; Dewey Decimal Classification; and International Standard Serial Number. It will also be responsible for the Law Section and the Literature Section. The USASH Division will be the principal liaison with the Library’s Collection Development Office and the U.S. Copyright Office. The cataloging sections that do not have unique workflows will be brought together to allow staff to work more effectively across sections. Karl Debus-López is Chief of the USPRLL Division and will serve as Acting Chief of USASH until a new chief is appointed.
Cataloging Distribution Service
Cataloging in Publication (CIP) Program
ECIP Cataloging Partnership
We welcomed two new cataloging partners to the ECIP Cataloging Partnership Program in May 2013. Georgetown University will provide pre-publication metadata for publications of its university presses and the New York University Law School Library will provide metadata for legal titles published by New York University. The ECIP Cataloging Partners prepare pre-publication metadata for approximately ten percent of all CIP publisher galleys received at the Library of Congress. We are eager to expand the partnership program and are seeking partners with special subject expertise, particularly in the sciences. If your library is interested in joining the program, please contact the Chief of the U.S. Programs, Law, and Literature Division, Karl Debus-López at [email protected]
Cataloging in Publication Program e-books pilot
Since ALA Midwinter Meeting in January 2013, the Library of Congress has moved forward in developing a mechanism for ingesting e-books delivered through the Cataloging in Publication program into the Library for preservation purposes and eventual access by users on-site. A committee is meeting weekly to develop the procedures and test receipt and processing of e-books received from our original test partners, Rand Corporation, University Press of Mississippi, Wiley, and the World Bank. As of this writing, 96 publishers participate in the CIP e-book program and the Library of Congress has prepared pre-publication metadata for 2,217 CIP e-book titles.
Cataloging in Publication Advisory Group
Rebecca Mugridge has joined the Cataloging in Publication Advisory Group (CAG) as the new ACRL (Association of College and Research Libraries) representative. She is associate director for technical services and library systems at the University at Albany, part of the State University of New York.
The Cataloging in Publication Advisory Group will meet on Saturday, June 29th from 10:30 to 11:30am in the McCormick Place Convention Center, Room N127.
- see under Policy and Standards
Children's and Young Adults Cataloging (CYAC)
Cooperative Cataloging Programs
The Training and Instructional Design Section of the Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division (COIN) led the effort to train more than 500 Library of Congress cataloging staff in the descriptive cataloging aspects of RDA: Resource Description and Access. Working closely with specialists from the Policy and Standards Division, instructors developed 10 separate courses of instructor-led classroom training. All trainees attended 36 hours of class distributed over four weeks, making the transition to RDA while continuing to carry out daily duties to process the Library’s receipts. There were courses on the fundamentals of the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR), detailed RDA instructions, the RDA Toolkit, and extensive practicum time included, in addition to six hours of name authority practice and review of the authority instructional webcasts. Since Day One of implementation at the end of March, an additional course, “Copy Cataloging Using RDA,” is being taught to catalogers and technicians, emphasizing the need to develop and apply cataloger’s judgment in processing imported records. Public service staff members are attending presentations about the impact of RDA implementation from the user perspective.
Course materials included trainee manuals in Microsoft Word for lecture and discussion, complementary PowerPoint presentations, and online quizzes to enhance retention and recall. All course materials and supporting documentation are being shared freely with the cataloging world, on the Catalogers Learning Workshop Website at URL <http://www.loc.gov/catworkshop/>.
Staff of the COIN Cooperative Programs Section set up a training infrastructure for the Library’s six overseas offices (Cairo, Islamabad, Jakarta, Nairobi, New Delhi, and Rio de Janeiro) to learn RDA using iCohere, a learning and collaboration online platform. Trainers and reviewers delivered virtual classroom training and group meetings to staff in these offices, all in different time zones, over a period of seven months. Learners used discussion boards to ask for clarification and raise new points not covered during live sessions. Trainers provided additional explanations and answers to follow-up questions. With the training materials and webinar recordings always available on the collaborative Websites, the blended learning approach that included live, asynchronous, and self-paced learning made the RDA curriculum more engaging and interactive. All six overseas offices successfully completed their RDA training for FRBR concepts, RDA Toolkit, NACO authority work, and descriptive and serial cataloging on time for implementation.
Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC)
Name Authority Cooperative Program (NACO)
March 31, 2013, was Program for Cooperative Cataloging Day One for RDA authority records. In anticipation of this transitional date, the COIN Cooperative Programs Section (the PCC Secretariat) conducted more than 18 live webinars for NACO members making the transition to RDA.
In support of the NACO Spanish-speaking participants, the Cooperative Programs Section, working with PCC members and staff in the Policy and Standards Division, produced NACO training videos in Spanish. The training videos are on the Catalogers Learning Workshop Website, URL <http://www.loc.gov/catworkshop/courses/rda_naco_spanish.html>. NACO members from Mexico and Peru participated in the webcast production as did Library of Congress trainers, speaking in Spanish. The modules, developed by the PCC Secretariat with assistance of PCC members and Library of Congress multimedia staff, mirror the English-language RDA in NACO “Bridge” modules and include videos, demonstrations, quizzes, and exercises. Live real-time webinars will be facilitated by PCC RDA catalogers, and the Spanish language training materials will be featured at international library and Latin American studies conferences throughout the spring and summer of 2013.
The Cooperative Programs Section will host the first full RDA NACO Training Workshop on July 8-12, 2013, at the Library of Congress. The workshop will be led by Cooperative Programs Section staff and PCC NACO trainers.
Subject Authority Cooperative Program (SACO)
Janis L. Young, Policy and Standards Division, conducted six SACO online classroom sessions/webinars with PCC members. The sessions covered Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) structure, assigning LCSH headings, and creating LCSH geographic headings. More than 20 SACO institutions, comprising approximately 80 individual SACO members, participated in the sessions in April and May 2013.
Monographic Bibliographic Record Program (BIBCO)
In support of the RDA descriptive training to the BIBCO institutions, the Cooperative Programs Section presented monthly series of BIBCO RDA webinars following the use of online RDA training modules, at URL <http://www.loc.gov/catworkshop/RDA training materials/>, by BIBCO members. The recordings of each webinar, highlights from each module, and questions and answers documents have been made available for public access at URL <http://login.icohere.com/public/topics.cfm?cseq=1190&mkey=198770>. These resources have been used by BIBCO institutions as well as PCC NACO institutions planning to transition their bibliographic cataloging to the RDA instructions. Post-webinar record review was provided to support BIBCO members in the transition.
Cooperative Program for Serials Cataloging (CONSER)
Working with catalogers from the University of California and other institutions, the PCC Secretariat developed and launched the CONSER RDA Bridge Training Workshop in January 2013. Since then the workshop has been used to train LC serials catalogers and catalogers from various other institutions in classroom and online settings. During February and March 2013 alone, more than 140 catalogers from LC, CONSER, and other institutions participated in two sets of online training each month. PCC Secretariat staff members also use the collaborative online platform iCohere to deliver prerequisite and supplemental workshop materials for online sessions. The platform provides an online forum for questions, links to workshop slides, and recordings of past workshops.
National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections (NUCMC)
As part of a multi-year initiative to catalog collections from Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), 15 oral history interviews of Senators and Representatives in the U.S. Congress who were involved in the civil rights movement in the 1960s were cataloged. The collections are held at the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center of Howard University in Washington, D.C. Additionally, an oral history interview of Rosa Parks in the late1960s was given bibliographic access by the NUCMC program as part of the initiative.
NUCMC staff continued the five-year observance of the sesquicentennial of the Civil War. The installment for 2013 focused on the Emancipation Proclamation and the African-American experience from slavery to the end of the war. This Web presentation is available from the NUCMC homepage at URL <http://www.loc.gov/coll/nucmc/>.
Dewey Decimal Classification
The editorial staff within the Library of Congress Dewey Section continued, as they did throughout 2012, to update data in the Editorial Support System (ESS), thus making it available in the WebDewey 2.0 environment; they also contributed to the design of new functionality in WebDewey. The assistant editors continued to assist with the multiple translations of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). They moved forward especially on the French Guide de la classification décimale de Dewey, an authorized derivative work based on DDC 23; the French translation of DDC 23; and the Vietnamese translation of DDC 23. An assistant editor loaded OCLC’s Swedish translation into the ESS development environment in February. Caroline Saccucci, section head, began participating in the weekly editorial meetings and voting online and attending Editorial Policy Committee Meeting 136; this is a role change, since previously the Dewey Section head did not participate in editorial functions.
Beginning Jan. 23, 2013, the Dewey Section began assigning Library of Congress Classification (LCC) stems to Electronic Cataloging in Publication (ECIP) titles cataloged by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). NLM catalogs all clinical medical ECIP titles, but these ECIPs currently do not receive LCC numbers unless the published book is selected for the collections at the Library of Congress. In order to streamline the processing of these books and in order to provide the LCC in the pre-publication bibliographic record, Dewey Section classifiers now perform a Classification Web correlation search for all titles cataloged by NLM and assign the relevant LCC stem. The LCC stem, including established topical Cutter numbers, appears in the 050 field of the CIP bibliographic record.
Michael Panzer, the new editor in chief of the Dewey Decimal Classification, made his first official visit to the Library of Congress in his new role on Feb. 27, 2013. Mr. Panzer will maintain an office at the Library of Congress and plans to spend one day a month here.
Dewey Section Head Caroline Saccucci represented the Library of Congress at the Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee (EPC) Meeting 136 at OCLC headquarters in Dublin, Ohio, May 13-14, 2013. The EPC, a group of about 12 librarians from around the world, including Australia, Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the U.S., discussed the very full agenda that ranged from small changes to very large scale changes that would affect whole sections of the Classification. One of the broader topics of discussion was whether the DDC will be available in a print version in future and how future editions will be notated in the metadata. Ms. Saccucci gave a joint presentation with Dr. Julianne Beall to the EPC on AutoDewey, a program that utilizes the Library of Congress Classification number assigned to a work to generate a Dewey classification number in a semi-automatic way to classify works of literature by individual authors.
Ms. Saccucci has been working with the African/Latin America/European (ALAWE) Division to implement AutoDewey more fully in that division in order to take advantage of all the development for literature of most countries in Latin America, France, and Italy. When ALAWE fully implements AutoDewey, Dewey Section staff can focus on more complex DDC assignment and better meet the needs of Dewey users by providing DDC to even more titles. Ms. Saccucci has also developed the algorithms for AutoDewey for German literature. She will work with Dr. Beall and David Williamson, ABA Cataloging Automation Specialist and AutoDewey programmer, to include the new algorithms and make them available to catalogers at LC.
ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)
A NISO recommended practice on the Presentation and Identification of e-Journals was published at the end of March. The document includes a section on recommended practices for ISSN and an appendix with further information about obtaining and using ISSN. The U.S. ISSN Center was involved in development of the document and distributes a brochure version of the document with all new ISSN assignments.
Consolidated Traffic Manager
A plan has been developed to update the CIP Traffic Manager and add a module to provide similar functionality for managing applications and workflow for ISSN. An interactive Web form for use in applying for ISSN will capture preliminary metadata supplied by the requestor and convert the metadata into a preliminary record to which ISSN elements are added.
Semi-automatic ISSN assignments
A proof-of-concept project is in development to use a batch process to assign ISSN to a group of 200 requests from a CONSER library. Authenticated CONSER records will be used and an ISSN and ISSN elements such as the key title will be added algorithmically, automated updating of linked records will also be done. Similar projects have been done in France, and are planned for Italy and Iceland.
RDA Rule Change
At their November 2012 meeting, the Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA approved a proposal from the ISSN International Centre to change RDA 22.214.171.124. Change in Media Type of a Serial and RDA 126.96.36.199 Multipart Monographs and Serials to align the RDA instructions for when a new record is created with ISSN rules for when a new ISSN is assigned. The ISSN Review Group is considering other proposals to further harmonize ISSN rules and RDA.
Regina Reynolds is providing ISSN input in meetings related to serials. Work is being done to model serials relationships and to determine where ISSN and ISSN-L fit into various models.
The ISSN International Centre and the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BNF) are working on developing a model for serials that takes into account change over time. PRESSoo is an extension of the FRBRoo model (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records – Object Oriented) and is devoted to bibliographic information relating to serials and continuing resources. The PRESSoo group is planning to confer with groups such as BIBFRAME.
The ISSN Network has a free newsletter and a Facebook page. A subscription form for the newsletter is located at URL <http://www.issn.org/2-24137-ISSN-newsletter.php>.
Literature Section and Children’s and Young Adults’ Cataloging Program (CYAC)
The Children’s Literature Section and the Literature Section have merged into one section, keeping the name of Literature Section, under the new USPRLL Division. Linda Geisler was named the Program Manager for the new merged section. The Literature Section is responsible for providing descriptive and subject access to literature material published in the United States for all ages, from newborn to adult, that is classed in Schedule P of the Library of Congress Classification Schedule. The section also administers the Children’s and Young Adults’ Cataloging Program (CYAC).
The Library of Congress published Part One of an article about the CYAC Program on its listserv publication, LCCN, in the March 26, 2013 posting. The article provided background and an update on the CYAC Program, previously called the Annotated Card (AC) Program, which has been in existence since the fall of 1965. CYAC provides access to fiction materials for children from very young ages through high school and targets English language materials and foreign language materials published in the United States. CYAC is able to provide access to a high number of new children’s and young adult fiction through its participation in the Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication (CIP) Program. The Part Two article about CYAC, which should appear in June 2013, will compare CYAC cataloging records to general LC cataloging records. You can view the full article of CYAC Part One at URL <http://listserv.loc.gov/cgi-bin/wa?A1=ind1303&L=lccn>.
University of Michigan interns
The CYAC Program was delighted to host four students from the University of Michigan School of Information’s Alternative Spring Break program the first week of March 2013. Guanyi Fu reviewed the CYAC web pages and proposed tags for them. Jiaxing Tan and Asmita Lahri evaluated the partially automated Decision File and proposed improvements to the file structure and searchability. Madeline Sheldon completed an analysis of the manual catalog files in the Children's Literature Section. The four interns submitted written reports on their assignments, and the program will look at their recommendations in the following months and move forward on some of the suggestions.
New CYAC Brochure
The CYAC Program created a new brochure to publicize the activities of the Children’s and Young Adults’ Cataloging Program. Copies of the brochure are available in the LC Booth during the ALA 2013 Annual Conference in Chicago. Copies of the brochure are also available at the ACLTS/CaMMS CCM (Cataloging of Children’s Materials) Committee meeting to attendees there.
Cataloging Policy Decisions
Cuttering of Juvenile Fictional Works. The Children’s and Young Adults’ Cataloging Program (CYAC) and the Policy and Standards Division (PSD) of the Library of Congress are considering a proposal to begin using two Cutters to sub-arrange juvenile literary works, as is done for adult works. Before making a final decision, CYAC and PSD plan to survey libraries with children’s literature collections to determine the effect that the change in policy may have on their users. The policy change would result in call numbers for juvenile works that look very similar to those for adult works. CYAC and PSD have already tentatively agreed to create new classification numbers for children’s literary works. PZ7 (American and English general belles letters, 1870- ) in particular is very crowded and a new number – probably PZ7.1 -- will be opened. The new Cuttering system would be implemented in new classification numbers only, and not in existing PZ numbers.
Dewey MARC field. Catalogers creating records for children’s and young adult fiction at LC will continue to add the letter designations of “E” and “Fic” to the MARC Dewey field of 082. Although “E” and “Fic” in the Dewey field are not Dewey numbers, their presence in the Dewey field is part of the process of producing appropriate descriptions of children’s literature for the Library and CYAC users.
National Union Cataloging of Manuscript Collections (NUCMC)
- see under Cooperative Cataloging Programs
John Van Oudenaren, director of the World Digital Library (WDL), will visit the Library’s office in Nairobi, Kenya, during the last week of June, as part of his visit to several African nations. This trip is to engage more African countries as partners in the WDL. While in Nairobi, he will speak to local contacts that Nairobi Office director Pamela Howard-Reguindin will coordinate. Van Oudenaren will make a presentation to local Kenyan librarians and others on “The World Digital Library: New Directions.”
Policy and Standards
Geraldine Ostrove, the Policy and Standards Division (PSD) cataloging policy specialist responsible for music, retired on May 31, 2013, after almost 28 years at the Library of Congress. Questions related to music cataloging policy should continue to be sent to the Policy and Standards Division at email address <[email protected]>. Libby Dechman, PSD senior cataloging policy specialist, is now responsible for subject and classification policy for music.
Outreach to Spanish-speaking constituents
PSD, in collaboration with COIN, continues to provide outreach to Spanish-speaking constituents and has made available translations of many of the RDA “special topics” modules found at URL <http://www.loc.gov/aba/rda/RDA_es.html>. Most recently, a translation of the special topic about headings for conferences was completed by Lisa Furubotten of Texas A&M University in collaboration with Angel Villalba Roldan of the Hermoteca Nacional de Mexico. Colleagues from the Biblioteca Nacional de Chile have translated four of the RDA bibliographic training modules and these are available at URL <http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/RDA/RDAcapacitacionLC.html>.
Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements
The first update to the Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PS) for 2013 was published in May. Eighty-three statements were addressed, primarily to record “PCC practice” in consultation with the PCC Standing Committee on Standards. The next LC-PCC PS update will be on July 9, and will in large part be related to changes to the RDA text approved by the Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA at its November 2012 meeting. An additional update is planned for November of 2013.
Programmatic Changes to the LC/NACO Authority File for RDA
Changes to the LC/NACO Name Authority File known as “Phase 2” of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) project to make certain headings acceptable under RDA, were begun on March 4 and successfully completed on March 27, 2013. A total of 371,942 name authority records were changed and redistributed to NACO nodes and appropriate Cataloging Distribution Service subscribers. The changes were made to LC’s master copy of the LC/NACO authority file using programs originally developed under the auspices of the PCC Acceptable Headings Implementation Task Group (PCCAHITG) by Gary Strawn of Northwestern University. The “Phase 1” changes that preceded this were made in August of 2012 (436,943 authority records were updated in phase 1). The primary purpose of phase 2 was to update (and convert to RDA when possible) records that had certain predictable characteristics and were susceptible to machine manipulation. These changes were made programmatically in order to reduce the number of authority records to be updated manually by NACO catalogers. For details on the types of changes made to headings, see the Website of the PCCAHITG at URL <http://files.library.northwestern.edu/public/pccahitg>, or a summary of those changes at URL <http://www.loc.gov/aba/rda/pdf/lcnaf_rdaphase.pdf [PDF, 231 KB]>.
The same programmatic changes made to headings in authority records also needed to be applied to headings in bibliographic records in LC’s catalog. Changes to bibliographic records (again using a program created by Gary Strawn) began on April 8, after the completion of changes to authority records. The changes were completed on June 10 with 668,748 bibliographic records updated. The resulting changes have been re-distributed by the Cataloging Distribution Service if the records are eligible for distribution.
Revisions to Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)
Revisions due to RDA Phase 2. In mid-April PSD finished a project to update LCSH headings affected by RDA Phase 2, i.e., those headings that are printed in LCSH but established in the name authority file. The project included personal, corporate, and conference names, as well as titles and geographic headings. Phrase headings and subdivisions that are based on names or titles were revised (e.g., Food in the Koran to Food in the Qur’an; Future life—Koranic teaching to Future life—Qur’anic teaching), as were headings for temporary exhibition buildings (which are qualified by the name of the exhibition, e.g., Cyclebowl (Expo 2000, 2000, Hannover, Germany)). Revisions to the headings for treaties have been postponed indefinitely pending PCC discussions. A list of all of the headings that were revised as part of this project may be found at URL <http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/subjects-RDA-changes.html>.
It is possible that a few headings were missed. In addition, name headings that were not programmatically changed as part of Phase 2 may be revised in the coming months and years. When an authorized name heading is revised by a PCC member library, a proposal should also be made to revise the LCSH “copy” of the heading if it is also printed in LCSH. (PCC member institutions that are not in the SACO program should request PSD ([email protected]) to create the proposal).
At this time, PSD is not planning to revise those LC subject headings that include abbreviations that are not permitted in RDA, which chiefly appear in a subfield $y (e.g., Egypt—History—Early Dynastic Period, ca. 3100-ca. 2686 B.C.).
Violoncello. More than 740 subject authority records that refer to the violoncello were revised in April 2013 and now use the terminology “cello.” LC’s bibliographic records will be updated programmatically as part of the RDA Phase 2 bibliographic changes.
Headings referring to the Earth. In February 2013, the heading for the planet Earth was revised from Earth to Earth (Planet) and the LCSH form subdivision –Globes was cancelled. Also revised was the meaning of the Globes in both LCSH and LCGFT. Globes now means globes of any celestial sphere. For more information on these revisions, see the announcement at URL <http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/genre_form_globes_final.pdf [PDF, 25 KB]>.
Indian place names. In January 2013, the subject headings in which Bombay, Calcutta, or Madras, India, appeared as a qualifier were revised. The proposals were prompted by a revision to the name authority file, which has been updated to include headings for the current names for those cities: Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai, respectively. According to Subject Headings Manual instruction sheet H 708, Linear Jurisdictional Changes in Name Authority Records, the latest name should be used for subject cataloging purposes.
Halls. The subject heading Halls was cancelled in April 2013 because it was ambiguous and overlapped with three other headings: Buildings, Corridors, and Rooms. The reference structure for approximately 120 headings with Halls—[place] as a BT was also revised.
Individual places in phrase headings. In June 2013, over 50 phrase headings referring to individual places as depicted in sacred/religious books (e.g., Iran in the Hadith; Jerusalem in the Bible) were revised to the form [place]—[subdivision] (e.g., Iran—In the Hadith; Jerusalem—In the Bible) to resolve issues with coding and assist linked data programming. The subdivisions are not free-floating. The affected headings were in the form:
[place] in rabbinical literature [place] in the New Testament
[place] in the Bible [place] in the Qur’an
[place] in the Book of Mormon [place] in the Tripiṭaka
[place] in the Hadith
Also included in this project were a few headings in the form [place] in Christianity; [place] in Islam; and [place] in Judaism.
Individual persons in rabbinical literature. In June 2013, more than 30 authority records for personal names subdivided by –In rabbinical literature were revised to add a BT Rabbinical literature to assist with linked data applications.
Virgin Islands. Sixty-eight proposals to revise subject headings with the geographic qualifier “V.I.” or a BT subdivided by –Virgin Islands of the United States will appear on the LCSH Tentative List for July. Following RDA policy, LCSH will now distinguish between the British Virgin Islands and the United States Virgin Islands, and the qualifier “V.I.” will not be used any longer.
Fictitious and legendary characters, and animals with proper names
Historically, headings for fictitious and legendary characters and animals with proper names have been established as subject headings in LCSH. With RDA, these entities can now be considered creators or contributors to works. According to the current LC-PCC Policy Statements, when a fictitious or legendary character, or named animal, is a creator or contributor, a name authority record should be made in addition to the subject heading.
That instruction will change with the July 9, 2013 update to the RDA Toolkit. Beginning on that date, headings for fictitious and legendary characters and animals with proper names will be established only in the name authority file using RDA instructions. The RDA heading will be valid for use as a subject heading. Proposals to establish new LC subject headings for characters and animals with proper names will not be accepted. Existing LC subject headings may continue to be assigned as subject headings.
The new policy will state that a name authority record should be created if a character or an animal with a proper name is needed for the descriptive access point. Optionally, catalogers may create a name authority record for any character or animal with a proper name encountered during the course of their regular cataloging duties, even if it is needed only for subject cataloging. In either case, if an LCSH authority record exists, SACO libraries should make and submit a proposal to cancel the subject heading; libraries that are not in the SACO program should request PSD ([email protected]) to create the proposal.
A project to transition all character and individual named animal headings from LCSH will be conducted as resources are available. Catalogers in PCC libraries are requested to refrain from unilaterally undertaking local projects to convert the LC subject headings to name headings in a wholesale manner. Workload and staffing issues do not permit PSD to process the number of proposals that such projects would generate. However, institutions wishing to undertake such a project may contact the Cooperative Programs Section at email address <[email protected]> and the request will be considered.
Revision to LCSH policy for crimes and categories of crimes
In 2008, PSD and the American Association of Law Libraries (AALL) undertook a project to add a UF in the form [topic]—Law and legislation to all headings that are considered to be “inherently legal” for subject cataloging purposes, when that status may not have been obvious to catalogers without a law background (e.g., Family mediation). Headings for crimes (e.g., Murder) are inherently legal, but were considered to be obviously so, and therefore a UF was not added.
PSD is now revising the policy, and headings of the type [crime or category of crimes]–Law and legislation (e.g., Murder—Law and legislation; Computer crimes—Law and legislation) may be established editorially. This policy shift is made in recognition of three facts. First, it is not always obvious which headings refer to crimes. For example, Cyberbullying is in a crimes hierarchy, and is therefore considered inherently legal, but Bullying is not. Second, what one jurisdiction considers a crime, another jurisdiction may not. And third, the sociological, political, economic, and other implications of crimes are often written about, and it is important to be able to distinguish works on those aspects of crimes from legal works about the crimes themselves.
AALL is again assisting PSD, and has provided PSD with a list of all of the LCSH headings for crimes and categories of crimes. PSD will be using AALL’s list to add headings in the form [crime or category of crimes]—Law and legislation, and these headings will be approved en masse on a single tentative monthly list in late 2013. Bibliographic records will also be updated. Proposals to establish new headings for crimes, as well as headings for new crimes or new categories of crimes subdivided by –Law and legislation, will be accepted while the project is in process.
Classification and Shelflisting of Children’s Literature
JX reclassification project
The reclassification of LC’s large legacy collection in class JX (International law. International relations. Diplomacy) to classes JZ (International relations) and KZ (Law of nations) began in fall 2012. Those resources that are reclassed into JZ are being been released from the Law Library of Congress holdings and moved to LC’s general collections. The project is spearheaded by Jolande Goldberg, law classification specialist in PSD, and is supported by retired LC catalogers, LC’s Law (Cataloging) Section members, and colleagues from the American Association of Law Libraries’ Technical Services Special Interest Section.
Experiment to add 072 fields to subject authority records
Subject specialists in PSD continue to add subject category codes (i.e., Subject Headings Manual instruction sheet numbers) to proposals for new and revised headings that fall into several pattern and free-floating categories. Headings for land vehicles, types of educational institutions, and Christian denominations, as well as some religions and wars, are also eligible for coding at this time. For background on the need to include subject category codes in authority records and the computer manipulations that they should enable, as well as the parameters of the project, see URL <http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/field_072_announcement.pdf [PDF, 123 KB]>.
Subject Headings Manual
Review of the Subject Headings Manual (SHM) in light of RDA is ongoing. The fall update package will incorporate all of the RDA-related changes as well as edits that are made in the normal course of events (e.g., revisions to lists of free-floating and pattern subdivisions; policy clarifications). The revisions will appear in Cataloger’s Desktop 2013 Issue 4 (November 2013).
Classification and Shelflisting Manual
The Classification and Shelflisting Manual (CSM) was written in the 1980s and reflected the AACR2 environment. The Policy and Standards Division has now completed its review of the CSM in light of RDA instructions, and also took this opportunity to examine the classification and shelflisting policies in a more general way. Some exceptions to general principles were removed, and policies were otherwise simplified where possible. Revisions to the instruction sheets that were most heavily impacted by the changes have been posted in PDF form on ABA’s Website at URL <http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/csm_instruction_sheets.html>. They are: F 175 (Editions); F 275 (Biography); F 603 (Government Documents); F 632 (Literary Authors); F 633 (Literary Authors: Subarrangement of Works); F 634 (Literary Collections); G 100 (Filing Rules); G 140 (Dates); G 145 (Editions); G 150 (Translations/Texts in Parallel Languages); G 220 (Corporate Bodies); G 230 (Conferences, Congresses, Meetings, Etc.); and G 340 (Criticism/Commentaries).
The PDFs on the Website supersede the instructions on Cataloger’s Desktop until November 2013, when Desktop will be updated. PSD also plans to publish a new print edition of the CSM in the fall.
In April and May, Janis L. Young, a PSD senior cataloging policy specialist, gave several briefings to LC staff on the CSM revisions prompted by the implementation of RDA. The briefing was also recorded and will be posted on LC’s Website.
Moving image project. PSD has begun a project to revise bibliographic records for moving image works. Terms from the Moving Image Genre-Form Guide (MIGFG) are being replaced with terms from Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials (LCGFT).
Effective in May, PSD has declared a moratorium on proposals for “derivative” moving image terms that are based on literary forms (e.g., Filmed monodramas; Televised plays). Since literature terms have not yet been added to LCGFT, the authorized “base” term has not yet been determined (e.g., Plays v. Drama or Dramas). The derivative term should reflect the literature term, and adding yet more derivative terms increases the likelihood that a significant clean-up project will be required. In addition, until the literature terms are approved it is difficult to determine which concepts should be represented in pre-coordinated strings (e.g., Filmed plays) and which should be post-coordinated instead (e.g., Filmed plays assigned with Passion plays instead of Filmed passion plays?).
Previously approved derivative terms remain valid for use during the moratorium, and the moratorium does not apply to proposals for film, television program, and radio program terms that may parallel literary genres (e.g., Science fiction films; Western television programs; Adventure radio programs).
Cartography project. In April 2013, the scope of the term Globes was revised to refer to the spherical representations of all celestial bodies (it previously referred only to globes of the Earth).
Religion project. The American Theological Library Association (ATLA) has presented LC with a thesaurus of terms for religious materials. The thesaurus includes terminology from multiple faith traditions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism, and Islam. LC staff are currently reviewing the thesaurus, which will be incorporated into LCGFT in late 2013.
Music project. The Music Library Association (MLA) is continuing to work with PSD to develop the terms for music. With the retirement of Geraldine Ostrove, PSD’s coordinator of the music project, Janis L. Young has assumed responsibility for the project.
Literature project. The CaMMS/SAC Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation (SGFI) is continuing its collaboration with PSD to create the vocabulary for literature. The SGFI subcommittee expects to provide PSD with a first draft later this year.
General terms project. The CaMMS/SAC Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation (SGFI) is continuing its collaboration with PSD to create the vocabulary for literature. SGFI expects to provide PSD with a first draft later this year.
Music Medium of Performance Project. The Library of Congress has been collaborating with the Music Library Association on medium of performance vocabulary, Library of Congress Medium of Performance Thesaurus for Music (LCMPT). The vocabulary is intended to be used, at least initially, for two bibliographic purposes: 1) to retrieve music by its medium of performance in library catalogs, as is now done by the controlled vocabulary Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH); and 2) to record the element “medium of performance” of musical works, as represented in individual music resources cataloged according to RDA. A library’s adoption of this new medium of performance thesaurus could proceed independently from any cataloging code or communications standard the library may adopt. With the retirement of Geraldine Ostrove, PSD’s coordinator of the music project, Janis L. Young has assumed responsibility for the project.
ALA-LC Romanization Tables. After a very busy 2012 the first half of 2013 has had a much more measured page for romanization table development. During the first half of the year, three revision proposals were approved and four new tables and one revision proposal were in varying stages of review. Staff in PSD and elsewhere in the Library of Congress worked closely with ALA’s Committee on Cataloging: African and Asian Materials (CC:AAM) and Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access (CC:DA).
Highlights of the year included:
- Revisions to the Urdu, Pushto, and Sindhi tables were approved by CC:AAM in June.
- New Macedonian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Tamashek tables are currently being reviewed. The Macedonian and Serbian tables were developed from the current Serbian and Macedonian table.
- Revisions to the Bulgarian table are currently out for constituent review, which closes in July.
- A Coptic proposal (being developed by Charles Riley, Yale University) is nearly complete and is anticipated in the very near future.
- All current ALA-LC Romanization Tables are now included in Cataloger’s Desktop, where they can be searched and retrieved.
A revision proposal for Tibetan based on the Wylie transliteration scheme is being developed by Lauran Hartley, Columbia University; no target date has been identified. Revision proposals for Mongolian and Uighur, initially submitted by Wayne Richter, Western Washington University, in 1998 and 1999 respectively, need additional editorial work and are awaiting automation support.
All current ALA-LC romanization tables are available on the Web at URL <www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/roman.html> . Any questions about romanization table development should be directed to Bruce Johnson (Policy & Standards Division) at <[email protected]>.
Cataloger’s Desktop. Several RDA-related resources have been added to Cataloger’s Desktop to assist with RDA cataloging implementation. The latest addition is RDA training resources, which is maintained by the CILIP-BL (Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals/British Library) Committee on RDA and which provides links to RDA training from Cambridge University Library, CILIP Cataloguing & Indexing Group, Australian Committee on Cataloguing, rdacake (RDA CAnadian Knowledge Exchange), Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, National Library of New Zealand, and several U.S. contributors. The current list of RDA-Related resources in Cataloger's Desktop is:
- RDA: Information and Resources in Preparation for RDA (LC)
- RDA: LC Documentation for the RDA Test (LC)
- RDA: Resource Description & Access (subscription resource that requires a separate subscription to RDA Toolkit)
- RDA-L (JSC)
- RDA Training Resources (CILIP-BL)
- RDA Vocabularies (Open Metadata Registry)
A significant change to Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2) access took place on March 31, 2013. As of that date, Desktop subscribers who wish to continue to access AACR2 through Desktop must subscribe to both RDA Toolkit and Cataloger’s Desktop. Additional information is available at URL <http://www.loc.gov/cds/desktop/aacr2_announcement2.pdf [PDF, 21 KB]>. It is important to note that Desktop provides enhanced access to AACR2 that is unavailable anywhere else:
- Cataloger’s Desktop allows subscribers to search all or parts of AACR2 and RDA with other resources like the LC Rule Interpretations or the MARC formats.
- Cataloger’s Desktop has searching enhancements that regularizes American and British spellings (e.g. “catalog” and “catalogue”), terms (e.g. “period” and “full stop”), and AACR2-RDA terminology synonyms (e.g. “see reference” and “variant access point”).
- When searching an AACR2 rule in Cataloger’s Desktop, the parallel RDA instruction is automatically searched.
- Extensive linking to AACR2 and RDA is provided from related resources, such as the MARC formats, CONSER documentation, the LCRIs, and LC-PCC PS.
- Cataloger’s Desktop reflects the full, correct AACR2 hierarchy in its table of contents pane. This makes it easier to find the AACR2 rule.
Three training videos for Desktop users are nearing completion. The first two videos will provide an overview of what Cataloger’s Desktop is, and how to set up personal preferences. The third will offer pointers for getting the most from searching within the service. Additional videos are being planned based on suggestions from current subscribers. Release dates will be announced shortly.
The Library is always eager to hear from subscribers to know how we can improve Cataloger’s Desktop. Suggestions for new content or improved features should be sent to Bruce Johnson at LC at <[email protected]>. Subscribe to the free Cataloger’s Desktop discussion list at URL <www.loc.gov/cds/desktop/ugroup.html>.
Library of Congress Cataloging Production
Acquisitions work will be reported for the 2014 Midwinter Meeting.
|Bibliographic Records Completed||FY2013 (Oct-May*)||FY2012||FY2011||FY2010*|
|Minimal level cataloging||9,606||40,133||18,702||15,088|
|Total records completed||140,214||330,621||391,974||272,422|
|Total volumes cataloged||N/A||350,201||524,812||365,725|
|Authority Work||FY2013 (Oct-Mar*)||FY2012||FY2011||FY2010*|
|New name authority records||31,772||91,321||84,207||103,525|
|New LC Subject Headings***||N/A||4,227||8,512||53,900|
|New LC Classification Numbers||N/A||2,312||3,222||2,674|
|Total authority records created||N/A||97,860||95,94||160,099|
*ABA Directorate and Music Division production only
**Core-level or Bibliographic Standard Records
***FY10 included subject-subdivision strings to support automated validation.
American Folklife Center/Veterans History Project
On May 9, 2013, AFC announced the recipients of awards from the Gerald E. and Corinne L. Parsons Fund and the Blanton Owen Fund for 2013. Awards from the Parsons Fund, which was established to make the collections of unique ethnographic materials housed at the Library of Congress available for the needs and uses of researchers, go to Maurice Mengel of Syracuse University, Alexandro Hernandez of the University of California, Los Angeles, and Michael Largey of Michigan State University. Blanton Owen Fund awards, which were established in 1999 in memory of folklorist Blanton Owen to support ethnographic field research and documentation in the U.S. with special emphasis on supporting the work of younger scholars, were awarded to Eric César Morales of Bloomington, Ind., and Susan Taffe Reed of Chapel Hill, N.C.
This spring AFC purchased a collection of 30 hours’ worth of sound recordings and related notes documenting Persian folktales collected in Iran during the 1960s and 1970s. Of note: are two small booklets with field notes and a large folder with preliminary handwritten transcription of Vafsi tales.
The American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress will hold a symposium entitled Cultural Heritage Archives: Networks, Innovation & Collaboration on Sept. 26-27, 2013.
Veterans History Project
This congressionally mandated public outreach/collection development project continues to expand. In 2012, VHP received more than 5,100 additional collections, and more are received weekly. Organizations nationwide, including many libraries, have joined the effort to help gather and submit oral histories and supporting items for the VHP collection. Descriptions of the more than 85,000 collections can be searched at the VHP’s Website, URL <www.loc.gov/vets>. Over 12,000 selected narratives are digitized, of which 20 percent offer transcripts and are viewable at the project’s Website, along with a series of themed presentations under the title “Experiencing War.” All collections are served in LC’s American Folklife Center Reading Room.
The Veterans History Project continues to rely on a nationwide network of volunteers and organizations to collect veterans’ interviews. Libraries are a valued resource in this effort, distributing information, coordinating VHP interviewing events, and making their facilities available to local VHP volunteers. For additional information, see the project Website at URL <www.loc.gov/vets>, or phone 202-707-4916.
COLLECTIONS and SERVICES (CS)
Federal Research Division (FRD)
FRD Military Legal Resources Website
Continued funding from the Army Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School has allowed FRD to significantly increase the size of the Military Legal Resources Website at URL <http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/military-legal-resources-home.html>. It now has 1,655 documents (300,154 full-text, searchable document pages) relevant to U.S. military law (including rare historical documents). Among the significant additions to the site since December 2013 are the 1898 as well as the 1905 editions of the Manual for Courts Martial; the Report to General William C. Westmoreland by the Committee for Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Administration of Military Justice; Practicing Military Justice; Legal Work of the War Department, 1 July 1940–31 March 1945; and the 2013 edition of the Fiscal Law Deskbook; and additional issues of the Military Law Review, and Army Lawyer. The site now averages over 3.5 million hits per month and the Division has begun to digitize the personal library of Francis Lieber, the author of General Orders No. 100, the first U.S. law of war prepared at the request of President Abraham Lincoln. These Orders became the foundation of international laws of war and the Geneva Conventions. New Lieber Web pages have been posted to the site. The site now presents 304,844 electronic pages representing 1,669 documents.
FRD Country Studies
One book, Indonesia, was published in February 2011. One book is under way (Sudan) and in final editing. Funded by the Department of Defense, the new books are no longer Army publications but publications of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The recently published books include Iran, North Korea, and Colombia.
FRD POW/MIA Database
This congressionally mandated effort, ongoing since 1993, is current with the most recently released documents on Americans unaccounted-for from the War in Southeast Asia. Previously microfilmed documents are almost all linked to image files for online retrieval. To date, the linking to 161,387 indexed documents has been completed.
Humanities and Social Sciences Division (HSS)
Only a Driver’s License (photo identification) is required to register to use Library’s Reading Room
Main Reading Room Tours and Open Houses
On Presidents Day, Feb. 18, 2013, the Main Reading Room was open to public touring from 10:00 am to 3:00 pm. HSS staff continued to dispel beliefs that the Library is only open to the public two times a year, that researchers need professional credentials to use the Library, and that the Library only serves Congress—all of these are myths. While many of the visitors had Capitol Visitors Center tour stickers, a good number had heard of the open house and made special plans to visit the Library.
Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound (MBRS)
National Recording Preservation Plan
The Library of Congress on Feb. 13, 2013, unveiled The Library of Congress National Recording Preservation Plan, a blueprint for saving America’s recorded sound heritage for future generations. There is currently no efficient way for researchers or the general public to discover what sound recordings exist and where they can be found. Despite the development of the Internet, few historical recordings can be made available online legally because of aspects of the U.S. copyright law. The National Recording Preservation Act of 2000 called on the Librarian of Congress to “implement a comprehensive national sound recording preservation program” that “shall increase accessibility of sound recordings for educational purposes.” The National Recording Preservation Plan is the cumulative result of more than a decade of work by the Library and its National Recording Preservation Board (URL <http://www.loc.gov/rr/record/nrpb/>), which includes representatives from professional organizations of composers, musicians, musicologists, librarians, archivists and the recording industry. Among the plan’s 32 short- and long-term recommendations are:
- Create a publicly accessible national directory of institutional, corporate and private recorded-sound collections and an authoritative national discography that details the production of recordings and the location of preservation copies in public institutions;
- Develop a coordinated national collections policy for sound recordings, including a strategy to collect, catalog and preserve locally produced recordings, radio broadcast content and neglected and emerging audio formats and genres;
- Establish university-based degree programs in audio archiving and preservation and continuing education programs for practicing audio engineers, archivists, curators and librarians;
- Construct environmentally controlled storage facilities to provide optimal conditions for long-term preservation;
- Establish an Audio-Preservation Resource Directory Website to house a basic audio-preservation handbook, collections appraisal guidelines, metadata standards and other resources and best practices;
- Establish best practices for creating and preserving born-digital audio files;
- Apply federal copyright law to sound recordings created before Feb.15, 1972;
- Develop a basic licensing agreement to enable on-demand secure streaming by libraries and archives of out-of-print recordings;
- Organize an advisory committee of industry executives and heads of archives to address recorded sound preservation and access issues that require public-private cooperation for resolution.
National Recording Registry
On March 21, 2013, Librarian of Congress James H. Billington announced the selection of 25 sound recordings to be preserved in the National Recording Registry. The selections named to the registry feature a diverse array of spoken-word and musical recordings spanning the years 1918-1980. Among this year’s selections are Simon and Garfunkel’s 1966 album, Sounds of Silence; “The Dark Side of the Moon” by Pink Floyd; the soundtrack to the movie Saturday Night Fever; the 1918 trendsetting “After You’ve Gone” by Marion Harris; Cheap Thrills, Janis Joplin’s second release with Big Brother and the Holding Company; the radio broadcast featuring Will Rogers’ 1931 folksy insights in support of Herbert Hoover’s unemployment-relief campaign during the Great Depression; and Artie Shaw’s breakthrough hit, “Begin the Beguine.” Other additions to the registry feature performances by Leontyne Price, Ornette Coleman, The Ramones, The Bee Gees, Clarence Ashley, Doc Watson, Philip Glass, Betty Carter, Junior Wells, Jimmie Davis, Frank Yankovic, The Blackwood Brothers and The Neville Brothers.
Prints and Photographs Division (P&P)
The Prints and Photographs Division offers many services at URL <http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/>. You can also enjoy collection highlights through the blog Picture This! at URL <http://blogs.loc.gov/picturethis/>
The Prints and Photographs Division reference and cataloging services are summarized online, including acataloging & digitizing toolbox <http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/>.
J & R Lamb Studios donated 121 watercolor stained glass renderings this spring. The J & R Lamb Studios are designers and makers of stained glass windows. These 121 sketches represent the Jewish work of Lamb artists made for presentation to prospective clients, 1960 to 2000. The rendering will be added to the J & R Lamb Studio Collection.
Serial and Government Publications Division (SER)
In December 2012, SER completed a fourteen-month project to catalog the division's Federal Advisory Committee (FAC) collection. The 1972 Federal Advisory Committee Act requires all federal executive branch agencies to deposit copies of their advisory committee charters, annual reports, and other substantive documents with the Library of Congress for public use. Collection-level bibliographic records were created in the online catalog for 6,144 committees that have existed 1972 to date. A total of 56,595 individual documents were inventoried and accessioned online. The project has made the collection easier to use and more accessible to patrons and staff.
SER continued the Library’s participation in the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) by serving as a Government Printing Office depository library. In fiscal 2013, SER continues to receive 94 percent of physical items offered to depository libraries. SER also continues to serve as a research center for those conducting research with United Nations and European Union materials.
A volunteer from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City, is working on the division’s South American portfolio newspaper collection. Three interns are also working on various projects related to the Historic Events Collections and the comic book collections.
Newspaper Topic Guides
The division’s reference staff continues to develop short newspaper collection research guides called Topics in Chronicling America,in support of the National Digital Newspaper Program. The pages represent widely covered historic subjects and social phenomenon in the American press. Subjects are as varied as the Ballet Russes visit to the U.S., the Belle Gunness Murder Farm, Carrie Nation, the Horseless Carriage and Ford’s Model T, the U.S. Cocaine epidemic, Caruso in the United States, Gorky’s scandalous U.S. visit, and the Gibson Girls. Topics Pages offer students, teachers, genealogists, and scholars an introductory access point to Chronicling America’s digitized pages, but are also complementary to Library of Congress newspaper holdings that are not yet digitized. There are now approximately 130 Topics Pages posted with more on the way.
National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP – Chronicling America)
The National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP), a partnership between the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the Library of Congress (LC), is a long-term effort to develop an Internet-based, searchable resource for U.S. newspaper bibliographic information and selected digitized historic content through the Chronicling America (URL <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/>) Website. This site is hosted by the Library of Congress and made freely available to the general public. This rich digital resource will eventually include content contributed by all U.S. states and territories.
Chronicling America now provides access to more than 6 million newspaper pages, digitized by 27 states and the Library of Congress. These historic newspapers include over 967 titles published between 1836 and 1922 in Arizona, California, the District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, and Washington. The site also includes an extensive Newspaper Directory of U.S, newspaper titles published between 1690 and the present (approximately 150,000 bibliographic records) as well as associated library holdings information, linked to digitized pages, when available. In addition to digitized pages, the site includes newspaper histories for each selected title describing that newspaper’s publishing history and providing context for its historical importance. The site is updated regularly with new content received from NDNP awardees and LC collections. In summer 2013, the site will add more than 500,000 pages from participating states including West Virginia, new to the program in 2011. To encourage a wide range of potential uses, Chronicling America provides content through open protocols and an API and publishes the open-source application supporting the Website as “LibraryOfCongress/chronam” in the Github software repository <https://github.com/LibraryofCongress/chronam>.
Additional information about the program is available from the NDNP Website at URL <http://www.loc.gov/ndnp>. The site provides access to the program and technical guidelines supporting the annual NEH award competition (http://www.neh.gov/divisions/preservation/national-digital-newspaper-program). Applications for 2013 awards are currently under review. Successful applicants will be notified in August 2013.
PARTNERSHIPS and OUTREACH PROGRAMS (POP)
- see also Library of Congress Exhibit Booth
Cataloging Distribution Service (CDS)
Library of Congress transitions to online-only cataloging publications
The Library of Congress (LC) announces a transition to online-only publication of its cataloging documentation. As titles that are in production are released, LC will cease printing new editions of its subject headings and classification schedules, and other cataloging publications.* LC will instead provide free downloadable PDFs of these titles. For users desiring enhanced functionality, LC’s two Web-based subscription services, Cataloger’s Desktop and Classification Web, will continue as products from the Cataloging Distribution Service (CDS).
In 2012, LC conducted an extensive study on the impact and opportunities of changes in the bibliographic framework and the technological environment on the future distribution of its cataloging data and products. LC’s transition from print to online-only for cataloging documentation is a response to a steadily declining customer base for print and the availability of alternatives made possible by advances in technology. This shift will enable the Library to achieve a more sustainable financial model and better serve its mission in the years ahead.
Beginning July 1, 2013, print publications that are currently sold through CDS will become available as free, downloadable PDFs through LC’s Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate Website at URL <http://www.loc.gov/aba/>. Because all of the content cannot be made available simultaneously, the retrospective titles will be phased in as PDFs.
Print editions of already-published titles, including the just-released 35th edition of the six-volume Library of Congress Subject Headings, will be available from CDS until inventory is depleted (see URL <http://www.loc.gov/cds/>). The most up-to-date source for subject headings and classification data, and other cataloging documentation, remains Cataloger’s Desktop and Classification Web.
*Note: Subject Headings Manual, Update No. 2 and a new edition of Classification and Shelflisting Manual are currently in production for 2013 release in print. After the 2013 printing, future updates and editions of these two publications will be accessible at URL <http://www.loc.gov/aba/>.
CDS, a unit of the Office of Business Enterprises (BE), presents its products and services in the Library of Congress exhibit booth at each ALA Midwinter Meeting and Annual Conference. CDS markets, publishes, and distributes the Library’s cataloging records and cataloging-related tools, resources, and publications, for catalogers within the Library and for libraries around the world.
CDS will have a product expert available in the LC Exhibit Booth to demonstrate and answer questions about Cataloger’s Desktop, one of our web-based subscription services.
Cataloger’s Desktop. This Web-based subscription service provides cataloging and metadata documentation, with more than 300 resources. Extensive, free online learning aids and practical tips are available online. Visit URL <http://www.loc.gov/cds/desktop> for the latest news or for a free 30-day trial.
Product demonstrations are available on a walk-in basis. The booth theater presentation, titled “Getting the Most from RDA with Cataloger’s Desktop”, is scheduled for Saturday and Sunday from 2:00 pm – 2:30 pm.
Recently published or pending print editions
Library of Congress Subject Headings, 35th edition (2013)
Classification and Shelflisting – a new edition coming later in 2013
Subject Headings Manual, Update No. 2 (2013) – coming later in 2013
For information on product development, see ACQUISITIONS and BIBLIOGRAPHIC ACCESS/Policy and Standards/Cataloging Tools in this document.
Center for the Book
The Center for the Book had a busy spring. The realignment of the Poety and Literature Center from the Office of Scholarly Programs to the Center for the Book became effective on Feb. 10, 2013. From March through June, the Poetry and Literature Center sponsored 16 literary events. Karen Jaffe, former manager of education projects for MacNeil/Lehrer Productions, began work as the new head of the Library of Congress Young Readers Center on April 22, 2013.
With the Kluge Center and the Hispanic and Rare Book and Special Collections divisions, on March 7 the Center for the Book co-sponsored the sixth Jay I. Kislak lecture, presented by Charles C. Mann. The advisory board for the new Library of Congress Literacy Awards was named on March 28; the three 2013 awards will be announced at the 2013 National Book Festival on Sept. 22.
Director John Cole represented the center on April 21 at the River of Words awards ceremony held at the San Francisco, Calif., Public Library. The annual state center for the book idea exchange took place at the Library of Congress on May 6-7.
More than 50,000 young readers from across the country participated in the 2012-2013 Letters About Literature reading-writing program; the nine national winners were announced on May 10. On May 17, author and Washington Post KidsPost columnist Fred Bowen presented the annual Jonah S. Eskin memorial lecture; the event also marked the Library’s participation in Children’s Book Week and introduced “A Book That Shaped Me,” the Library of Congress National Book Festival Summer Writing Contest and “Dig into Reading,” the District of Columbia Public Library’s summer reading program. On June 13 in the Coolidge Auditorium of the Library’s Thomas Jefferson Building, Dr. Jill Biden, whose husband is Vice President Joe Biden, read her 2012 children’s book Don’t Forget, God Bless Our Troops to a large audience that included approximately 300 children from military families.
In the first half of fiscal 2013, FEDLINK assisted agencies to procure approximately $100,000,000 in commercial information products and related services. FEDLINK issued Requests for Proposals (RFPs) to open existing opportunities to more companies: one for serials subscription agents and one that covers both preservation consulting and training and conservation services.
FEDLINK, designated by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the General Services Administration (GSA) as the lead agent for strategic sourcing of information resources procurement for federal agencies, continued to make progress towards its strategic sourcing goals by issuing an RFP for electronic retrieval services that incorporated reporting requirements to expand tracking of government spending. FEDLINK’s related commodity councils, one for legal information resources and one for resources focused on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), also held a number of meetings and discussions with these groups and some individual agencies that are currently mapping their strategies and collecting their own data. As a result of this work, OMB and its Office of Federal Procurement Policy assisted FEDLINK in defining contract requirements and implementing a data call to federal agencies using the OMB MAX data collection and analysis tool.
FEDLINK has also joined OMB’s Budget Formulation and Execution Line of Business (BFELoB) initiative that oversees and controls the OMB MAX tool. FEDLINK now has unfettered access to all MAX systems and processes including MAX Collect (Data Call), Analytics, and Survey. The MAX tool is browser-based, with cloud-based storage. It will provide the flexible, scalable, and customizable platform FEDLINK requires for customer feedback and vendor engagement.
FEDLINK’s Working Groups have accomplished a number of initiatives for 2013. Notably, the FLICC Awards Working Group made its 2012 awards:
- Large Library/Information Center (with a staff of 11 or more federal and/or contract employees): Research Library, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
- Small Library/Information Center (with a staff of 10 or fewer federal and/or contract employees): Royal Air Force Alconbury Base Library, 423d Force Support Squadron, U.S. Air Force, Huntingdon, England
- Federal Librarian of the Year -- Joyce C. Greene, George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
- Federal Library Technician of the Year: Tiffany Hughey, U.S. Army Garrison Kaiserslautern Library, Landstuhl, Germany.
The FEDLINK Education Working Group has a variety of seminars, workshops, and institutes on preservation issues, vendor portfolio management, strategic planning, Great Escapes Tours, and technicians’ training for the rest of this fiscal year. Information and registration for these programs appears on the FEDLINK Website at URL <http://www.loc.gov/flicc/>.
FEDLINK held its Spring Exposition, “Channeling Content in an Integrated World” in May 2013, with featured programming around the channels of information that continue to revolve from print and electronic to media, data sets and analytics, and back again through mobile applications and social media. Planning for the November expo has just begun.
As part of its 2012-2016 business plan, FEDLINK continues working on its research agenda for the federal library community. Of note is its Health Information Technology Advisory Council (HITAC), an interagency advisory committee and its survey to explore the roles and partnerships that library and information science professionals take on to support the clinical care missions of their organizations. Staff members presented a poster and a paper on the preliminary findings at the Medical Librarians Association in April and have been invited to discuss this research at the ALA Research Round Table Working with FRD, FEDLINK is also working to refine its biannual federal library census. Federal libraries will receive surveys early this summer.
National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped
NLS has undertaken major projects this year in line with priorities identified by director Karen Keninger, which include enhancing the program’s reading and delivery systems, expanding the scope and quality of the collection, and taking a leading role in shaping the future of braille. Ms. Keninger appointed Isabella Marqués de Castilla as deputy director to assist her with these efforts. The importance of braille and talking-book library service was highlighted with the June 6, 2013, presentation of the ninth Network Library of the Year Awards.
Reading and delivery systems and collection
NLS took the final step in the conversion of audio materials to digital by moving magazines from cassettes to cartridges. Patrons now experience the same high-quality sound and enjoyable features of reading talking books while reading their recorded magazines. Plans are underway to make these features available to users of iPhones and Android devices through the development and distribution of apps for iOS and Android mobile devices. The apps are expected to enter beta testing this summer and be available free to registered BARD users later this year. On the collection front, NLS has arranged to increase its audio collection through an agreement with Hachette Book Group of New York. The publisher will make both backlist titles and new titles available to NLS by the end of the year.
NLS has partnered with Perkins (School for the Blind) to host the first Braille Summit, themed The Future of Braille, in Watertown, near Boston, Mass., June 19-21. Peter Osborne, chief braille officer of the Royal National Institute of Blind People, the United Kingdom, will give the keynote address. Participants will discuss braille literacy, technology, and production and other concerns of libraries and readers. A summary of the recommendations generated from the summit will be made available. World Braille Usage has been revised and will be released at the event and will then be available from NLS on request. The 2013 edition was produced collaboratively by NLS, Perkins, the International Council on English Braille, and UNESCO.
Network Library Awards
NLS presented awards to libraries in the District of Columbia and Florida for outstanding service to blind and disabled readers during a June 6th luncheon ceremony in the Library’s Thomas Jefferson Building. The District of Columbia Regional Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, also known as the D.C. Public Library Adaptive Services Division, received the ninth annual Network Library of the Year Award. The Brevard County Talking Books Library, a subregional library of the Florida Bureau of Braille and Talking Book Library Services network, received the seventh annual Network Subregional Library of the Year Award. Each award carries a $1,000 cash prize, a framed certificate for the library and its parent agency, and a perpetual plaque.
Office of Scholarly Programs
Natasha Trethewey, the Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry for 2012-2013, has been appointed by Librarian of Congress James H. Billington for a second term, to commence in September 2013. As announced June 10, 2013, during her second term Trethewey’s signature project will be a series of on-location reports from throughout the U.S. for the Public Broadcasting System’s PBS NewsHour Poetry Series.
Veterans History Project
- see under American Folklife Center
The timing and size of necessary reductions in the Library’s budget this year have affected its preservation programs including preservation supplies, preservation microfilming, commercial library binding, and mass deacidification. While these carefully targeted reductions are significant, critical and essential preservation services will continue to be provided within existing budgets.
The Library is participating in the Survey of Preservation Activities in Cultural Heritage Institutions – FY2012, a pilot survey coordinated by the Preservation and Reformatting Section (PARS) of the Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS), a division of the American Library Association (ALA). This new survey has the potential to provide valuable information on preservation activities across many different institutions. The Association of Research Libraries ceased its annual compilations of preservation statistics from its member institutions in 2008.
Preservation Week Update
The Library’s special focus in 2013 was on military families and the challenges for preserving correspondence, photographs, and scrapbooks – in both traditional and digital forms. Together with the Veterans History Project and the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program at the Library of Congress, the Preservation Directorate celebrated National Preservation Week (April 21-27, 2013) with a series of lunchtime programs on print and digital photographs and traditional and digital scrapbooks. A film “These Amazing Shadows: the Movies that Make America” about the National Film Registry was shown. On the final day the Preservation Directorate and FEDLINK cosponsored a lecture, “PAC: A Packed Agenda for Conserving Libraries' Heritage -- 20 years of Changes and Development,” by Christiane Baryla, Director, International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, Core Activity on Preservation and Conservation (IFLA-PAC), Bibliothèque nationale de France.
Binding and Collections Care Division & Mass-Deacidification Program (BCCD)
BCCD has completed or is in process of completing two contract actions, one for the extension of Mass Deacidification services and another for a new Commercial Binding contract. A special project to reformat the text and conserve the illustrated covers of very brittle Pulp Fiction from the Serial and Government Publications Division was completed. One volunteer/intern worked with the Chief on a special Mass Deacidification project to document items treated in early years in the Integrated Library system (ILS). This special project is continuing with one summer volunteer/intern and a Junior Fellow.
Since the 2013 Midwinter Meeting, Jeanne Drewes, Chief of BCCD, presented for the Smithsonian Libraries during Preservation Week speaking about disaster recovery efforts and action to take for mitigation. The May meeting of the American Institute for Conservation provided a venue for two presentations including an AIC CERT update on Super Storm Sandy. and on the Library of Congress’ process for facsimiles in the general collections as part of an Archives Conservation Discussion Group (ACDG) panel discussing facsimile use in Libraries and Museums. Ms. Drewes published an article “To Protect and Preserve” in the March/April issue of American Libraries.
Conservation Division (CD)
Notable treatment projects
The Conservation Division continues to provide top level treatment to collections and individual items in the special collections. Highlights for this period include a new acquisition, Martin Ramirez's drawing, "The Madonna of Immigration". This rare and early drawing by Ramirez, considered the one of the best "outsider artists ", was discovered crumpled up at the bottom of a cardboard box in the Library’s Eames Collection. The drawing is in very poor condition, with flaking media, many distortions, tears, losses and rodent damage. Conservators are beginning the process of making the drawing accessible by analyzing the materials, thoroughly examining and documenting its present condition while devising a sound treatment plan. Four letters to Thomas Barclay from John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and Thomas Jefferson were treated. The letters were all laminated with cellulose acetate film. Lamination was a common restoration technique during the middle part of the 20th century which has since been found in some cases to hasten deterioration. The conservators removed the films with successive solvent baths and are now treating the iron gall ink documents according to the protocols developed by CD. Division staff continued to prepare items for digital scanning from the Manuscript Division's Walt Whitman Harned Collection (dating from 1865-1890). The collection of more than 3,000 items from Walt Whitman’s personal collection was assessed, treated, and housed in preparation for digital scanning.
Notable housing projects
By March 31, 2013, CD staff had housed 31,851 items including 1,571 books, 18,379 unbound paper-based items, 10,012 photographs, and 1,889 objects in other formats. Protective housing projects to support improved permanent storage or interim storage during facility renovation include boxing of atlases from the Geography and Map Division vault, and customized object housing for musical instruments and pre-Columbian artifacts from the J.I. Kislak Collection. CD staff collaborated with the Jakarta Overseas Office and the Asian Division to prepare protective transport boxes for Indonesian lontars (palm leaf manuscripts) that are fitted with customized interior box supports and labeled upon arrival at the Library's Capitol Hill campus. CD staff have completed housing and stabilization treatment of theatrical set drawings and designs for several shows from the Music Divison's Oliver Smith Collection. The housings for these graphic materials feature a cover mat with thin yet rigid supporting boards to balance the need for presentation viewing with shelving efficiency. Books, albums and memorabilia from the Rare Book and Special Collections Division's Woodrow Wilson Library Collection, including a fabric sash presented to Wilson when he received the 1919 Nobel Peace Prize, were housed in custom-fitted boxes and labeled in coordination with a finding aide recently completed by Junior Fellows who work at LC for a summer. CD staff started work on housing the African Middle East Division's collection of Obama Memorabilia from Africa, consisting of ephemera gathered from across the African continent relating to President Barack Obama's presidential campaigns and tenure in office including textiles, buttons, food containers, posters, newspapers, and clothing.
Exhibition and digitization preparation
The loan of Library of Congress objects continues to be an active program with approximately 500 objects being prepared for loan, on exhibit at such diverse institutions as the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, Calif., and the Pompidou Center in Paris, France, or being returned to the Library and prepared for return to storage. Ten courier trips were completed from January to June 2013 to hand-carry and install or de-install objects from such diverse institutions as the National Museum of Vienna, the Ronald Reagan Library and the National Gallery of Art. Mary Todd Lincoln’s pearl necklace was hand-carried and installed at the Indianapolis Museum of Art. Eleven items were hand-carried and installed at the “Portrait of a Dynasty” exhibition at Hillwood Museum in Washington, D.C. One object was de-installed and hand-carried back from the “Creating the US” exhibition at the Skirball Cultural Center in Los Angeles. Four in-house exhibits were prepared, installed or de-installed during this time period, Herblock Environment, Gibson Girls, Words Like Sapphires and Civil War in America, Rotation Two.
CD staffers have spoken at a wide variety of programs in 2013, including:
Sylvia Albro and Lynn Brostoff of Preservation Research and Testing (PRTD) presented a paper, “Integrating Analytical Tools in Treatment Decision-making for a 1513 Hand-colored Ptolemy Geographia Atlas” at the ICOM-CC Graphic Document Working Group Interim Meeting in Vienna, Austria on the work they have been performing on the Rare Book and Special CollectionsDivision’s Ptolemy Atlas, detailing the intersection of conservation treatment and conservation science.
Betsy Haude attended the American Institute for Conservation in Indianapolis, Ind., as vice chair and incoming chair of the working group “Sustainability in Conservation Practices.”Yasmeen Khan spoke on “Tajik Manuscripts and their Conservation in Tajikistan” during a presentation at the Library of Congress regarding preservation outreach work from the Library of Congress to the Library of Tajikistan.
Andrew Robb presented his talk “Analysis and Comparison of Recent Large-Scale Emergencies Involving the Recovery of Photographs” at the joint photograph conservation conference conducted by the Photographic Materials Group – American Institute for Conservation and the Photographic Materials Working Group of the International Council of Museums held in Wellington, New Zealand, Feb. 11-15, 2013. He also presented “Collections Emergency Management in Large-Scale Disasters” at a workshop for conservators during the conference. He presented “The AIC Cultural Recovery Center in Brooklyn” as part of Disaster Recovery: The Aftermath of Sandy and AIC-CERT, a conference organized as part of the FEDLINK Expo, Library of Congress, May 23, 2013
During the winter of 2012-13, Andrew Robb provided advice concerning disaster recovery for those affected by super storm Sandy for materials as varied as contemporary photographs, color transparency and negative collections, and the salvage and triage of costumes. This included telephone conference calls, emails, and on-site work at the AIC Cultural Recovery Center in Brooklyn, N.Y. He also participated in conference calls convened by the Department of Interior concerning National Disaster Recovery Framework (NDRF) activities in New York and New Jersey.
Preservation Reformatting Division (PRD)
The Preservation Reformatting Division (PRD) provides access to at-risk Library materials by converting items to new formats such as microfilm, facsimile copies or digital reproductions. Work to convert materials is accomplished through programs for microphotography and digital capture.
Microfilming, both vendor and in-house production, represents most of the reformatting work performed by PRD. The division reformatted approximately 1,209,468 pages and conducted quality review prior to returning film to custodial divisions. The vast majority of material microfilmed continues to be foreign newsprint serial publications that are voluminous to store, are highly acidic, and are not well suited for digitization. PRD staff assist with digital conversion by selecting volumes, microforms, and manuscripts from divisions and reading rooms, then collating and preparing the materials for digital imaging or preservation facsimile.
An ongoing research and testing program is being conducted by PRD Digital Conversion Specialists, using microfilm and microfiche scanning systems, to optimize the process of microform digitization. A key outcome from the research program will be the ability within PRD to predictably reformat microfilm and microfiche created prior to the development of microfilming standards. In addition, PRD will be able to reformat materials that require special handling and that benefit from refined tonal corrections made in a “distributed” quality assessment and control environment.
Non-Invasive Preservation of Recorded Sound Collections (IRENE)
Traditional methods for retrieving the sound from historical sound recording media can be technically complex, time-consuming, and invasive. Historical media suffer from degradation due to the chemical breakdown of the materials, damage from mishandling or improper storage, and wear from regular playback. The Library has been collaborating with physicists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to develop imaging technology to provide non-invasive preservation and access to recorded sound collections. Systems to image in both two dimensions or 2D (called the IRENE system) and three dimensions or 3D have been designed, built and continue to be refined through testing. These systems are recovering sound that was until recently considered irretrievable from fragile and broken media.
The focus of the IRENE system located at the Library’s Packard Campus in Culpeper, Va., has been to automate the transfer of disc collections for access use. The system was customized so that discs can be imaged and sound extracted with minimal input from the operator. An extensive test with 200 78rpm shellac discs and 100 instantaneously cut lacquer discs, was performed on the IRENE system to evaluate its performance on media of differing types, conditions, and eras. The imaging side of the system was upgraded to allow the operator to handle both image capture and metadata input through one simple interface. The testing environment exposed a few weaknesses in the code that were corrected immediately, and the system performed very reliably during the majority of the testing period. The software that converts the images to sound was quite dependable for certain disc types, but less so for others. The physical characteristics of discs manufactured during different eras and by different labels vary quite dramatically. Refinement of the image-to-sound software to handle the vast number of variables present in these discs was performed during the testing period and continues as new examples of unique disc geometries are discovered.
Image-to-sound tools software development
IRENE projects have brought to light the need for a set of semi-automated software tools that would facilitate efficient correction of small errors in image-to-sound processing like those discovered during the Packard Campus study and detailed assembly work needed for the American Folklife Center cylinders. By designing the software with an easy-to-use graphical user interface, the operator will be able to use the tools in either a high-throughput production environment or a complex reassembly workflow. The first version of the tools has been coded and includes the ability to interactively track with control over the zoom level and speed. It is also possible to undo any incorrect tracking of a section. Fully automated tracking is available for non-problematic regions, as well as, copying successful tracking to adjacent tracks and saving tracking data to a file for future use. Features that allow for automatic tracking of broken records include visualization tools, automatic crack detection, and linking of discontinuous grooves with a manual adjustment override. We envision that these tools will broaden the range of media conditions that can be handled in any production environment.
Collaborators with unique historical collections have found the IRENE and 3D systems of great value. The Thomas Edison National Historical Park has been able to capture sound from a cylindrical tin recording from a talking toy doll and from early experimental cylinder recordings. The Library has also been collaborating with the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History on an extensive project to retrieve audio from the Alexander Graham Bell experimental recordings produced at the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C., in the 1880’s. Bell’s cousin, Chichester Bell, and Charles Sumner Tainter performed most of the experiments. They experimented with wax, brass, steel, tin foil, book board, and even photographic plates, to determine the best materials for capturing sound. Within this collection is a disc containing Alexander Graham Bell’s voice. This is the only known recording of Mr. Bell’s voice still in existence and the IRENE system was able to capture the sound and save this important document.
Preservation research and Testing Division (PRTD)
The Preservation Research and Testing Division (PRTD) has continued to be been active in establishing long-term research projects for preservation of Library materials in storage and exhibit, quality assurance of library materials and the development of new specifications.
PRTD staff gave more than twenty presentations at national and international conferences and other venues disseminating new and current research undertaken at the Library since January 2013. PRTD hosted three events; a Hyperspectral and Materials Characterization symposium, a Raman Spectroscopy Research symposium, and a Storage Media symposium. Progress on research projects and quality assurance was steady with a number of new research requests, including assessing cleaning methods and specifications.
PRTD will support twelve interns during the summer of 2013, who will work on a variety of research projects, including continued testing for the 100-Year Natural Aging Study, further development of the Center for Library Analytical Scientific Samples – Digital (CLASS-D) to establish standards for the digital preservation of scientific research data, continued research into fugitive media and corrosive media, and increased requests for hyperspectral imaging and other research. Research trends have indicated an increasing awareness of the challenges of protecting modern media materials; this includes fugitive inks, 20th-century materials, and audio-visual materials. There continue to be requests from colleagues in libraries, archives, cultural heritage and academic institutions to learn more about PRTD’s scientific reference sample collections (CLASS), a substantial increase in collaborations and collaborative activities, and increased assessment of new equipment that may potentially benefit the Library. A prototype of CLASS-D – the digital interface to the CLASS scientific reference collection has been completed for future integration into the Library network.
Progress had been made on the assessment of "sticky shed syndrome” (SSS) in magnetic tape, quantitative analysis of trace elements in paper using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and colorimetric analysis of dyes in optical discs. An Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) collaborative grant with the University of South Carolina was awarded to further develop a tool for detecting sticky-shed tapes before migration.
These include follow-up meetings to the previous Summit of Research Technology Transfer (SORTT) symposium, the University College London (UCL) Collections Demography Program collaboration, the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) development and fabrication of an anoxic encasement and external display case for the Abel Buell 1783 Map, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Israel Antiquities Authority for a long-term parchment study to better understand the degradation mechanisms in different types of animal parchment, Iron Gall Ink and Corrosive Media research with the University of Maryland and international partners and the University of South Carolina collaborative research into the degradation of magnetic tape.
The final meeting of the three-year collaboration with the University College London (UCL) – the Collections Demography Initiative took place in London in May 2013. An overview of all phases of the research was presented, followed by workshops on dose response damage mechanisms and how to assess large collections of varying material types and environmental needs. The resulting publication will be completed later in 2013.
PRTD staff presentations have included keynote addresses and presentations for: the federal Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the Preservation and its Intellectual Framework Symposium, hosted by the Clark Institute, Williamstown, MA and the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR), a Spectral Imaging Workshop, held at the Library of Congress, a lecture about a new Harvard University program, Science and the Human Past Lecture Program, the Pittcon Conference in Philadelphia, Pa., sharing Library research with the Philadelphia Area Conservation Association (PACA) Meeting, a European Union Initiative on Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage in Mainz, Germany, and the American Institute for Conservation Conference in Indianapolis, Ind.
Integrated Library System Program Office (ILSPO)
Integrated Library System
The Library is working to resolve performance problems in the re-designed LC Online Catalog. That new interface is available to staff and patrons at URL <http://catalog2.loc.gov> while the Library tests fixes from the vendor. The Library will switch all traffic to the new interface once it has demonstrated that it can support the full load of traffic, but the Library does not have an implementation date as yet.
The entire catalog interface has been re-designed to reflect the Library’s latest Web standards and provide ADA accessibility for most adaptive devices and applications. All functionality is available and the same keyword, guided keyword, browse, and quick search options remain, with search results available with the same sort options as the “classic” OPAC. In addition, these new features and functions will be available:
- more context-sensitive help
- similar types of searches/indexes grouped together logically, e.g., browse searches
- ADA compliance
- standard “share” tools available on all pages.
The LC Online Catalog is the primary access point for users of the Library's collections and it is one of the most popular sites on the LC Website. The Library welcomes feedback on the new design. Patrons and librarians may use the link provided on every page to give feedback and make suggestions for improvements.
The Library is planning to upgrade to Voyager 8.2 later in 2013. Testing of the release is underway but an implementation date has not been scheduled.
LCCN Permalink (URL <http://lccn.loc.gov>), a Web service that allows users to create permanent URL links to records in the Library's Online Catalog (URL <http://catalog.loc.gov>) and authority records in the LC Authorities Service (URL <http://authorities.loc.gov>), continues to be popular. Nearly 10,000 daily requests enable researchers to reference materials from the Library’s collection in their blogs, reference guides, Web pages, emails, bibliographies, databases, and more. LCCN Permalink is completely standards-based, leveraging widely used XML technologies, Z39.50/SRU, and metadata schemas.
LC EAD (Encoded Archival Description) archival finding aids
Since January 2013, Library Services divisions have created 73 new EAD archival finding aids, bringing the total number of LC EAD finding aids to 1,907. At URL <http://findingaids.loc.gov>, users can access 52.3 million archival items in LC’s collections through these documents.
In January 2013, the Library launched a monthly RSS feed for its archival finding aids. This feed identifies both new finding aids and those that have undergone substantial revision in the past month. Subscriptions to the feed (with RSS or e-mail delivery) are available at URL <http://www.loc.gov/rss/#updates> under the category Library Web Site Updates.
The June 2013 release of the Manuscript Division’s Clara Barton Papers (see URL <http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.mss/eadmss.ms005010>) represents an expanded effort by the Library to connect digitized collection content with EAD finding aids. Users may view page-turner presentations of the Clara Barton archives from the finding aid and also search these content objects in the Library’s site-wide search application.
LC persistent identifiers
Library staff registered approximately 110,000 handles in 2012. As of May 2013, the Library's handle server contained 3,342,509 handles. Over the past year, LC handles were assigned, for example, to materials digitized in a number of LC cooperative projects (including content scanned for the Sloan project and sent to Internet Archive and HathiTrust), to U.S. legislation searchable in THOMAS, to digital books created by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, and to items in the Library’s repository efforts. Work is underway to upgrade the handle server software later in 2013.
Electronic Resource Management System (ERMS)
Library Services (LS) staff are working to add descriptive metadata to the Library’s ERMS to support use by Congressional Research Service (CRS) staff by the end of June. CRS and Library Services are collaborating to provide better service to CRS analysts who regularly access e-resources in the course of their work. The Library expects significant cost-savings in the consolidation of effort and use of a single system by Library Services, the Law Library of Congress and CRS.
The Library has completed the project to add bibliographic records and holdings data for ebook titles contained in aggregations that LC purchases or licenses from vendors to the LC Electronic Resources Management System. The ERMS currently contains about 780,000 bibliographic, 900,000 holdings, 1200 resource, and 1,000 license records. In fiscal 2012, Library staff and patrons performed 840,338 searches in the Electronic Resources Online Catalog.
Managing the Library’s Digital Collections
A major focus of the ILS Office’s activity in the past year was the ingest and management of digital collections. In fiscal 2012 ILSPO integrated the Delivery Management Service (DMS) with the LC ILS as part of the Copyright eDeposit Project and initiated development for the acquisition of ebooks via the Cataloging in Publication (CIP) process. The ILS Program Office is collaborating with units across the Library to develop workflows and policies and plan for the automation of tasks in order to expand the acquisition of digital collections.
Network Development and MARC Standards Office (NDMSO)
Bibliographic Framework Initiative (BIBFRAME)
- see under LIBRARY SERVICES
Digital Portal Projects
The Performing Arts Encyclopedia (PAE), Veterans History, and other portal projects continue to enable NDMSO to investigate new approaches to digital site creation and delivery to end users. During this period, The Danny Kaye and Sylvia Fine Collection (URL <http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/html/kayefine/kayefine-home.html>) was released in the Performing Arts Encyclopedia (URL <http://www.loc.gov/performingarts>). This release included a special interface created collaboratively by the Library of Congress and the Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities at the University of Maryland. In addition, there were also updates made to the Music Treasures Consortium site (URL <http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/html/treasures>) and a prototype for a database providing access to a comprehensive survey of the survival of American silent feature films.
The Veteran’s History Project (VHP) (URL <http://www.loc.gov/vets>) added: Vietnam War: Looking Back (part 4) (URL <http://www.loc.gov/vets/stories/ex-war-vietnam50-part4.html>) and a special release for Preservation Week 2013 (URL <http://www.loc.gov/vets/stories/ex-war-preservation.html>).
MARC: Update No. 16 to the MARC 21 formats was published online in April 2013. It was a small update covering the MARBI January 2013 approved changes which included Authority format fields to support thesauri for “medium of performance” and fields for audience and creator characteristics related to ongoing work by the maintainers of LCSH to remove non-subject terms from that thesaurus. The update was not published in printed form as, based on a survey in mid-2011, NDMSO ceased printing the full formats as most users had switched to the online versions. The Update was provided to the Cataloging Distribution Service to keep its Cataloger’s Desktop product in synch with the published MARC documentation.
MODS 3.5 schema was made available for a three-week public review in May. The changes are summarized at URL <http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods/changes-3-5.html>.
The PREMIS 2.2 draft Ontology along with explanatory slides was made available from the PREMIS homepage in June. This will further enable PREMIS to be represented as linked data. The PREMIS Editorial Committee also continued working on version 3.0 of the Data Dictionary, with special attention to environment metadata, which will include changes to the PREMIS data model. The Committee planned a discussion of 3.0 for the iPres conference in Portugal in September.
The draft searchRetrieve Version 1.0 (SRU 2.0)was approved as an OASIS (Advancing Open Standards for the Information Society) Standard and work began on the process to submit it to ISO (International Organization for Standardization) under an agreement between the two standards bodies.
The Extended Date/Time Format (EDTF) 1.0 specification defines features to be supported in a date/time string beyond those contained in the ISO 8601 time and date standard. It is considered as a profile of/extension to ISO 8601 and work began to submit it to ISO for official standardization.
ID's Linked Data Service (ID/LDS) Project
Twenty-one new vocabularies related to the PREMIS standard for preservation metadata were added to the Linked Data Service - Authorities & Vocabularies (ID/LDS, URL <http://id.loc.gov>). This portal is primarily for developers to enable them to programmatically interact (as “linked data”) with vocabularies commonly found in standards promulgated by LC. The system provides the vocabularies for individual records and bulk download in a number of formats including various RDF and XML formats, in addition to a Web interface for end users.
In addition the K (law) classification schedule, one of the largest in the Library of Congress Classification, was added to ID/LDS, so is now searchable and downloadable.
Because ID/LDS contains nearly all of the Library’s authority data, ID/LDS is foundational to BIBFRAME, the Bibliographic Framework Initiative that is actively exploring an RDF model and embracing Linked Data ideas.
OFFICE OF STRATEGIC INITIATIVES
In December 2012, Martha Anderson retired as the director of NDIIPP. Bill LeFurgy is currently the acting director, rotating into the position after Leslie Johnston.
Chartered by Congress in 2000, the Library of Congress’ National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program’s (NDIIPP) mission is to develop a national strategy to collect, preserve, and make available significant digital content, especially information that is created only in digital form, for current and future generations. NDIIPP is based on an understanding that digital stewardship on a national scale depends on public and private communities working together. The Program works to catalyze and sustain a national network of digital preservation partners. From the beginning of the project, one of the key ideas has been that the partnership, now with more than 300 partner organizations worldwide, needed to work toward a distributed architecture. To that end, NDIIPP has worked with its partners to connect different platforms for storage and verification, data and metadata management, and access and discovery of preserved digital materials.
NDIIPP has convened a number of meetings, bringing together international experts from many disciplines to discuss issues of digital preservation, including personal digital archiving. As part of the outreach effort, NDIIPP staff highlighted personal archiving resources in the LC Pavilion tent during the two-day National Book Festival 2012. NDIIPP staff also launched a regional Digital Cultural Heritage DC Meetup in September 2012, which meets every third Thursday of the month in Washington, D.C.
The program continued to work through the National Digital Stewardship Alliance (NDSA) to develop and adopt digital preservation standards, share tools and services, support innovation of practice and research, and promote national outreach for digital preservation. The entire partnership will meet July 23-25, 2013, to present project results, share expertise, and conduct working group meetings.
The Signal blog (URL <http://blogs.loc.gov/digitalpreservation/>) is a major source of guidance and insight about all aspects of preserving and using digital materials. NDIIPP also manages a popular Twitter stream <@ndiipp> and Facebook page (URL <https://www.facebook.com/digitalpreservation>). The NDIIPP website is at URL <http://www.digitalpreservation.gov>.
National Digital Stewardship Residency (NDSR)
The Office of Strategic Initiatives and the Institute of Museum and Library Services continue to develop and implement the National Digital Stewardship Residency (NDSR) whose mission is to build a dedicated community of professionals who will advance our nation’s capabilities in managing, preserving, and making accessible the record of human achievement held in digital form. This will enable future generations to fully realize the potential of digital resources now and for years to come. This program has given 10 qualified postgraduate candidates from varying fields the opportunity to act as residents in Washington, D.C., institutions for nine months. Residents will be immersed in this experience starting in September 2013. The NDSR Website is at URL <http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/ndsr>.
The mission of the Educational Outreach Division is to advance the effective use of the Library's vast online collections of primary sources by teachers and students. These primary sources, when embedded in inquiry-based instruction, help build content knowledge, critical thinking, and analysis skills in students. Educational Outreach manages the Teaching with Primary Sources program (TPS), through which Library staff and institutional partners in a nationwide consortium deliver professional development that helps teachers use the Library’s vast collection of digitized primary sources to enrich their classroom instruction. Again in summer 2013, the Library will offer five 5-day Summer Teacher Institutes to teachers selected from more than 500 applicants.
Educational Outreach works with institutional partners to reach teachers across the country. Twenty-eight universities, school districts and educational foundations, making up the TPS Educational Consortium, assist the Library in the design of the TPS program as well as its delivery in 17 states: California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, New York, Massachusetts, Montana, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming.
The Library’s teacher blog, Teaching with the Library of Congress, continues to promote practical strategies for the effective use of the Library’s online collections, as well as spotlighting items from the collections that are especially well suited for classroom use. It places the Library in a central position in the national educational conversation on the use of primary sources.